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256 GRUN.—GAUDY.

and worked out; such, for example, as "Die Werbung," "Mischka," " Der ewige Jude," &c.

ANASTASIUS GEUEN (Graf Anton Alexander von

Auersperg)

Born Hth April 1806, at his family mansion, Thurnam Hort

in Krain. He lives alternately there and at Vienna.

This abundant writer has the talent of making not onlyMs own feelings—his personal joys and sorrows—take a tender melancholic tone, and in the choicest forms of lyric verse, but he also stands forth in his country's cause, as the eloquent advocate of justice and freedom, and as the ingenious censor of the vices of the time. Public attention was first drawn to Griin by his epic poem, entitled " Der letzte Ritter," a piece designed to narrate and celebrate the career and noble deeds of the emperor Maximilian I; it is written in ballad form, and with surprising freshness and liveliness of manner. The author has, evidently, had the "Nibelungenlied" in his eye, as his metrical prototype,— a circumstance that only throws a new charm over his work. "Spaziergange eines Winer Poeten" was Griin's next effort, in the year 1831. This is a composition of polemic tendency, launched against the thraldom under which the Austrian states labour. Every line of the "Spaziergange" seems fired with a poetic wrath, while it develops much richness of conception and treatment . It met with very great success; and Griin has certainly the merit of having wrought this species of polemic poetry into a proper artistic form. There are also some other poems current, entitled "Schutt" (Ruins), some of which, "Der Thurm am Strande," for example, are marked by great energy of thought, and a noble invention;—witness further his " Gedichte."

FRANZ BERNH. H. W. FRED3ERR VON GAUDY,
Born at Frankfort on the Oder in the year 1800; died at
Berlin, 1840.
The melodious and melting tones of this author's versifi-

cation, the agreeable, nay, witty forms, in which his imagination is wont to revel, and the easy course of his numbers, have gained him a prominent position among the present race of German poets. His earlier attempts shewed a great tendency to the manner of Heine, whilst he gradually drew nearer and nearer to the style of Chamisso. In the year 1835, Gaudy made a tour to Rome, and brought back.as the natural resultof his treading such classic ground, his " Mein Romerzug." He likewise composed a number of metrical pieces, such as " Kaiserlieder," "Lieder und Romanzen," "Schildsagen," "Korallen," &c.; and also produced a clever translation of Beranger's "Chansons," and wrote a series of good novels.

FERDINAND FREHJGRATH, Born at Detmold, 1810; now living at St. Goar on the Rhine, Is a poet of a bold and original genius. He has risen into repute by his ingenious and original, though fantastic, compositions, and especially by curious pictures of the manners and feelings of exotic nations and tribes, as well as by descriptions of the wild beauties of nature, the giant vegetation, and marvellous scenes and circumstances, which few others have ever explored. Freiligrath is also a master of the art of musical versification. The following are very successful efforts: "Der Lowenritt," "Die Todten im Meere," "Der Schwertfeger von Damascus," "Der Sheik am Sinai," " Das Banditenbegrabniss," "Prinz Eugen der edle Ritter," " Die Auswandrer," " Der Blumen Rache," "Der ausgewanderte Dichter," " Scipio," "Der Tod des Fiihrers," "Eine Geusenwacht," "Der Alexandriner," &c.*

* Mr. John Oxenford has favoured his country with numerous clever and exceedingly spirited translations, of the more striking of the works of this poet.

S

258 FALLERSLEBEN.—BECK.

HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN (1798.) The majority of the productions of this writer, particularly the songs, evince great facility of style, and a tone of mingled simplicity and elegance. Hoffmann von Fallersleben's talents turn so completely upon Germany and its people, that the circumstance has become a feature in his literary character. The " Unpolitischen Lieder," which he has recently published, are, notwithstanding their title, entirely occupied with the arena of political strife. These "Lieder" are to be sung; and the waggish poet frequently gives particular and express directions as to the melodies adapted to them, which generally contrast, to a laughable degree, with the tenor of the words. "Die unpolitischen Lieder," suppressed as they are in Germany, set forth, nevertheless, all the main questions in politics and polemics, that have agitated the German mind of the present day. It was in consequence of this very publication, that Hoffmann v. Fallersleben has recently been expelled from the professor's chair of German literature, at the Breslau university. His collected poems are published under the title of'Gedichte."

