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F. The letter (Saxon f) is evidently derived inent of Custom-houses; on the Effects of the from the Greek digamma, through the medium of Free Traffic of Raw Material; on Rewards for the Latin language. Some contend that this is the Encouragement of Trade; on the Chemical derived from the , phi, by first making the per- Action of Metals; on the Value and Reciprocal pendicular stroke, and, in adding the circle at Proportion of Coins; on the Scales and Steeltwo strokes, carelessly omitting to make them yards of the Chinese; on the Palaces of Spain; join. This, however, the learned bishop of Salis- and on the ancient Hebrew People. He left bury disputes. He says it was anciently called behind him many unpublished memoirs. He vau, or wau, and is in fact a double vau of the died at Florence in 1823, aged upwards of Hebrew and Syriac, and corresponding in shape seventy. with the vau of the Arabic and Ethiopic. Ains- FABELL (Peter), a reputed magician, and worth, however, derives it from the Hebrew a native of Edmonton, lived and died there in the phe, or a, pe final, which, if turned, nearly gives reign of Henry VII. In Norden's account of the figure; and he observes, that in changing

Edmonton, we read, “There is a fable of one

Peter Fabell, that lieth in this church, who is Hebrew words into Latin, 7 is converted into F.

said to have beguiled the devell by policie for Its sound, in English, is very uniform, being

money; but the devell is deceit itself. Weever formed by compression of the lips, or a junction supposes Fabell to have been an ingenious man, of the upper teeth with the under lip, and a who amused himself and astonished his neighforcible breath. In the preposition of, indeed, and bours by sleight-of-hand tricks, or chemical exon some few other occasions, it is pronounced periments. There is a very scarce pamphlet, softer, or like v.

entitled — The Life and Death of the Merry As an abbreviation, F, in physical prescrip- Devil of Edmonton: with the pleasant Prank's tions, stands for fiat, i. e. Let it be done, or made of Smug the Smith, &c.' In this book Fabell is up.' Thus f. s. a. signifies fiat secundum artem. styled an excellent scholar, and well seene in F, in the civil law, doubled thus, ff, signifies the the arte of magicke. pandects. See PANDECTS. F, in the criminal FABER (Basil), a protestant German critic of law, was a stigma put upon felons with a hot the sixteenth cent

of the sixteenth century, was born at Sorau in Luiron, on their being admitted to the benefit of

pent of satia, and, after studying at Wittemberg and clergy ; by stat. 4 Hen. VII. C. 13. F, as a other universities. was about 1550 appointed numeral, anciently signified 40, and when a rector of the seminary of Nordhausen. He died dash was added at top (thus ), it stood for rector of the Augustinian College at Erfurth in 40,000.

1576. He was one of the protestant ecclesiasFAABORG, a sea-port town of Denmark, on tical historians, termed the Centuriators of Magthe south coast of the island of Funen. It has deburgh. Faber's literary reputation is founded but an insecure harbour; and its trade, which is on his Thesaurus Eruditionis Scholasticæ, 1571, in provisions, is not considerable. Population folio, of which improved editions were published about 1100. It is seventeen miles south of in 1735 and 1749. Oldensee.

FABER (John), a German divine, born at FABBRONI (Giovanni), a modern Italian Heilbron in 1500. He was created doctor at philosopher of considerable eminence. We find Cologne, and in 1526 was appointed confessor him filling the various posts of secretary to the to Ferdinand king of the Romans, who, when Academia de i Georgofili, director of the Museum he became emperor, gave him the see of Vienna. and Cabinet of Natural History at Florence, one He was called the mallet of heretics, and owed of the forty members of the Societa Italiana his preferment to the zeal which he displayed in delle Scienze, Tuscan deputy for the new system opposition to Luther. He died in 1562. His of weights and measures, member of the depu- works were printed at Cologne, in 3 vols. folio. tation of finance under the government of the FABER, in ichthyology. See ZEUS. queen regent of Etruria, a deputy to the corps FABIAN, or FABYAN (Robert), an alderman legislative in France, director, under the Impe- and sheriff of London at the close of the fifteenth rial government, of bridges and highways for the century, was a man of learning, and author of a departinent beyond the Alps, director of the Chronicle of England and France, entitled the mint at Florence, royal commissary of the iron Concordance of Histories, in 2 vols. folio, beworks and mines, and one of the commissioners ginning with Brute, and ending with the 20th of of taxes for the states of Tuscany. His writings Henry VII. 1504. He was a member of the best known are-Provedimenti Annonarj; his company of drapers, and resigned his gown in Discourses on National Prosperity; on the 1502 to avoid serving the office of lord mayor. Equilibrium of Commerce, and the Establish- Dying in 1511, or 1512, he was interred in the

