Yeast Biotechnology: Diversity and Applications
I belie ve that the book would provide an overview of the recent developments in the domain of yeast research with some new ideas, which could serve as an inspiration and challenge for researchers in this field. Ne w Delhi Prof. Asis Datta Dec. 24, 2007 F ormer Vice-chancellor, JNU Director, NCPGR (New Delhi) Pr eface Yeasts are eukaryotic unicellular microfungi that are widely distributed in the natural environments. Although yeasts are not as ubiquitous as bacteria in the na- ral environments, they have been isolated from terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments. Yeast communities have been found in association with plants, a- mals and insects. Several species of yeasts have also been isolated from specialized or extreme environments like those with low water potential (e. g. high sugar/salt concentrations), low temperature (e. g. yeasts isolated from Antarctica), and low oxygen availability (e. g. intestinal tracts of animals). Around 1500 species of yeasts belonging to over 100 genera have been described so far. It is estimated that only 1% of the extant yeasts on earth have been described till date. Therefore, global efforts are underway to recover new yeast species from a variety of normal and extreme environments. Yeasts play an important role in food chains, and carbon, nitrogen and sulphur cycles. Yeasts can be genetically manipulated by hybridization, mutation, rare m- ing, cytoduction, spheroplast fusion, single chromosomal transfer and transfor- tion using recombinant technology. Yeasts (e. g.
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acid phosphatase activity adeninivorans alcohol amino acid amylase Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Appl assimilation bacteria basidiomycetous basidiomycetous yeasts Biochem bioethanol Biol biological biomass Biotechnol Biotechnology Candida carbon source cell wall cellulose Chem compounds concentration Cryptococcus culture Debaryomyces degradation encoding Environ enzymes ethanol production eukaryotic extracellular famata FEMS Yeast Res fermentation fermented foods Food Microbiol fungi Gaillardin Gellissen genetic genome glucoamylase glucose glutathione growth guilliermondii hansenii Hansenula hemicellulose heterologous hydrolysis increase industrial isolated Kluyveromyces Kunze Kurtzman lactis Lett levels lignocellulosic lipolytica marker medium microbial microorganisms Middelhoven molecular mutants neoformans nitrate nitrile metabolizing nitrogen organisms pastoris pathogenic pathway phytase Pichia plasmid polymorpha pombe promoter proteins proteome rDNA recombinant Rhodotorula riboflavin Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomycopsis selection sequence Sibirny spheroplast starch studies substrate subunit sugar synthesis Technol temperature tion transcription transformation vectors Wartmann xylitol xylose yeast cells yeast species yeast strains zinc