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south; in order that the crops on either side of accomplished till the field has been completed. them may receive equal sun. In this case, con- Hence the advantages of having the size of the sequently, the fences, which form the two longer fields in some degree commensurate to the stock sides of the quadrangle, should take that direc- of working animals upon the farm.' tion. But, where the surface is steep, this prin- 'Though on large farms,' continues this writer, ciple of direction must give way to another of 'fields should, in general, be formed on an extengreat importance. If the land be retentive, and sive scale, there is a convenience in having a few the soil require to be laid up into round beds, smaller fields near the farm-house for keeping across the slope, the direction of the ridges must the family cows; for turning out young horses, be guided by the face of the slope; and the mares, and foals; for raising a great variety of fences, on the general principle, ought to take vegetables; and for trying experiments via the same direction; observing, in this case, where small scale, which may afterwards be extended, circumstances will admit, to let them wind to if they shall be found to answer. Where enclothe right of a person standing on the brink of sures are too large for particular purposes, and the slope, and facing towards it; as the beds where no small fields, as above recommended, ought to take that direction for the greater ease have been prepared, large fields may be subdiin ploughing them. Where the face of a hill is vided by sheep-hurdles, a sort of portable fence steep, and the land absorbent, the soil requires well known to every turnip-grower. In this to be turned downwards of the slope with a turn- way great advantage may be derived from the wrest or Kentish plough ; and the fences to be constant use of land that would otherwise have directed by the natural lines of the hill.
been occupied by stationary fences; and the exThe supply of water is the main consideration pense of subdivisions, which, on a large farm, in laying out grazing grounds, cow grounds, and would necessarily have been numerous, is thereby pasture grounds in general. Wherever good water avoided. This fence is perfectly effectual against is found naturally, or can be conveniently brought sheep, though it is not so well calculated for by art, to that point a pasture ground ought to stronger animals. On dry soils, where sheep are tend, in order to enjoy the supply as much as generally pastured, it is not unlikely that, by possible. In laying out water-meadows, where using moveable hurdles, the expense of permanent they are situated on sloping grounds, or the fences might, in a great measure, be saved.' higher sides of which adjoin to upper lands, the In the Code of Agriculture it is observed, that main conductor (where a proper fall from the 'when a whole farm is divided into fields of source of the water will admit of it) ought to define various sizes, it is difficult to form a plan, so as the outline of the meadow on that side; and the to suit a regular rotation of crops, or to keep fence which separates the meadow lands from the very accurate accounts. Whereas, by having the vry grounds ought to run immediately along the fields in general of a large size, the whole strength upper side of the water-course; the two thus of a farm, and the whole attention of the farmer, becoming natural guards to each other. Within is directed to one point; while an emulation is an extended flat, or an extent of gently shelving excited among the ploughmen, when they are mneadow grounds, belonging to different propri- thus placed in circumstances which admit their etors, and where deep ditches are required to be work to be compared. Some small fields are sunk on the upper sides of the fences, to drain certainly convenient on any farm, for grazing and the lands that lie above them, the plan here re- other purposes, to be afterwards explained. On commended would be improper. But in the elevated situations, also, the shelter derived from situations described above it is perfectly eligible, small enclosures is of use. and ought not, in ordinary cases, to be departed Sometimes a farm is situated on both sides of from.
a highway; in which case all the fields may be The size of fields, it has been observed by a made to open into it, either directly or through • modern writer, must bear some proportion to an intervening field. Here no private road is the strength of the farmer with regard to ploughs wanting, excepting a few yards to reach the farand horses. For instance, where six two-horse mery. But when, as is most generally the case, the ploughs are kept, and where it is difficult, from lands are situated at a distance from a great the nature of the soil, to have the fields of a large road, and approached by a lane or bye-road, then extent sufficiently dry, from eighteen to twenty- from that bye-road a private road is required to five English acres are considered to be a conve- the farmery, and a lane or lanes from it so connient size. With twelve horses a field of this trived as to touch at most of the fields of the extent can always be finished in four, or at the farm. In wet and clayey soils, these lanes must utmost in five days. There is less risk, therefore, be formed of durable materials; but in dry of being overtaken by bad weather, and prevented soils, provided attention be paid to fill in the from completing the preparation of the land for cart ruts as they are formed by the leading out the internal crop. When the fields are of too of dung, or home of corn,) by small stones, great an extent, in proportion to the stock kept, gravel, or even earth, the lane may remain green; a considerable interval must occur between the and being fed with sheep or cattle will not be sowing of the first and of the last part; and it will altogether lost. It is essentially necessary to in general be desirable to have each field cleared make a piece of road at the gate of every erat the same time in harvest. The harrowing also closure, being the spot which is most frequently is done more economically, when the field is in use. Without this precaution, it often becomes sown at once, than in several portions; and a mire where corn is thrown down and spoiled where rolling is required, that operation being in harvest, or if it is attempted to avoid the most effectuallv done across, it cannot well be mire, the gate-posts and neighbouring fence are
often damaged. (Communications to the board leave his country and his family, is an estate well of Agriculture, vol. ii. With good private roads stocked with such trees. a farmer will perform his operations at much 2. Of the arrangement of farm buildings, and less expense; the labor of the horses will be the enclosures of a farmery.--According to much easier; a greater quantity or weight of Beatson, the first thing to be taken into considegrain and other articles may be more expedi- ration upon this subject is the nature and protiously carried over them; manure can be more duce of the farm: hence may be judged the easily conveyed to the fields; the harvest can be different kinds of accommodation that will be carried on more rapidly; and wear and tear of necessary. Every farm, for example, must have, every description will be greatly reduced. (Code 1, A dwelling-house; 2. A barn suitable to the of Agriculture, p. 158.) The gates of fields, it extent of arable land in the farm, either with or has been observed, should in most cases be without a threshing mill, but always with one if placed in the middle of that side of the field possible; and it should be endeavoured to place which is nearest the road; and not in an angle, it so that it may go by water, if a supply can be or at one corner, unless particular circumstances had; 3. Stables, the dimensions of which must point out this as the preferable mode.
