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the strong acid fluid previously described, may such a degree, doth suddenly, and ali at once, firisha be separated by sulphuric acid. It affords, up and run over the vessel.
Ray. when decomposed by solution of ammonia, 61.4 It flushes violently out of the cock for about a quart, per cent. of silica; and hence was at first sup- and then stops.
Mortimer's Husbandry. posed by Sir. H. Davy to consist of two prime The glowing dames of Zama's royal court proportions of acid=2.652, and one of silica Have faces flushed with more exalted charms. 4.066, the sum of which numbers may represent
Addison's Cato. its equivalent=6.718. One voluine of it con- Some court, or secret corner seek, denses two volumes of ammonia, and they form Nor flush with shame the passing virgiu's cheek, together a peculiar saline substance, decomposed
Gay's Trivia. by water. The composition of this salt is easily
As prosperous people, flushed with great victories reconciled to the numbers given as representing
and successes, are rarely known to confine their joys
within the bounds of moderation and innocence. silica and fluoric acid, on the supposition that it
Atterbury's Sermons. contains one prime of ammonia to one of the
At once, arrayed fluosilicic gas; for 200 cubic inches of ammonia
In all the colours of the flushing year, weigh 36-2 grains and 100 of the acid gas 110.77.
The garden glows. Thomson's Spring. Now 36-2: 2:13:: 110.77 : 652.
It is enough that Fortune found himn flush FLU'RRY, n. s., Goth. flokra. Hurry; vio
Of youth and vigour, beauty, and those things lent commotion; a gust or storm of wind; a Which for an instant clip Enjoyment's strings. hasty blast.
Byron. The boat was overset by a sudden flurry from the FLUSHING, an important sea-port of the North.
Swift. island of Walcheren, situated on the north side He lived (not Death, but Juan) in a hurry
of the Scheldt, at the mouth of that river. The Of waste, and haste, and glare, and gloss, and glitter,
approach to the harbour is between jetties, and In this gay clime of bear-skins, black and furry'Which (though I hate to say a thing that's better)
inside the town are two basins, one of which will Peep out sometimes when kings are in a flurry,
contain a fleet of men of war; hence the imThrough all “ the purple and fine linen"-fitter
portance of this place to the French, who, in For Babylon's than Russias' royal harlot,
1795, stipulated for its possession jointly with And neutralize her outward show of scarlet. Byron. the Dutch, and afterwards obtained it exclu
FLUSH, v. n., v., a., adj., & n. s. Fr.flus, or flur, sively. The batteries nearly command the Lat. fluflus : Dutch, fluysen. To flow; to flow mouth of the Scheldt. This town is a noted with violence; to approach with rapidity: ap- resort of English smugglers. It is well built, plied to a rapid motion of the blood," from meri- and was the birth place of De Ruyter. In tal or any other excitement, which produces a 1809 it sustained a successful siege from the Bri glow in the skin, and a redness in the cheeks;
tish army landed in Walcheren, and was not it is used of a transient change of color in the
evacuated until the 23rd December, when our face, not of a settled complexion. Thus it is ap- troops endeavoured to destroy the inner basins. plied to any sudden elation of the mind. The Buonaparte soon after annexed the island substantive expresses afflux; sudden impulse: Walcheren to France, and thus it continued violent flow. The adjective is used as a cant until 1814. Population 5700. Old Flushing term for affluent; abounding.
It sometimes 1
It sometimes is a suburb on the west side of the New town. means fresh; full of vigor.
Flushino, a town of America, on a bay in Ere yet the salt of most unrighteous tears
Long Island. Long. 73° 50' W., lat. 40° 45' N. Had left the flushing in her galled eyes,
FLUSTER, v. a. From to flush. To make She married.
Shakspeare. Hamlet. hot and rosy with drinking; to make half drunk. He took my father grossly, full of bread,
Three lads of Cyprus, noble swelling spirits, With all his crimes broad blown, and flush as May; Have I to-night flustered with flowing cups, And how his audit stands, who knows, save Heaven? And they watch too.
FLUTE, v. a. & n. s. Fr. fluste, flute ; Ital.
flauto; Belg. fluite (a musical pipe). To cut As I make 'em to flush,
columns into hollows; a channel or furrow in a Each owl out of his bush.
pillar; a regular ornamental concare extending
Ben Jonson's Owls. from the base to the capital of a column: a wind
In floites. made he discordaunce
And in his musike, with mischaunce,
That he ne fonde no woman trewe.
