Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB
[merged small][ocr errors]

EXPLANATION

OF THE CHARACTERS USED

IN THIS WORK.

= SIGNIFIES equality, or equal to : as, 20 shillings = 1 pound :

that is, 20 shillings are equal to 1 pound.

+ Signifies more, or addition: as 6+6=12, that is, 6 added to 6 is

equal to 12.

Signifies less, or subtraction; as, 6--2=4 ; that is, 6 less 2 is

equal to 4. X Signifies multiplication; as 6X2=12; that is, 6 multiplied by

2 is equal to 12. · Signifies division; as 6*2=3 ; that is, 6 divided by 2 is equal

to 3

Division is sometimes expressed by placing the numbers like a

fraction, the upper figure being the dividend and the lower the

divisor : thus, *=9; that is 54 divided by 6 is equal to 9. :::: Proportion ; as, 3 : 6 :: 9:18 ; that is, as 3 is to 6, so is 9

to 18.

Prefixed to any number, signifies that the square root of that

number is required.

ERRATA.

Page 109, queft. 25, for 296 read 196.
113, 4ch line in 6th

parag

for
1795

read 37857
144, quest. 7, after £. 24 13 11 read Sterling.
159, queft. 2, for 261 read 7625.
193, quett. 1, for 163 Rivers read 16.

[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

ARITHMETIC.

ARITHMETIC is the art of computing by numbers, and has five principal rules for this purpose, viz. Numeration, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Divifon.

NUMERATION Teacheth' to express any proposed number by these ten characters, 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9-o is called a cypher, and the rest figures or digits. The relative value of which depends upon the place they stand in, when joined together, beginning at the right hand as in the following

TABLE,

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

Though the table consists of only nine places, yet it may be extended to more places at pleasure; as, after hundreds of millions, read thousands of millions, ten thousands of millions, hundred thoua sands of millions, then millions of millions, &c.

TO WRITE NUMBERS. RULE. Write down the figures as their values are expressed, and fupply any deficiency in the order with cyphers.

EXAMPLES.
Write down in proper figures the following numbers,
Twenty-nine,
Two hundred and forty-seven,

с

Seven thousand nine hundred and one,
Eighty-four thousand three hundred and twenty-nine,
Nine hundred and two thousand six hundred and fifteen,
Eighty-nine millions and ninety,
Four millions four hundred thousand and forty,
Nine hundred and nine millions nine hundred and ninety,

Seventy millions seventy thousand and seventy. Eleven thousand eleven hundred Fourteen thousand fourteen and eleven.

hundred and fourteen. eleven thousand 11000

fourteen thousand 14000 eleven hundred

fourteen hundred

1400 eleven

fourteen

14

I 100

11

12III

Total 15414

Total

To express in words any number proposed in figures. ROLE. To the simple value of each figure, join the name of its place, beginning at the left hand and reading towards the right.

EXAMPLES Write down in words the following numbers, 46, 199, 2267, 86693, 289732,

11911911, 1169990, 9919, •4320,

000510,

SIMPLE ANITION Téacheth to colle&t numbers of the lame denomination into one fum,

[blocks in formation]

As the mercantile method of proving addition is to reckon downwards, as well as upwards, the sums of which will be equal when the addition is just ; two spaces are left for the work.

« ZurückWeiter »