be determined according to the number of On the subject of fences in general see Hus- horses necessary for the farm; 4. Cow-houses, or BANDRY. Respecting one conspicuous boundary feeding-houses, or both, according to the number of some farms, hedge-row trees, a great dif- of cows and cattle, and so on, till the whole acference of opinion prevails. While they im- commodations and their dimensions are fixed upon. prove the landscape, it seems to be agreed by Having ascertained these, and the situation for the most intelligent agriculturists that they are building on being also settled, the ground must extremely hurtful to the fence, and for some dis- be carefully and attentively viewed; and, if not tance to the crops on each side; and it is evi- very even, the different levels must be observed, dent, that in many instances the highways, on the and the best way of conducting all the necessary sides of which they often stand, suffer greatly drains, and carrying off all superfluous moisture. from their shade. It has therefore been doubted, Also the best situation for dung and urine-pits, whether such trees be profitable to the proprie or reservoirs, which will, in a great degree, ascertor, or beneficial to the public; to the farmer tain at once where the cattle-houses and stables they are almost in every case injurious, to a de- should be. These being fixed on, the barn should gree beyond what is commonly imagined. (Sup- be as near them as possible, for the convenience plement to the Encyclopædia Britannica article of carrying straw to the cattle; and the barn-yard AGRICULTURE.) Loch, however, a well informed should be contiguous to the barn. These main improver of landed property, is of a different points being determined on, the others will opinion. He says, there is no change in the rural easily be found; always observing this rule, to economy of England more to be regretted, than consider what is the nature of the work to be the neglect which is now shown to the cultivation done about each office, and then the easiest and and growth of hedge-row timber. The injury least laborious way to perform that work, so far which it does to the cultivation of the land is as it is connected with other offices. In case much exaggerated, especially if a proper selec- this should not be sufficiently explicit, suppose, tion of trees is made; but even the growth of by way of illustration, the situation of a feedingthe ash, so formidable to agriculturists, might be house is to be considered of. The nature of the defended on the ground that, without it, the best work to be performed here is, bringing food and implements employed in the cultivation of the litter to the cattle, and taking away their dung. soil could not be made. It is well known that The place from whence the greatest part perhaps good hedge-row timber is by far the most valua- of their food and all their litter comes, is the ble both for naval and domestic purposes. Its barn; therefore the feeding-house should be as superior toughness rendering it equally valuable near the barn as possible. If turnips, or other to the ship and to the plough-wright. The value roots, or cabbages, make a part of their food, which it is of, in affording shelter, is also of ma- the most commodious way of giving these must terial use; besides, the raising of grain is not the be determined on; whether by having a rootonly purpose of life, or the only matter to be house adjoining the cattle-house, and that filled attended to, nor the only object worthy of atten- occasionally, or by having a place to lay them tion. The purposes of war and the national down in, near the heads of the stall, from whence glory, the protection and extension of our com- they are thrown in at holes left in the wall for merce, the construction and repair of buildings, that purpose. The easiest method of clearing and even the enjoyment arising from the rich and away the dung must also be considered, and the beautiful effect produced by such decoration and distance from the main dung-pit and urine reornament, are all objects of material importance servoir. The same general rule being observed to the well-being and constitution of a highly in determining on the site of all the other offices cultivated state of society. Even upon the more or accommodations, together with a careful exnarrow basis of individual utility, this practice amination of the ground to be occupied (upon might be defended and recommended; for it is which the arrangement of the offices in a great not useless to consider how many families and measure should depend), any person conversant estates have been preserved, when pressed by in rural affairs, who attends to these particulars, temporary difficulties (from which none are ex- and can lay down his ideas in a drawing, may empted), from a fall of hedge-row timber. One easily direct the planning and building of a very of the best legacies, that a great proprietor can commodious set of offices. With respect to the
