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• The account books of a common farmer,' as to read across both pages, with columns titled, says Mr. Loudon, may be a cash book for all as in the specimen annexed. In this the bailiff receipts and payments, specifying each; a or master inserts the name of every hand; and ledger for accounts with dealers and tradesmen; the time in days, or proportions of a day, which and a stock book for taking an inventory and each person under his care has been at work, valuation of stock, crop, manures, tillages (and and the particular work he or she has been enevery thing that a tenant could dispose of or be gaged in. At the end of each week the bailiff paid for on quitting his farm), once a year. or master sums up the time from the preceding Farming may be carried on with the greatest Saturday or Monday, to the Friday or Saturday accuracy and safety, as to money matters, by inclusive; the sum due or to be advanced to means of the above books, and a few pocket each man is put in one column, and when the memorandum books for laborers' time, jobs, &c. man receives it he writes the word received in With the exception of a time book (such as is the column before it, and signs his name as a hereafter described), we should never require receipt in the succeeding column. The Time more, even from a proprietor's bailiff; to many Book, therefore, will show what every man has of whom the nine forms just given would only been engaged in during every hour in the year puzzle ;- to some we have known them lead to for which he has been paid, and it will also conthe greatest errors and confusion. No form of tain receipts for every sum, however trifling, books, or mode of procedure, will enable a which has been paid by the bailiff for rural farmer to know whether he is losing or gaining, labor.' In short, it would be difficult to contrive but that of taking stock.'

a book more satisfactory for both master and The Time Book, Mr. Loudon recommends, servant than the Time Book, as it prevents, as far may be made useful, as he suggests, in every as can well be done, the latter from deceiving department of agriculture and on every scale of either himself or his employer, and remains an management, though most necessary for bailiffs, authentic indisputable record of work done, and where a number of day laborers are employed of vouchers for money paid during the whole on improvements. It is a folio volume, ruled so period of the bailiff's services.'


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Farmer (Hugh), a learned dissenting minister, born at Shrewsbury in 1714. He was descended from a respectable family in North Wales; and, after receiving the first part of his education at a school in Llangerin, was for some time under the tutorage of Dr. Charles Owen. When about sisteen years of age, he was sent to prosecute his studies under the celebrated Dr. Doddridge, at Northampton. Mr. Farmer first became chaplain in the family of William Coward, Esq. of Walthamstow in Essex, and minister to a dissenting congregation in that village. lle nent resided with William Snell, Esq., a respectable dissenter of the neighbourhood ; and in his family Mr. Fanner lived for thirty years, still continumg his connexion with the congregation at Walthamstow. l'pon the day of thanksgiving appointed for the suppression of the rebellion, in 1745, be delivered a very apposite sermon, which he was induced to publish the following year. His next publication was entitled An Enquiry into the Nature and Design of our Lord's Temptation in the Wilderness, 8vo. In this work Mr. Farmer labors to demonstrate that the whole of the temptations were transacted in vision, and that they were particularly intended to point out to Jesus the difficulties and duties of his subsequent ministry. Whatever singularity of opinion appeared in this work, the originality of thought and profound erudition with which it was supported, gained it a rapid and extensive circulation, and called forth the abilities of those who were of a different opinion. It is gererally thought, however, that of all Mr. Farmer's lites rary productions, his Dissertation on Miracles, designed to show that they are arguments of a divine interposition, and absolute proofs of the mission and doctrine of a prophet, published in 1771, is the most masterly. Notwithstanding the many able treatises upon that subject, which have appeared, some have considered this work in many respects as without a rival. His next publication was An Essay on the Demoniacs of the New Testament, which he maintains to have been only natural diseases. This work seems to be a completion of what the author had designed in his Dissertation on Miracles. Mr. Farmer was for several years the sole pastor of the congregation at Walthamstow, but in 1761 an able colleague was appointed him, in consequence of which he became the afternoon preacher to the congregation of Salter's Hall, London, and, in a short time after, the Tuesday lecturer at the same place. As he advanced in years, he resigned his ministerial employments, much to the regret of the people under his charge. This last performance was entitled The General Prevalence of the Worship of lluman Spirits in the Ancient Ileathen Nations Asserted and Proved; which was attacked by Mr. Fell, in an acute and learned treatise in 1785. In the same year Vr. Farmer was afflicted with a disease in his eyes, which almost deprived him of sight. From this time, however, his infirmities increased, and le died at Walthamstow in 1787, in the seventythird year of his age. In his last will his executors were directed to burn all his manuscripts; but some of his letters and fragments of a Dissertation on the Story of Balaam, were published in 1804 with his life prefixed.