Chaucer. Romaunt of the Rose. Never had any man such a loss, cries a widower,
Singing he was, or floyting, alle the day; in the flush of his extravagancies for a dead wife. He was as fresshe as is the moneth of May.
Chaucer. Prologue to Cant. Tales. The pulse of the arteries is not only caused by the
The oars were silver, pulsation of the heart, driving the blood through them Which to the tune of Rutes kept stroke. in manner of a wave or fush, but by the coats of the
Shakspeure. arteries themselves.
Auon they move 'The pulse of the heart he attributes to an ebullition
Iu perfect phalanx to the Dorian mood and sudden expansion of the blool in the ventricles, Of Mutes and soft rccorders. after the manner of the milk, whih, being heated to
Milton's Paradise Losi.
The soft complaining flute
ist of All-Hallows Church, London. They failed, In dying notes discovers
however, in procuring for the flute a reception The woes of hopeless lovers,
into concerts of various instruments; for which Whose dirge is whispered by the warbling lute.
reason one Thomas Stanesby, a very curious Dryden.
maker of flutes and of the instruments of the like FLUTE, in music, is the simplest of all musical kind, about 1732, adverting to the scale of Marinstruments of the wind kind. It is played on sennus, in which the lowest note was C, invented by blowing it with the mouth; and the tones or what he called the new system; in which, by notes are changed by stopping and opening the making the fute of such a size as to be a fifth holes disposed for that purpose along its side. above concert pitch, the lowest note became C The ancient fistulæ, or flutes, were made at first sol fa ut. By this contrivance the necessity of of reeds ; afterwards of wood, and at length of transposing the flute part was taken away; for a metal. But how they were blown, whether as flute of this size, adjusted to the system above our flutes, or hautboys, does not appear.
mentioned, became an octave to the violin. To The flute was of such importance in antiquity, further this invention of Stanesby, one Lewis that several female divinities laid claim to the Merci, an excellent performer on the flute, pubhonor of its invention. Of this number the prin- lished, about 1735, six solos for this instrument, cipal was Minerva, or Pallas, the daughter of three of which are said to be accommodated to Jupiter: sometimes called Musica, or the musi- Mr. Stanesby's new systém; but the German cian, from a statue made by Demetrius, in which, flute was now become a favorite instrument, and when the serpents of the Gorgon were struck, Stanesby's ingenuity failed of its effect. One they resounded like a lute. She is said by Hy- great objection, indeed, lies against this instruginus to have found herself laughed at by Juno ment, which, however, equally affects all perfoand Venus, whenever she played the flute in their rated pipes ; namely, that they are never perfectly presence; and on examining herself in a foun- in tune, or cannot be made to play all their notes tain, which served as a mirror, was convinced with equal exactness. that she had been justly derided for the distor- Flutes have a compass of nineteen diatonic tion of her countenance, occasioned by swelling intervals, viz. from D, first space below the treher cheeks in the act of blowing the flute. How- ble clef, to A-sharp (or B-flat), the octave abore ever, a cause more worthy of her wisdom is as- the first ledger line, including every chromatic signed for her throwing aside the flute, upon interval; but, generally, only to the second ocseeing Apollo perform on the lyre; for, by hav- tave above the second line, treble clef. ing his mouth at liberty, she found that it enabled FLUTE, GERMAN, an instrument entirely difhim to sing during the time he played. The ferent from the common flute. It is not, like performer upon the ancient flutes played always that, put into the mouth to be played ; but the upon two at the same time, and placed round his end is stopped with a tompion or plug, and the mouth a species of bandage, tied behind the lower lip is applied to a hole about two inches heal, in order that the cheeks might not pro- and a half or three inches distant from the end. trude, and for the better management of the This instrument is usually about a foot and a half breath. The right flute had only two holes, and long; rather bigger at the upper end than the produced low sounds; the left had several holes, lower; and perforated with holes, besides that and produced higher sounds. When the musi- for the mouth, the lowest of which is stopped cians performed, upon these two flutes of differ- and opened by the little finger's pressing on a ent sounds, it was said the piece was performed brass or sometimes a silver key, like those in * tibiis imparibus' or .tibiis dextris et sinis- hautboys, bassoons, &c. Its sound is exceedingly tris.' When they performed upon two flutes of sweet and agreeable; and serves as a treble in a the same sound it was said, that the piece was concert. performed .tibiis paribus dextris,' if upon those F LUTE, or Fluit, from flotte, a little boat, of grave sounds; and · tibiis parihus sinistris’ if is a kind of long vessel with flat ribs or floorupon high-sounding flutes.