KARL BECK, Born at Pesth, 1817; lives at Leipzig. Beck would almost seem to have been born a lyric poet. His gifts are, a melodious vein of language, for the most part, and a fanciful style. Beck always evinces a youthful and ardent tone of mind, while he takes an enthusiastic interest in the questions of the day. His "Gepanzerte Lieder" and " Der fahrende Poet" are good specimens of his powers. In the latter, Beck assumes more and more of the manner and tones of an acute observer and vigorous thinker; while the work itself will be acknowledged to be built up and composed of the most picturesque elements. The elevated pathos that breathes in "Den fahrenden Poeten" renders this especially a very charming poem.

J. P. ECKERMANN

Is particularly happy in the art of devising poetry for set occasions, and in exhibiting, under Goethian forms of verse, the modification and details of nature and of humble feelings.

Several other poets are also contemporary, whose talents shew themselves advantageously in this walk of letters. August Kopitsch (born at Breslau, 1799), is particularly distinguished by the originality of the forms of his verse; very happy are his poems: "Als Noah aus dem Kasten ging," "Die Heinzelmannchen," &c. Karl Simrock (born at Bonn, 1802), has given an excellent translation of the "Niebelungenlied," and many a beautiful ballad and poetical" Sagen und Mahrchen." F. F. A. Maltitz (born at Gera). Draxler Manfred (born at Lemberg, 1806), justly celebrated for his poetical translations. Wilhelm Wackernagel (born at Berlin, 1806), editor of that valuable and judicious collection of German prose and poetry, entitled "Deutsches Lesebuch:" his own "Gedichte eines fahrenden Schiilers" evidently mark him as a tender poet. There may also be adduced,—Ludwig, king of Bavaria; Graf Alexander von Wurtemberg, a harmonious ballad writer; Franz Dingelstedt, whose tendencies are more of a pensive and sentimental cast; E. Ortlepp; Rudolf and Hermann Marggraff; R. Reinick; Georg Herwegh, the spirited political poet, who made much noise in the world by his " Gedichte eines Lebendigen;" Gustav Pfizer (born at Stuttgart, 1807), in many respects related to Uhland and Schwab; Eduard Morike (born at Ludwigsburg, 1804), a very clever poet, who much inclines to the romantic school; his novel "Maler Nolten" is a most excellent production; W. Waiblinger (born at Heilbronn, 1804,—died at Rome, 1830) ; H. Stieglitz (born at Arolsen, 1803), a talented lyric; his " Bilder des Orients" are very beautiful; Leopold Schefer (born at Muskau, 1784), more didactic; he rose into repute by his "Laienbrevier" 260 DAS JUNGE DEUTSCHLAND.

and his novels; E. Freiherr von Feuchtersleben (born at Vienna, 1808), wrote fine ballads and lyric poems; Lndwig Bechstein (born at Meiningen, 1801), inclines more to epic poetry,—" Die Hairoonskinder," "Der Todtentanz," "Luther," are very praiseworthy performances. The following are distinguished as sacred writers: —J. H. Freiherr von Wesenberg (born at Dresden, 1774), an exquisite poet, whose works evidence a pious and elegant mind; Albert Knapp (born at Tubingen, 1798), unquestionably the most distinguished religious poet of the present day; K. J. P. Spitta (born at Hanover, 1801), whose poems " Psalter und Harfe" are very commendable; K. B. Garve (bor n 1763, near Hanover), his "Christliche Gesange" are justly admired.

SECTION II.

DAS JUNGE DEUTSCHLAND.

By this denomination must not be understood any particular association of authors, grouped together in a party, by an outward symbol of union; still less, any dark conspiracy for the overturning of established governments: but" young Germany" is solely that mental confederation of youngwriters, whose endeavours undoubtedly tended to obliterate old customs, and to pave the way for the introduction of others, considered by them better suited to the time. These new-fangled propositions became widely diffused; and, from the ultra tone which these writers assumed, and the bold and fearless challenge of their arguments, we might almost imagine that we were blessed with an unrestricted freedom of the press;—when, all at once, a powerful critic (Wolfgang Menzel) arose, who created such a noise and tumult, as threatened to exasperate all orders of society against this young sect.

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