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FARMER (Richard), an English divine and an- borough castle in Northumberland At low tiquary, born at Leicester in 1735. His father water the points of several others are visible bewas a hosier in that town, and, after receiving sides the seventeen just mentioned. The nearest the rudiments of his education there, he became island to the shore is called the House Island, a student at Cambridge, and pensioner of Ema- and lies exactly one mile and sixty-eight chains nuel College. Here his diligence and success in from the coast. The most distant is about seven obtaining a knowledge of books, as well as the or eight miles. Their produce is kelp, feathers, quickness of his memory, were early observed; and a few seals, which the tenants watch and and he was made B. A. in 1757, and M.A. in shoot for the sake of the oil and skins. Some of 1760, in which year also he was appointed them yield a little grass that serves to feed a cow classical tutor. After officiating some time as a' or two; which the people transport over in their curate, he, in 1767, took the degree of B.D. and little boats. became one of the preachers at Whitehall. FARNABIE, or FARNABY (Thomas), an emiWhile Mr. Farmer paid considerable attention to nent grammarian, son of a London carpenter, Grecian and Roman authors, he also applied was born in 1575. While at Oxford, being enhimself particularly to old English literature; and ticed to abandon his religion, he went to Spain, An Essay on the Learning of Shakspeare, pub- and was there educated in a college belonging to lished in 1766, contributed principally to his the Jesuits. Being weary of their severe disciliterary fame. Of this performance, which was pline, he went with Sir John Hawkins and Sir much admired for the sprightliness of ils compo- Francis Drake in their last voyage in 1595. He sition, three editions were sold in a very short was afterwards a soldier in the Low Countries : time. Mr. Farmer was now noticed and pa- but being reduced to great want, returned to tronised in his profession: by the influence of England, where after wandering about for some bishop Hurd, he was promoted to the chancellor- time, under the name of Thomas Bainrafe (the ship and a prebend in the cathedral of Litchfield; anagram of his name), he settled at Mattock in and in 1775 was chosen master of Emanuel Somersetshire, and taught grammar with reputaCollege, and took his degree of D.D. Not long tion. He removed to London, and opened a after, he was appointed principal librarian to the school. While here he was made M. A. at Camuniversity, and served in turn the office of vice- bridge, and incorporated into the university of chancellor. Lord North, at that time prime- Oxford. Thence he removed, in 1636, to Sevenminister, made him prebendary of Canterbury, Oaks in Kent; and raised a respectable school. and Mr. Pitt repeatedly offered him a bishopric; l'pon the breaking out of the civil war, in 1641, but the constraints and sulemnity of the episco- he was cast into prison. It was debated, in the pal character did not suit bis natural disposition, house of commons, whether he should be sent and he not only declined accepting a bishopric, to America; but, this motion being rejected, he but resigned his office as prebendary for a resi- was removed to Ely-house in Holborn, where dentaryship of St. Paul's." By this it was neces- he died, June 12th, 1647. Many writers have sary he should reside three months annually in spoken with great approbation of his labors. M. London, and these he spent in the company of Bayle says, "his notes upon most of the ancient literary characters with pleasure and advantage. Latin poets have been of very great use to young He was particularly instrumental in amending the beginners; being short, learned, and designed police of Cambridge, with regard to the paving chiefly to clear up the text.' and lighting the streets. He had collected ample FARNESE, the name of a distinguished famaterials for a history of the town and anti-mily in Italy, of which the most remarkable were, quities of Leicester, which he intended to pub- 1. Peter Louis Farnese, the son of Alexander, lish by subscription, but relinquished the design; afterwards pope Paul III. He was created duke and Mr. Nichols being engaged in writing a his- of Parma and Placentia in 1545, but, becoming tory of that county, the doctor gave what he had universally hated for his tyranny and debauchery, collected, with the plates, to him. Dr. Farmer fell by the hands of an assassin in 1547. 2. His died at Emanuel College, in 1797, in the sixty- eldest son, Alexander, born 1520, was raised by second year of his age. His collection of scarce Clement VII. to the see of Parma, and created and curious books, which was very extensive, a cardinal by his grandfather, Paul III. He was was disposed of a short time after his death. also dean of the Sacred College, and distinguished

FARMINGTON, a large, pleasant, and both by his learning and virtues. He was rewealthy town in Hartford county, Connecticut. peatedly employed as nuncio to the courts of The river meanders delightfully through charm- Vienna and Paris, and died at Rome in 1589. ing intervales, which beautify and enrich this 3. Alexander, third duke of Parma, was a nephew town. The houses, in the compact part of the of his, and distinguished as a military commantown, stand chiefly on the street that runs north der under Philip II. of Spain. He succeeded and south along the gentle declivity of a hill Don John of Austria in the government of the which ascends east of the vallies. About the Low Countries in 1578; and was designed to centre of the street there is a large and handsome have commanded the Spanish army which emcongregational church. This town was settled as barked with the Armada for the conquest of early as 1645, and its boundaries were then very England. He died in 1592 at Arras, aged fortyextensive. Several towns have been since taken six. from it. It lies ten miles south-west of Hart FARNHAM, or FERNHAM, a market town of ford.

Surry, thirty-eight miles from London, and FARN ISLANDS, two groups of little islands twelve west from Guildford. It is a populous and rocks, seventeen in number, opposite to Bam- place, situated on the Wey, and supposed to

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