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A richly poetical nature is evidenced in all his productions, with an opulent and inventive fancy; but though his inmost spirit overflowed with passionate emotions, he had not the art to stamp on his works either brightness, warmth, or harmony: we stare at, and admire him, but feel ill at ease, after all. Grabbe's most approved compositions are: "Dramatische Dichtungen mit einem Anhange iiber Shakspeareromanie," "Don Juan und Faust," "Kaiser Friedrich Barbarossa," "Kaiser Heinrich der VI>," "Aschenbrodel," "Napoleon, oder die hundert Tage," "Hannibal," " Die Hermannsschlacht."

THE PRINCESS AMALLE VON SACHSEN, Born on the 10th of August 1794, daughter of the late Duke

Maximilian of Saxony and the Princess Caroline Maria

Therese of Parma; the eldest sister of the present reigning


This royal authoress has also produced a series of comedies, which are, for the most part, established favourites upon the stage. The dramas "Luge und Wahrheit," "Die Braut aus der Residenz," "Der Oheim," "Der Landwirth," " Die Fiirstenbraut,"*—referable to that better order of plays, designated by Inland's productions,—exhibit elegant and well-drawn sketches of character, and a deep insight into the heart of man and the fabric of society, and this in connexion with an easy and powerful dialogue.

PRD3DRICH HALM (Graf Munch von Bellinghausen) "Griseldis"t has become a favourite piece, and justly. His " Der Adept" and "Camoens" have likewise excited attention, and evince no inconsiderable talent.

LUDWTG PRANZ DEINHARDSTEIN (born 1789), Is rather celebrated for the lively language and smart structure of his dramas, than for depth of thought or fulness

* Translated by Mrs. Jameson: " Social Life in Germany." f Translated by Sir R. A. Anstruther, Bart., Dresden.


of meaning. His plays were expressly designed for the stage, and sound but poorly when subjected to the quiet perusal of the closet. His dramas of" Hans Sachs," "Das Bild der Danae," belong to that order of compositions, to which the title has been given of "Kuntslerdramen," of which (Ehlenschlager's " Correggio" and Goethe's " Tasso" may be regarded as the prototypes.

In addition to the above, there are at the present time a number of clever writers for the stage, foremost among whom are: Karl Topfer, Castelli, Karl Lebrun, K. Blum, Eduard Bauernfeld, G. A. von Maltitz, F. von Elsholtz, Karl von Holtei, Ferdinand Raimund, Cosmar, &c. These all wrote clever vaudeville dramas, Topfer being, perhaps, the most fertile and popular of the set: his plays are written with much life and skill, and act remarkably well.


That entertaining order of fiction—the novel—has advanced with equal steps with every other species of literature. Zschokke, Spindler, Schoppenhauer, Karoline Pichler, StefFens, Rellstab, Laube, Schefer, Alexis, &c, have, as regard both conception and execution, acquitted themselves excellently well.

JOHANN HEINRICH DANIEL ZSCHOKKE Was born at Maidenburg, on the 22nd of March, 1771 ;—

doctor of philosophy, "Oberberg und Forst, Grosskirchen

und Schulrath" of Aargau.

All the fictions of this author are finely written, and develop vivacious and diversified portraitures of human character. The personages who circulate through the elegant and amusing pages of Zschokke's "Novellen" are, one and all, faithful transcripts from nature, and form a

garland of diverting characters. His "Bilder aus der Schweiz (Freihoff von Aarau)" are spirited and natural delineations of Helvetian history. "Alamontade," "Clementine," "Addrich im Moos," "Der Kreole," "Das Abentheuer in der Neujahrsnacht,"* are as striking as any of his tales. But besides the few we have named, Zschokke has composed a great number of different stories (they amount to some forty or fifty altogether), all of which exhibit striking beauties, and great liveliness of narration. But, however successful this author may have been in the regions of fiction, he was scarcely so much at home as a dramatist and playwright. In fact his "Julius von Sassen" and " Allalino" ought to be accepted rather as first essays in the theatric style, than as well-considered and mature compositions. His "Schweizerlands Geschichte" and his "Baierische Geschichten" stamp him as one of the most popular of modern historians; while his highly appreciated work, " Stunden der Andacht," has contributed to render his name eminent as a writer of moral theology.