timbers, round behind, and swelled in the midThe present flute was originally called the flute à dle; serving chiefly for the carrying of provisions bec, or beaked fute, from the reed resembling in fleets or squadrons of ships; though it is often the mouth of a bird. This instrument, at the be- used in merchandise. ginning of the last century, till the works of Co- Flutes, or FLUTINGS, in architecture, are perrelli came over, was in far more general use as pendicular cavities cut along the shaft of a coa concert instrument than the violin. Sonatas Iumn or pilaster. They are supposed to have for two flutes, and a thorough base, violone or been first introduced in imitation of the plaits of theorbo, were innumerable: with solos, duets, women's robes; and are therefore called by the and concertos for the same instrument; nor was Latins striges and rugæ. The French call them there a ballad then printed which was not trans- cannelures, as being excavations; and we, flutes posed for the flute at the bottom of the page. or flutings, as bearing some resemblance to the The concert flutes for which this music was com- musical flute. They are chiefly affected in the posed were generally F and C. Besides the Ionic order, in which they had their first rise ; true concert Aute, others of a less size were soon though they are also used in all the richer orintroduced into concerts of violins; in which ders, as the Corinthian and Composite; but case the method was to write the flute part in a rarely in the Doric, and scarcely ever in the key correspondent to its pitch. This practice Tuscan. was introduced in 1710, by one Woodcock, a FLUTTER, v. n., v.a.&n. s. Sax. slote rani celebrated performer, and William Babell, organ- Fr. flotter; Belg. flodderon. Is a frequentative of fly, and signifies to take short flights with Fluvanna, a river of Virginia, which rises in great agitation of the wings. The noun is used the Blue Mountains, and runs into the Rivanna to express vibration; undulation; quick and at Columbia, to form James River. irregular motion ; hurry; tumult; confusion; FLUVIA, a river of Spain in Catalonia, which irreular position; disorder of mind. The verb, runs into the Mediterranean at Ampurias. On in addition to these applications, signifies to the 14th June, 1795, there was an engagement move with great show and bustle; to move irre- on its banks, between the French under general gularly; to be in a state of uncertainty. Flut- Scherer, and the Spaniards under general Urtering, agitating between hope and fear. To ratia, wherein the latter were defeated, with the drive in disorder like a flock of birds sud- loss of above 600 men, though they displayed denly roused.
the utmost bravery, and crossed the river up to As an eagle stirreth up her nest, futtereth over the waist in water, to attack the French, who her young, and spreadeth abroad her wings, so the lost only eighty-five men. Lord alone did lead him.
Deut. FLUVIATIC, adj. Lat. flluviaticus. BelongAnd there withall astonce at him let fly ing to rivers. Their fluttering arrowes, thicke as flakes of snow. FLUX, n. s., adj. & v. a.) Lat. flurus ; Fr. Spenser. Faerie Queene. FLUXIL'ITY, n. s.
flux. The act of Like an eagle in a dovecoat, I
flowing; the state of Fluttered your Volscians in Corioli.
passing away ; any flow or issue of matter. Con
course; confluence ; the state of being melted. One that gladly will be nigh,
Fluxion is frequently used as a synonyme of To wait upon each morning sigh;
flux; in mathematics it is defined by Harris, To flutter in the balmy air
• The arithmetic or analysis of infinitely small Of your well perfumed prayer. Crashaw. variable quantities; or the method of finding The heavenly city very few have a just notion of, or an infinitely small quantity, which, being taken are at pains to seek after; nay, they know not what an infinite number of times, becomes equal to a it is they are seeking; they flutter from one object quantity given :' as an adjective, flux signifies to another, and live at hazard; they have no cer- inconstant; not durable; maintained by a contain harbour in view, nor direct their course by any stant succession of parts. Fluxility, capability; fixed star.
possibility, or tendency to liquefaction. They fed, and, fluttering, by degrees withdrew.