site of the dwelling-house, it may be remarked, ticular building be attempled to be laid. It may, that, although a house being situate in the middle he adds, . be conceived by a person who has not of a regular front is, in some points of view, the turned his attention to this subject, that there most pleasing way, and in many situations per- must be some simple, obvious, and fixed plan to haps the best, yet, unless the ground and other proceed upon. But seeing the endless variety circumstances in every respect favor such a dis- in the mere dwelling-places of men, it is not to position, it should not invariably be adhered to; be woudered at if a still greater variety of plans for it may often happen, that a much better situ- should take place where so many appurtenances ation for the dwelling-house may be obtained at are required, and these on sites so infinitely vaa little distance from the offices, a pleasing uni rious; nor that men's opinions and practices formity be observed in them at the same time, should differ so much on the subject, that on a and the house be more healthy and agreeable. given site, no two practical men, it is more than In some cases, and for some kinds of farms, it probable, would make the same arrangement.' may be particularly necessary to have the house There are, however,' he says, “certain principles so placed, in respect to the offices and farm-yard, which no artist ought to lose sight of in laying as to admit of their being constantly inspected, out such buildings and conveniences. The barns, and the labor that is to be performed in them at the stables, and the granary, should be under the tended to and overlooked.
eye-should be readily seen from the dwelling“The requisites of a farmstead,' says Mr. Mar- house. The prevailing idea, at present, is, that shall, . are as various as the intentions of farms. the several buildings ought to form a regular A sheep-farm, a grazing-farm, a bay-farm, a figure, and enclose an area or farm-yard, either dairy-farm, and one under mixed cultivation, as a fold for loose cattle, or, where the stalling of may require different situations, and different ar- cattle is practised, as a receptacle for dung, and rangements of yards and buildings. On a farm the most prevailing figure is the square. But of the last species, which may be considered as this form is, he thinks, more defective than the the ordinary farm of this kingdom, the princi- oval or circle, the angles being too sharp, and pal requisites are shelter, water, an area or site the corners too deep. Besides, the roadway, resufficiently flat for yards and buildings; with mea- cessary to be carried round a farm-yard in order dow land below it, to receive the washings of to have a free and easy passage between the difthe yards; as well as sound pasture grounds ferent buildings, is inconveniently lengthened or above it for a grass-yard and paddocks; with made at greater expense. The view of the whole private roads nearly on a level to the principal yard and buildings from the house, on one side arable lands; and with suitable outlets to the of it, is likewise more confined.' He on the nearest or best markets.
whole prefers the complete octagon, the dwellingFor a mixed husbandry farm, the particulars, house á being on one side, and the entrance gateto be arranged, according to Marshall, are thus way and granary opposite ; the remaining six enumerated; 1. A suit of buildings, adapted to sides being occupied by stables and cattle-sheds, the intended plan of management;-as a dwell- and other out-buildings, c, d, e, a barn and threshing ing-house, barns, stables, cattle-sheds, cart-shed. machine, f, with a broad-way, dipping gently from 2. A spacious yard, common to the buildings, the buildings, g, and surrounding a wide shallow and containing a receptacle of stall-manure, dung-basin, h, which occupy the rest of the area whether arising from stables, cattle-sheds, hog- of the yard. Externally is a basin for the styes, or other buildings; together with separate drainings of the yard, i; and grass enclosures for folds, or straw-yards, furnished with appropriate calves, poultry, fruit trees, and rick-yard. sheds, for particular stock, in places where such are required. 3. A reservoir, or catchpool, situated on the lower side of the buildings and yards, to receive their washings, and collect them in a body for the purpose of irrigating the lands below them. 4. A corn yard, convenient to the barns; and a hay-yard contiguous to the cow or fatting-sheds. 5. A garden and fruit ground near the house. 6. A spacious grass-yard or green, embracing the whole or principal part of the conveniences; as an occasional receptacle for stock of every kind; as a common pasture for swine, and a range for poultry ; as a security to the fields from stock straying out of the inner yards; and as an ante-field or lobby, out of which the home grounds and driftways may be conveniently entered. “An accurate delineation of the The following plan of the arrangement of a site which is fixed on, requires,' he observes, 'to small farm-house and offices, which he considers be drawn out on a scale; the plannist studying very convenient, is given by Beatson. At the the subject, alternately, upon the paper, and on north-west corner is the barn (1), with a water the ground to be laid out; continuing to sketch threshing-mill; a straw-house (2), being a conand correct his plan, until he has not a doubt left tinuation of the barn above, for holding a quanon his mind; and then to mark out the whole tity of straw after it is threshed, or hay, that it upon the ground, in a conspicuous and perma- may be at hand to give to the cattle in the nent manner, before the foundation of any par- feeding-house below. The upper part of this
straw-house may consist of pillars to support the thrown into the dung-court. A rick of straw, or roof, with about eight feet space between them, hay, built behind the stable or cow-house, or in a whereby a good deal of building will be saved. shed contiguous to either, with proper conveniIn the floor should be hatches, at convenient dis. ences, will have the same progressive course to tances, to put down the straw to the cattle below. the dung-bill; for, it will be observed, the com
munication from these is equally easy from without or within; the rail across the calf-pen being intended chiefly to keep in the calves, while the doors on each side are open when conveying the dung that way from the stable to the dung-hill.