A. R, KARL SPINDLER (born 1795), Is one of the most prolific of the present race of German novelists. His "Der Invalide," "Der Bastard," "Der Jude," "Der Jesuit," are his best productions. Spiudler is always careful to make himself master of that particular point of time which he sets himself to depict. His forte lies more particularly in displaying to advantage the physical peculiarities of his personages, but he is not so happy when venturing upon their mental characteristics.

KAROLINE PICHLER, Born at Vienna, on the 7th of September 1769; daughter of Count von Greiner; married A. Pichler, counsellor of

* Translated by the Editor, and published in Blackwood's Lady's Magazine for January 1843.



the regency at Vienna, 1796; and died on the 10th of July


K. Pichler's style, like her sentiments, is redolent of the sterling nobility of nature, whilst her language is both lucid and select. She occupies an important station in the imaginative literature of the present age. Her best and most approved work is, unquestionably, the one known to her admirers by the title of "Agathokles." The novel of "Frauenwiirde" is meant for an apotheosis of the female sex, indicating woman's true destiny and value, and also that noiseless, unassuming circle of gentle influences, which is naturally and rightfully her own. "Die Schweden in Prag"* is a stirring historical romance of the thirty years' war. It is with correct taste that Karoline Pichler makes her novels " Die Grafen von Hohenberg," &c., the means for setting forth the history of her own country. "Die Belagerung Wiens in 1683," and "Die Wiedereroberung von Ofen," are interesting; first, as historical pictures of well-known epochs, and next, as excellent romances. Her "Kleine Erzahlungen" include some fictions of considerable merit. Of these we would particularly instance " Der Pflegesohn," and its companion " Die Stieftochter."f

SOPHIE BRENTANO (1761-1806). This lady's "Eduard und Amanda" and "Spanische und italienische Novellen" are very much liked. Neither was she altogether without some poetic talent, of which her "Gedichte" are sufficient proof.

JOHANNA SCHOPPENHATJER, Born at Danzig, 1770; died at Weimar, 1840, Was a pleasant novelist, and wrote with elegance. Her

* Translated by J. D. Haas, in his "Gleanings from Germany."

t Both have been translated by the Editor; the first for the Metropolitan Magazine (vol. 27), the last for Blackwood's Lady's Magazine (vol. 12).


stories contain a noble train of sentiment and exalted meditations. Among the most celebrated of her works are "Ausflucht an den Rhein," "Gabriele," "Die Tante," "Sidonia," " Der Giinstling," and especially "Johann von Eyk und seine Nachfolger." Although a prose writer, this authoress was a veritable poet in thought and feeling; she is influenced in numberless instances by the sweet harmony of nature, and is characterised by a constant yearning after the ideal.

HEINRICH STEFFENS, Born at Stavanger, in Norway, on the 2nd of May 1773; at

present professor of philosophy and Scandinavian literature

at the Berlin University.

The tales and novels of this writer are poetry in prose, and are the effusions of a very imaginative mind. O. L. B. Wolff says:—" It has been objected against Steffens, that as a philosopher he is too poetical, as a poet too philosophical; nor are we aware that this defect can be denied. Without this imperfection, however, Steffens would not be the man he is, nor so vigorous and eloquent a writer and thinker as he proves himself to be. He abounds in warmth of feeling, is replete with opulence of invention, with an unusual mastery over the German language, although never able entirely to cast off his foreign character. In his novels we generally find unfolded the precise results of his own thoughts and sensibilities, of his own contemplativeness, and of his own personal experience.

Steffens' " Die vier Norweger," "Die Familie Walseth und Leith," and " Malcolm," are his best efforts. In fact, these may vie with any composition of the same kind that the present age has produced. Our author's most recent publication, " Was ich erlebte," is his autobiography, and is very clever and remarkably interesting, owing to the eventful career which is there laid before the reader.

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