Left and abandoned of his velvet friends; It is impossible that men should certainly dis
'Tis right, quoth he; thus misery doth part cover the agreement or discernment of ideas, whilst
The flux of company. Shakspeare. As You Like It. their thoughts flutter about, or stick only in sounds The simple and primary motion of fire is flur, in of doubtful signification.
Locke. a direct line from the centre of the fuel to its cirAn infinite number of motions are to be made use cumference.
Digby. of in the flutter of a fan : there is the angry flutter, Whether the heat of the sun in animals whose the modest flutter, and the timorous flutter.
parts are successive, and in a continual flux, can
Addison's Spectator. produce a deep and perfect gloss of blackness. Esteem we these, my friends! event and chance,
Browne's Vulgar Errours. Produced by atoms from their fluttering dance !
Experiments seem to teach, that the supposed aver. Prior.
sation of nature to a vacuum is but accidental, or in Then (lest some sentry fowl the fraud descry.
consequence, partly of the weight and fuidity, or at And bid his fellows from the danger fly)
least fuzility of the bodies here below. Boyle. Close to the ground in expectation lies
What the stated rate of interest should be, in the Till in the share the fluttering covey rise.
constant change of affairs, and flux of money, is hard Gay's Rural Sports. to determine.
Locke. Ye spirits ! to your charge repair ;
Quinces stop flures of blood. Arbuthnot. The fluttering fan be Zephyretta's care. Pope. By the perpetual flux of the liquids, a great part of No rag, no scrap of all the beau or wit,
them is thrown out of the body.
Id. That once so fluttered, and that once so writ. Id. The furion increased, and abscesses were raised. His thoughts are very fluttering and wandering, and
Wiseman. cannot be fixed attentively to a few ideas successively. A penetration into the abstruse difficulties and
depths of modern algebra and flurions, is not worth Fair crews triumphant, leaning from above,
the labour of those who design the learned professions Shall wave their fluttering kerchiefs as they move. as the business of life.
Eat eastern spice, secure
From burning fluxes and hot calenture. Halifar. With fluttering doubts if all be well or ill
Flux, in hydrography, a regular periodical With love for many and with fears for some ;
motion of the sea, happening twice in twentyAll feelings which o'erleap the years long lost, four bours; wherein the water is raised and And bring our hearts back to their starting-post. driven violently against the shores. The flux or
Byron. Don Juan. flow is one of the motions of the tide; the other, FLUVANNA, a county of Virginia, bounded whereby the water sinks and retires, is called the north by Albemarle, north-east by Louisa, east reflux or ebb. See Tide. by Goochland, west by Amherst, and south by Flux, in medicine, an extraordinary evacuaJames River, which divides it from Buckingham. tion of some humor. Fluxes are variously deIt is twenty-two miles long, and thirty broad, nominated according to their seats and the buand contains about 5000 inhabitants. Columbia mors voided ; as a flux of the belly, uterine is the chief town.
