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Newton's advances in the path of light and vision, may be ranked among the greatest acquisitions of human knowledge. Hence, what discoveries by the telescope; and what wonders by the microscope! nor let us forget that these discoveries received their birth from the exertion of the mental faculties. But yet the natural eyes of an insignificant insect, can probably seize hold on objects that escape the sight of man: the eyes of many appear to be cut into a multitude of little planes or facets, like the facets of a diamond, having, to the naked eye, the appearance of net-work: each of these small facets is supposed to possess the powers and properties of an eye. Lewen. hoek counted 3181 of these facets in the, cornea of a beetle, and 8000 in those of a horse-fly! but the eyes of insects are immoveable. These multiplied eyes, therefore, enable them to view surrounding objects:-such numerous inlets to sight also, may increase their field of view, augment the intensity of the light, and be productive of other advantages, of which we have no conception.*

"It is an exquisite pleasure thus to see the Creator of heaven and earth constantly working in all the parts of nature, and nature itself daily renewed by creating power. These are not the productions of mechanism and dead matter. The will of the Divine Being is incessantly operating in restoring the succession of creatures; that same will, or power, and wisdom, which made the first of every species. In inquiring into the scheme of existence, as far as our intellects can reach; in admiring the variety of the contrivances, and the exactness of the execution, we may apply all that we know of geometry and calculation, till our little knowledge is lost amidst innumerable and incomprehensible diversities. The higher we rise, and the deeper we descend, into the scale of animated nature, the more beautiful are our views, and the more extensive is our prospect; each species is continued. The individuals were not indeed created lasting, like the sun


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and planets, and the other great bodies of the universe, but the species is evidently designed to be as durable. Thus, as in the renewing of the year, when fruits, and herbs, and flowers are decayed and perished, they are continually succeeded by new productions; and this governing power of the deity is only his creating power constantly repeated; so it is with respect to the races of animated beings. What an amazing structure of parts, fitted to strain the various particles that are imbibed; which can admit and percolate molecules of such various figures and sizes! Out of the same common earth what variety of beings; a variety of which no human capacity can venture the calculation; and each differing from the rest in taste, colour, smell, and every other property! what is still more wonderful, how powerful must that art be, which makes the flesh of the various species of animals differ in all sensible qualities, and yet be formed by the separation of parts of the same common food! In all this, is the Creator every where present, and every where active : it is he who clothes the fields with green, and raises the trees of the forest; who brings up the lowing herds and bleating flocks; who guides the fish of the sea, and wings the inhabitants of the air, the meanest insect, and reptile of the earth. He forms their bodies incomparable in their kind, and furnishes them with instincts still more admirable. Here is eternally living force, and omnipotent intelligence and direction.*

"The number and the variety of living creatures, appear to be greater than those of vegetables. A great naturalist at Paris announced some years ago, that he possessed a collection of upwards of 30,000 different species. But, even this, if accurate, was trifling to what does exist upon the face of the globe; all nature seems to be but one mass of animation.† Buffon, indeed, says there are not, in the whole habitable earth, above three hundred species of quadrupeds, even in

* Baxter.

+ Saint Pierre,

cluding forty different species of monkies, and fifteen hundred species of birds; out of which man has selected about twenty which are more useful to him than all the others. But, life is infinite; vitality seems the grand object of creation. The obvious law seems to be, that the sum of the different kinds of organised bodies, shall increase in proportion to the degrees of sensation and animation. Thus the living vegetable world, leaves the unorganised mineral kingdom far behind; while this latter, again, is greatly exceeded by animal nature; which is obviously possessed of higher degrees of sensation. Of the mineral kingdom, not more than five hundred distinct kinds are yet known, if so many. Of the vegetable, not more, perhaps, than twenty-eight thousand; so that the proportion between the mineral and vegetable world, will be as one to fifty-six. It is true, the different species of animals with which we are as yet acquainted, are not supposed to exceed what is above said. But, this family is illimited: no part of the earth's surface, not a single production, not even mineral bodies, a few exceptions being admitted, are inaccessible to animals. Every plant possesses its own peculiar inhabitant; in some, several species are found. The superficies or skin of all animals, not excepting insects and worms, have their own peculiar insect; the intestines afford lodging to various worms, not are any of the viscera totally exempt from them. The semen of animals abounds with them, and myriads are discovered by means of infusions. To these may be added the multitudinous products of the sea, which from not experiencing the same extremes of heat and cold with terrestrial beings, are as prolific under the pole, as under the equator. Land animals, if their situation be too hot or too cold, cannot so immediately change it for one of a more convenient temperature. Their course is interrupted by rivers, mountains, and seas. On the contrary the inhabitants of the ocean can instantly plunge fathoms deeper, if they should find the degree of heat or cold insupportable near the surface; or they can easily migrate from one country to another. The quantity of living sub

stances upon the earth, and under the different zones, is proportioned to the degree of heat connected with that of moisture. The aqueous tribe, on the contrary, is universally disseminated, and hence the land may be looked upon as a mere desert, when compared with the ocean.” *

Vol. iii. p. 287, et seq.



Aut prodesse volunt aut delectare poetæ ;
Aut simul et jucunda et idonea dicere vitæ.

Non satis est pulchra esse poemata; dulcia sunto,
Et quocunque volent, animum auditoris agunto.


Of Poets the chief ends are these:
They study to instruct, or please;
Or, with a mix'd intention, write,
At once to profit and delight.

'Tis not enough your poem shine :
Sweet pathos should with beauty join,
And lead, by all-persuasive skill,
The hearer's mind where'er you will.

THE author of my motto was one of the best critics the world has ever produced; and he has, in the above lines, comprised the three principal qualities of poetry. Its aim, says he, is to afford at once utility and delight, to offer what may be agreeable to the fancy, and also what may conduce to the advantages of human life. He farther adds, it is not enough for a poem to abound in prettynesses, it must also have a sweet access to the heart, and should be able to agitate the soul with what passions it pleases. This description involves all the

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