The ground floor of the dwelling-house to this farmery (13), has a dairy, pantry, and various conveniences behind for keeping swine, poultry, coals, &c. The stair to the upper chambers rises from either side to the same landing-place; from whence are a few steps up to the chamberfloor.
The following diagrams represent the elevation, and two ground plans, of a farm-house on a large scale, and which might be extended to any size.
The ground plan, fig. 2, is divided into a, the _IIII?
principal entry; U, the parlour; c, the family bed-room; d, the kitchen; e, the dairy; , the pantry and cellar; the three latter being attached to the back part of the house by a continuation of the same roof downwards. By permitting the ceilings to be seven and a half or eight feet in height, some small bed rooms may
be provided above them, having a few steps down A court for the dung-hill (3) has a door to it from the floor of the front rooms, or a few steps from the feeding-house, and a large entry at the p from the first landing place. other end to admit carts to take away the dung : on the outside of this should be a urine-pit, in
Fig. 1. the most convenient place, according to the form of the ground; a cow-house (4) has a door also to the dung-court; and a calf-pen (5) with a rail across to keep in the calves, even though the doors are all open, adjoins; there is a stable, with a harness-room, and a place for keeping corn (6); a root-house (7), over which, or over the barn, may be a granary; a shed for carts (8); a place for keeping large implements, as ploughs and harrows (9); for keeping smaller implements, as spades, shovels, rakes, forks, &c., and for laying by old iron and many other useful things that might otherwise be lost or thrown away (10); a pond for washing the horses' feet (11); which slopes down from each extremity
Mind towards the middle, where it is deepest, that the horses may easily go in at one end, and come
Fig. 2. out at the other, with a rail at each end, to prevent their going in during frost, or when not wanted to go; a pump, with a trough for the horses or cattle to drink in, especially while other water is frozen, or when the water in the pond is dirty (12); but, if it can be contrived so that the water which drives the mill may run through this pond, it will be preferable as being at all times clean and wholesome. One advantage of this arraugement, as Beatson remarks, is, that the fodder consumed upon the farm goes progressively forward from the barn-yard through the cattle-houses to the dung-hill, withont the unnecessary labor generally occasioned by carrying it backwards and forwards. For it comes from the barn-yard into the barn, where it is threshed; it is then put in the strawhouse, and given to the cattle immediately The earl of Winchelsea, at Burleigh, has a below; and after passing through them, it is farm-house erected nearly in this way; but in it
the back door of the kitchen enters into a brew- pable of holding a bel, or in any other way house and wash-house; the fire place and copper that may be thought more convenient. being behind the hitchen vent. Beyond this brew-house is a place for holding fire-wood, &c.;
Fig. 3. on the back walls of which are openings to feed the swine at. In the kitchen is an oven; and ALKL below the grate an excellent contrivance for baking occasionally, but chiefly employed for the purpose of keeping the servants' meat warm. It consists of a plate of cast iron, with a door similar to that of an oven. The up-stairs part is divided in the front into two good rooms, and into two small ones on the back part, but may be easily subdivided where necessary.
Fig. 3 exhibits another mode of dividing the ground floor, in which a is the parlour; b, the kitchen; c, the closet; d, the dairy; e, the pantry; f, the coal-house; g, the poultry-house; h, 3. On keeping Furming Accounts.—Sir John the pig-sty, which has an opening into the Sinclair strongly recommends accuracy to the kitchen; i, the back entry. The chamber-foor gentleman farmer, as well as to the tenant, and may be divided likewise, where it is requisite, furnishes the following models, chiefly adapted into two good bed-rooms, and a light closet ca- to the former, in his Code of Agriculture, 1820.
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