flux, hepatic flux, salival Aux, &c. The flux of the belly is of two kinds, viz. the diarrhæa, and lutely of the same nature. As the proportion of the dysentery, or bloody flux. See MEDICINE. nitre in this mixture is more than is sufficient to
Flux, in metallurgy, is sometimes used syno- consume entirely all the infiammable matter of nymously with fusion. An ore is said to be in the tartar, the alkali remaining after the detona. liquid flux, when it is completely fused. But tion is perfectly white, and is therefore called the word is most generally used to signify cer- white flux: and, as this alkali is made very tain saline matters, which facilitate the fusion of quickly, it is also called extemporaneous alkali. ores, and other substances, which are difficultly When a small quantity only of white flux is fusible in assays and reductions of ores. Fixed made, some nitre always remains undecomposed, alkalies, nitre, borax, tartar, and common salt, and a little of the inflammable principle of the are the saline matters of which fluxes are gene tartar, which gives a red or even a black color rally composed. The word is more particularly to some part of the flux; but this does not hapapplied to mixtures of different proportions of pen when a large quantity of white flux is made; only nitre and tartar; and these fluxes are called because then the beat is much greater. This by particular names, according to the propor- small quantity of undecomposed nitre and tartar tions of these ingredients. Black flux is pro- which remains in white flux is not hurtful in duced from the mixture of two parts of tartar most of the metallic fusions in which this flux is and one part of nitre detonated together. As employed : but if the flux be required perfectly the quantity of nitre which enters into the com- pure, it may easily be disengaged from those erposition of this flux is not sufficient to consume traneous matters by a long and strong calcination, all the inflammable matter of the tartar, the al- without fusion. kali which remains after the detonation contains FLUXES FOR ASSAYING MINERALS. Under much black matter, of the nature of coal, and is the article Blow-Pipe, we have described the therefore called black flux. This flux is so pre- method of vitrifying any small portion of minepared, that it shall contain a certain quantity of ral substance, by which the process of assaying inflammable matter; for it is thereby capable, may be very quickly performed. The fluxes renot only of facilitating the fusion of metallic commended by Sir T. Bergman, for this purpose, earths like the white flux, but also of reviving are the following: 1. The phosphoric acid, or these metals. From this property it is also called rather the microcosmic salt, which contains that reducing flux; the black Hux, therefore, or crude acid partly saturated with mineral, partly with flux, made with such proportions of the ingre- volatile alkali, and loaded besides with much dients as to be convertible into black flux, ought water and a gelatinous fat. This salt, when exalways to be used when metallic matters are at posed to the Aame, boils and foams violently, once to be fused and reduced, or even when de- with a continual crackling noise, until the water structive metals are to be fused.
and volatile alkali have flown off; afterwards it The advantage of M. Morveau's reducing is less agitated, sending forth something like flux, seems to depend on its containing no ex- black scoriæ arising from the burnt gelatinous cess of alkali. It is made of eight parts of pal- part: these, however, are soon dispelled, and verised glass, one of calcined borax, and half a exhihit a pellucid sphericle encompassed by a part of powder of charcoal. Care must be taken beautiful green cloud, which is occasioned by to use a glass which contains no lead. The the deflagration of the phosphorus, arising from white glasses contain in general a large propor- the extrication of the acid by the inflammable tion, and the green bottle glasses are not perhaps matter. The clear globule which remains, upon entirely free from it.
the removal of the flame, continues longer soft Flux, Crude, is the mixture of nitre and than that formed by borax; and therefore is tartar in any proportions, without detonation, more fit for the addition of the matter to be disThus the mixture of equal parts of the two salts solved. The volatile alkali is expelled by the used in the preparation of the white flux, or the fire; therefore an excess of acid remains in what mixture of one part of nitre and two parts of is left behind, which readily attracts moisture in tartar for the preparation of the black flux, a cool place. 2. The mineral alkali, or sal soda, are each of them a crude flux before detonation. when put upon charcoal, melts superficially, peIt has also been called white flux, from its color; netrates the charcoal with a crackling noise, and but the name of crude flux is more conve- then disappears. In the spoon it yields a pernient. Crude flux is detonated and alkalised manent and pellucid sphericle, as long as it is during the reductions and fusions in which it is kept fluid by the blue apex of the flame; but, employed; and is then changed into white or when the heat is diminished, it becomes opaque, black flux, according to the proportions of which and assumes a milky color. It attacks several it is composed. This detonation produces good earthy matters, particularly those of the silicious effects in these fusions and reductions, if the kind, but cannot be employed on charcoal. 3. swelling and extravasation of the detonating Crystallised borax, exposed to the flame urged matters be guarded against. Accordingly crude by the blow-pipe or charcoal, first becomes flux may be employed successfully in many ope- opaque, white, and excessively swelled, with rarations; as, in that for procuring the regulus of rious protuberances, or branches proceeding out antimony.
froin it. When the water is expelled, it easily Flux, White, is made with equal parts of collects itself into a mass, which, when well nitre and of tartar detonated together, by which fused, yields a transparent sphericle, retainiog they are alkalised. The residuum of this deto- its transparency even after cooling. If calcined nation is an alkali composed of the alkalies of the borax be employed, the clear spbericle is cbnitre and of the tartar, both which are absu- tained the sooner. See METALLURGY.
