EXPLANATION OF THE CHARACTERS USED IN THIS WORK. = SIGNIFIES equality, or equal to : as, 20 shillings = 1 pound : that is, 20 shillings are equal to 1 pound. + Signifies more, or addition: as 6+6=12, that is, 6 added to 6 is equal to 12. Signifies less, or subtraction; as, 6--2=4 ; that is, 6 less 2 is equal to 4. X Signifies multiplication; as 6X2=12; that is, 6 multiplied by 2 is equal to 12. · Signifies division; as 6*2=3 ; that is, 6 divided by 2 is equal to 3 Division is sometimes expressed by placing the numbers like a fraction, the upper figure being the dividend and the lower the divisor : thus, *=9; that is 54 divided by 6 is equal to 9. :::: Proportion ; as, 3 : 6 :: 9:18 ; that is, as 3 is to 6, so is 9 to 18. ✓ Prefixed to any number, signifies that the square root of that number is required. ERRATA. Page 109, queft. 25, for 296 read 196. parag for read 37857 ARITHMETIC. ARITHMETIC is the art of computing by numbers, and has five principal rules for this purpose, viz. Numeration, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Divifon. NUMERATION Teacheth' to express any proposed number by these ten characters, 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9-o is called a cypher, and the rest figures or digits. The relative value of which depends upon the place they stand in, when joined together, beginning at the right hand as in the following TABLE, Though the table consists of only nine places, yet it may be extended to more places at pleasure; as, after hundreds of millions, read thousands of millions, ten thousands of millions, hundred thoua sands of millions, then millions of millions, &c. TO WRITE NUMBERS. RULE. Write down the figures as their values are expressed, and fupply any deficiency in the order with cyphers. EXAMPLES. с Seven thousand nine hundred and one, Seventy millions seventy thousand and seventy. Eleven thousand eleven hundred Fourteen thousand fourteen and eleven. hundred and fourteen. eleven thousand 11000 fourteen thousand 14000 eleven hundred fourteen hundred 1400 eleven fourteen 14 I 100 11 12III Total 15414 Total To express in words any number proposed in figures. ROLE. To the simple value of each figure, join the name of its place, beginning at the left hand and reading towards the right. EXAMPLES Write down in words the following numbers, 46, 199, 2267, 86693, 289732, 11911911, 1169990, 9919, •4320, 000510, SIMPLE ANITION Téacheth to colle&t numbers of the lame denomination into one fum, As the mercantile method of proving addition is to reckon downwards, as well as upwards, the sums of which will be equal when the addition is just ; two spaces are left for the work. |