Vol. IX.- Part 1

church of St. Michael, Cornhill. His Chronicle by his enemies at home, to share the dictatorial is a mere compilation, but it contains several dignity. When he had laid down his office of curious particulars relative to the city of Lon- dictator, his successors, for a while, followed his don, not elsewhere to be found. Stowe calls it plan; but the rashness of Varro, and his con“a painful labor, to the great honor of the city tempt for the operations of Fabius, occasioned and of the whole realm. Cardinal Wolsey the fatal battle of Cannæ. Tarentum was obliged caused as many copies of it as he could procure to surrender to him after the battle of Cannæ ; to be burned, because the author had made too and on that occasion the Carthaginians observed, clear a discovery of the large revenues of the that Fabius was the Hannibal of Rome. When clergy. It is Fabian's general practice at the he had made an agreement with Hannibal for the division of the books to insert metrical prologues ransom of the captives, which was totally disapand other pieces, in verse. The best of his proved by the Roman senate, he sold all his metres is the complaint of King Edward the estates to pay the money, rather than forfeit his Second, who is introduced reciting his misfor- word to the enemy. The bold proposals of tunes; but this, in fact, is only a translation of young Scipio, to carry the war from Italy to an indifferent Latin poem ascribed to that mo- Africa, were rejected by Fabius as chimerical narch, and probably written by William of Wor- and dangerous. He did not, however, live to cester. In the first edition of Fabian's Chro- see the success of the Roman arms under Scipio, nicle (printed in 1516) he has given, as epilogues and the conquest of Carthage by measures which to his seven books, The Seven Joys of the he treated with contempt, and heard with indigBlessed Virgin, in English Rime: and under nation. He died in the 100th year of his age, the year 1325 there is a poem to the Virgin; after he had been five times consul, and twice and another on one Badby, a Lollard, under the honored with a triumph. The Romans were so year 1409. These are suppressed in the later sensible of his great merit and services, that the editions. In his panegyric upon London, he expenses of his funeral were defrayed from the despairs of doing justice to his theme, even if public treasury. he had the eloquence of Tully, the morality of Fabius MaximUS (Quintus), son of the preSeneca, and the harmony of that faire ladie, ceding, showed himself worthy of his father's Calliope.' Fabian's History was reprinted in virtues. During his consulship he received a 1811, 4to.

visit from his father on horseback in the camp. FABIUS, the surname of a powerful patrician The son ordered the father to dismount; and the family at Rome, said to have derived their name old man cheerfully obeyed, embracing his son, from faba, a bean, because some of their ances- and saying, “I wished to convince myself whether tors cultivated this pulse. They were once so you knew what it is to be consul.' He died before numerous that they took upon themselves to his father, who, with the moderation of a philowage a war against the Veientes. They came to sopher, delivered a funeral oration over his son's a general engagement near the Cremera, in which body. all the family, consisting of 306 men, were slain, Fabius MAXIMUS RULLIANUS was the first of A. U.C. 277. There only remained one boy, the Fabii who obtained the surname of Maximus, whose tender age had detained him at Rome, for lessening the power of the populace at elecand from him descended the noble Fabii of the tions. He was master of horse, and his victory following ages. Ovid celebrates the above trans over the Samnites in that capacity nearly cost action in those lines beginning,

him his life, as he engaged the enemy without Una domus vires et onus susceperat urbis,

the command of the dictator. He was five times Sumunt gentileś arma professa manus.