Sect. I.-HISTORY OF THE METHOD OF he was obliged to declare Newton the first in. FLUXIONS.
ventor of the new calculus; and that he left 1. The doctrine of fiurions, by many degrees others the task of determining whether Leibnitz the inost important discovery that has been made the second inventor had borrowed from the in abstract science in modern tiines, coinpre- English mathematician. hends the analysis of quantities considered as 5. Leibnitz, hurt at the remark and the insinuvariable. It consists of two principal branches, ation couveyed in it, answered, however, with the first of which shows how the relation may be great moderation; that he could not believe that found between the variation in any quantity and M. Facio's remark was made with Newton's apthe variation of any function of that quantity; probation; and that he would not enter into any and the second shows how, from the variation in dispute with that great man for whom he had the the function, the quantity on which the function ruost profound veneration. That when he pubdepends may be discovered. The former of lished his differential calculus, in 1684, he had these is by English mathematicians called the been master of it about eight years. He addirect, and the latter the inverse method of mitted that Newton informed him, about the fluxions, but by foreigners they have been ge- same time, of his knowing how to draw tannerally denominated the differential, and the in- gents by a general method which was not imtegral calculus.
peded by irrational quantities; but, as the 2. It is agreed on all hands that either to Sir information was unaccompanied by any explaIsaac Newton, or M. Leibnitz, the honor of dis- nation, he could not know whether this method covering this admirable method of investigation was or was not deduced from the differential belongs. But whether they separately made the calculus; especially as Huygens, who was at discovery, or Leibnitz took advantage of some that time unacquainted with this calculus, afhints which he might have had from a common firmed himself to be in possession of a method friend of Newton and himself, and published as of drawing tangents which possessed the same his own what he thus obtained, has never been advantages. That the first English work in satisfactorily determined. Certain it is that the which he had seen the differential calculus exmethod came from the hand of Leibnitz both in plained was in the preface to Wallis's Algebra, its form and metaphysics, in a shape exceedingly not published till 1693; and that, relying on ali different from the manner in which it was ex- circumstances, he appealed entirely to the candor plained by Newton; and experience has shown of Newton. that the Leibnitzian form of the calculus is much 6. Writings succeeded each other at first but better adapted to the higher class of investiga- slowly; but, as the partizans of each grew more tions than that of Newton.
zealous and positive, the controversy grew hotter, 3. M. Leibnitz unquestionably was the first per- till at length, in 1711, M. Leibnitz complained son that laid the principles of the method before loudly to the Royal Society, of the conduct of the public. This he did in the Leipsic acts of Dr. Keil, who had accused him of having pub1684; where he gave precepts, but without de- lished the method of fluxions invented by Newmonstrations, for performing some elementary ope- ton as his own, merely disguising his piracy by rations in the method; and there can be no doubt devising other names and characters. The that, long before that period, he was intimately Royal Society accordingly appointed a comacquainted with its principles.
mittee to examine all the writings relative to the 4. But though Leibnitz was the first that pub- question, and in 1712 published these writings lished any thing on the subject, there can be with the report of the committee under the title little doubt that Newton had first made the dis- of Commercium epistolicum de Analysi procovery; for he had made use of it prior to 1669 nota. The conclusion of the report is, that in his Compendium of Analysis and Quadrature Keil had not calumniated Leibnitz. It has been of Curves; and there are traces of this method said that in this business Newton did not apin matters which must have engaged his atten- pear, but left the care of his reputation to his tion three or four years before that period. In countrymen; but this is a mistake, for in the 1687 his Principia appeared; the most stupendous course of the dispute Newton wrote two very achievement of human intellect that the world sharp letters against Leibnitz, in which there is has ever seen, a work entirely founded on the evidently some art employed to weaken those fluxionary calculus. Till about 1699, it ap- strong testimonies of esteem which on previous peared to be generally taken for granted that occasions he had expressed for him, particularly in Newton and Leibnitz had separately and inde- the celebrated scholia to prop. 7. book 2, of the pendently made the discovery ; but about this pe- Principia, in which Newton says, “In a correriod Nicholas Facio de Duillier, a Genoese, re- spondence in which I was engaged with the very tired to England, and, it has been said, learned geometrician Mr. Leibnitz ten years ago, conceiving that he had been undervalued by having informed him that I was acquainted with Leibnitz, published a little tract on the curve of a method of determining the marima and minima, swiftest descent; and he took occasion to say, drawing tangents, and doing other similar things that, for the sake of truth and his own conscience, which succeeded equally in rational equations