consul, twice dictator, and once censor. He Fasti. lib. ii. 18

triumphed over seven different nations. Fabius MAXIMUS (Quintus), a celebrated

FA'BLE, n. S., v. a. & v. n.) Fr. fable ; Ital. Roman, who from a dull and inactive childhood

FA'Bled, part. adj. favola; Span. and

FA'BLER, N. S. was raised to the highest offices of the state. In

Lat. fabula, from

FABULIST, his first consulship he obtained a victory over

(for,fari, to speak; FABULO'SITY,

(Gr. paw. Liguria, and the fatal battle of Thrasymenes oc


FAB'Ulous, adj. casioned his election to the dictatorship. In this

FAB'ULOUSLY, adv. important office he began to oppose Hannibal,

pifies vanity, and

FAB'ULOUSNESS, n. s. not by fighting him in the open field, like his

J is considered, by predecessors, but by continually harassing his

Minsheu, as the root of the Latin. A fictitious army by countermarches and ambuscades, from

story : fiction, generally, see below: a lie. The which he received the surname of Cunctator, or verb neuter (derived from the noun) signifies to the Delayer. Hannibal sent him word, that'" If feign ; write, or tell falsehoods : as an active verb, he was as great a captain as he would be thought, to tell a thing falsely: fabled is feigned ; and a he ought to come into the plain and give him fabulist is one celebrated in fables: a fabler, he battle.' But Fabius coldly replied, “That if he who composes the specific fictions called fables, (Hannibal) was as great a captain as he would or who deals in fiction or falsehood generally. be thought, he would do well to force him to Fabulosity means abundance of fiction; fabulous battle.' Such operations in the commander of invention, or faculty; in which latter sense it is the Roman armies gave offence to several: and synonymous with fabulousness : fabulous is full Fabius was even accused of cowardice. He, of fables ; feigned; invented. however, continued firm in his resolution; and But refuse profane and old wives' fables. patiently bore to see his master of horse raised,

1 Tim. iv. 7.

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He fables not: I hear the enemy.

the oldest extant: perhaps that of Nathan is Shakspeare. Henry VI. superior to it in close painting and affecting reIn their fabulosity they report, that they had obser- presentation. We find Æsop delivering fables vations for twenty thousand years.

in the most distant ages of Greece; and, in the Abbot's Description of the World.

early days of the Roman commonwealth, we We mean to win, Or turn this heaven itself into the hell

read of a mutiny appeased by the timely delivery Thou fablest. Milton's Paradise Lost.

of the fable of the belly and the members. Ladies of the Hesperides, they seemed

The earliest collection of fables extant is of Fairer than feigned of old, or fabled since

eastern origin, and preserved in the Sanscrit Of fairy damsels met in forest wide,

language. It is called Hitopadesa, and the auBy knights.

Id. thor Veshnoo Sarma; but they are known in There are many things fabulously delivered, and are Europe by The Tales and Fables of Bidpay, or not to be accepted as truths.

Pilpay, an ancient Indian philosopher. Of this Browne's Vulgar Errours. collection Sir William Jones takes the following Triptolemus, so sung the nine,

notice :- The Fables of Veshnoo Sarma, whom Strewed plenty from his cart divine;

we ridiculously call Pilpay, are the most beautiBut, spite of all those fable-makers,

ful, if not the most ancient, collection of apoHe never sowed on Almaign acres. Dryden. The moral is the first business of the poet: this

logues in the world. They were first translated being formed, he contrives such a design or fable as

from the Sanscreet, in the sixth century, by may be most suitable to the moral. Id. Dufresnoy. Buzerchumihi, or bright as the sun, the chief

It would look like a fable to report that this gen. physician, and afterwards the vizier of the great tleman gives away a great fortune by secret methods. Anushirwan; and are extant under various names,

Addison. in more than twenty languages. But their origiA person terrihed with the imagination of spectres, nal title is Hitopadesa, or amicable instruction : is more reasonable than one who thinks the appear- and as the very existence of Æsop, whom the ance of spirits fabrulous and groundless.

Id. Arabs believe to have been an Abyssinian, apJotham's fable of the trees is the oldest extant, and

pears rather doubtful, I am not disinclined to as beautiful as any made since. Id. Spectator. The first thing to be considered in an epick poem is

suppose that the first moral fables which appeared

in Europe were of Indian or Ethiopian origin.' the fable, which is perfect or imperfect, according as


Id. the action, which it relates, is more or less so.

Mr. Frazer, at the end of his History of Nadir That Saturn's sons received the three-fold reign Shah, gives us the following account of this curious Of heaven, of ocean, and deep hell beneath,

work : The ancient Brahmins of India, after a Old poets mention, fabling.

Prior. good deal of time and labor, compiled a treatise Quitting Æsop and the fabulists, he copies Boccace. (which they called Kurtuk Dumnik), in which

Croxal. were inserted the choicest treasures of wisdom, Palladius coming to die somewhere in the north and the most perfect rules for governing a people. part of Britain, may seem to give some kind of coun. This book they presented to their rajahs, who tenance to those fables that make him to have lived kept it with the greatest secrecy and care. About many years among the Scots.

Lloyd. the time of Mahomet's birth, or the latter end of Hail, fabled grotto! hail, Elysian soil!

the sixth century, Noishervan the Just, who then Thou fairest spot of fair Britannia's isle!


. reigned in Persia, discovered a great inclination Our bard's a fabulist, and deals in fiction.

to see that book; for which purpose Burzuvia, a

Garrick. physician, who had a surprising talent in learning The style of Boethius, though, perhaps, not always several languages, particularly Sanskerritt, was inrigorously pure, is formed with great diligence upon troduced to him as the most proper person to be ancient models, and wholly uninfected with monastic employed to get a copy of it. He went to India, barbarity. His history is written with elegance and where, after some years' stay, and great trouble, vigour, but his fabulousness and credulity are justly he procured it. It was translated into the Pehblamed.

Johnson. luvi (the ancient Persian language) by him and The first ages of the Scottish History are dark and Buzrjumebr, the vizier. Noishervan, ever after. fabulous. Robertson's History of Scotland.

and all his successors, the Persian kings, had this Fabulous narrative has accordingly been common

book in high esteem, and took the greatest care in all ages of the world, and practised by teachers of the most respectable character. It is owing, no

to keep it secret. At last Abu Jaffer Munsour zu doubt, to the weakness of human nature, that fable Nikky, who was the second caliph of the Abassi should ever have been found a necessary, or a con- reign, by great search, got a copy of it in the venient, vehicle for truth.

Beattie. Pehluvi language, and ordered Imâm Hassan Believing every hillock green

Abdal Mokaffa, who was the most learned of the Contains no fabled hero's ashes,

age, to translate it into Arabic. This prince ever And that around the undoubted scene

after made it his guide, not only in affairs relating Thine own broad Hellespont' still dashes, to the government, but also in private life. In Be long my lot! and cold were he

the year 380 of the Hegira, sultan Mahmud Who there could gaze denying thee! Byron. Ghazi put it into verse : and afterwards, in the Fable is generally esteemed the most ancient year 515, by order of Bheram Shah ben Massaud, species of wit; and has continued to be highly that which Abdal Mokaffa had translated, was valued, not only in times of the greatest simpli- re-translated into Persic by Abdul Mala Nasser city, but in the most polite ages of the world. Allah Mustofi; and this is that Kulila Dumna, Nathan's fable of the poor man (2 Sam. xii. 6) is which is now extant. As this latter had too next in antiquity to Jotham's, and which, as many Arabic verses and obsolete phrases in it, Addison (see the foregoing extracts) observes, is Molana Ali ben Hassein Vaes, at the request of

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