Black Athena: The archaeological and documentary evidence

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Rutgers University Press, 1987 - 736 Seiten
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This volume is the second in a projected four-part series concerned with the competition between two historical models for the origins of Greek civilization. The model current today is the Aryan Model, according to which Greek culture arose as the result of the conquest from the north by Indo-European speakers or "Aryans" of the native "pre-Hellenes." The Ancient Model, which was the model maintained in Classical Greece, held that the native population of Greece had initially been civilized by Egyptian and Phoenician colonists and that more Near Eastern culture had been introduced to Greece by Greeks studying in Egypt and Southwest Asia. In these and later volumes, Martin Bernal proposes a Revised Ancient Model. According to this, the Indo-European aspects of Greek language and culture should be recognized as fundamental and the considerable non-Indo-European elements should be seen largely as Egyptian and Levantine additions to this basis.

Volume II is concerned with the archaeological and documentary evidence for contacts between Egypt and the Levant on the one hand and the Aegean on the other, during the Bronze Age from c. 3400 B.C. to c. 1100 B.C. These approaches are supplemented by information from later Greek myths, legends, religious cults, and language. The author concludes that contact between the two regions was far more extensive and influential than is generally believed. In the introduction to this volume, Bernal also responds to some reviews and criticisms of Volume I of Black Athena.

Martin Bernal is Professor of Government at Cornell University.

 

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Inhalt

INTRODUCTION
1
Some theoretical considerations 1
11
CRETE BEFORE THE PALACEs 7ooo2 loo BC
63
Cretan religion in the Early Bronze Age
74
EGYPTs INFLUENCE ON Boiotia AND
78
Něit the controller of water
87
Něit Athena and Nephthys Erinys
99
Herakles
106
The worldwide impact of the Thera eruption
317
chaos in Egypt
323
The Hyksos capital at Tell el Dabaa
330
Who were the Hyksos?
336
The Hyksos as a multinational corporation
345
Hyksos material culture
352
Conclusion
358
CRETE THERA AND THE BIRTH of Mycenaean
361

Conclusion
120
Middle Kingdom Egypts military capability
121
The tomb of Amphion and Zéthos
131
Irrigation and settlement in the Argolid
137
Social and political structures in Early Helladic Greece
144
The end of Early Bronze Age high civilization
150
Lead and spirals
157
Cultic symbols in Early Palatial Crete
164
Min and Minos
171
The case against Egyptian influence
177
The survival of the bull cult Cretan conservatism
184
Archaeological evidence for the campaigns
216
Senwosre and Sesústris 194
229
The evidence for Sesústris conquests from
230
Thrace and Scythia
244
Mesopotamia and Iran
257
Other archaeological traces of Old Kingdom Egypt
274
The eruption redated
285
The implications of the redating
288
Membliaros and the pall of darkness
294
The Hekla eruption in Iceland
305
Was there a Hyksos invasion of Crete c 1730 BCP
377
The origins of Mycenaean civilization
395
EGYPTIAN MesopotAMIAN AND LEvantine
409
Documentary evidence for Egyptian relations with
423
Contacts between Egypt and the Aegean in the late
434
Late Mycenaean Greece
447
Mycenaeans and Hittites
460
The Egyptian Thebes and Mycenae 14201370 BC
474
The foundation deposit plaques
477
The decline of Egyptian influence on the Aegean
489
THE HEROIC END To THE HERoic
495
Kadmos and the alphabet
501
The treasure of the Kadmeion
507
The date of the Trojan War
515
Conclusion
521
CoNCLUSION
522
Notes
549
Glossary
635
Bibliography
649
Index
727
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Über den Autor (1987)

Martin Bernal (1937 -2013) was Professor of Government and Near Eastern Studies at Cornell University. The first two volumes of Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization (I: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece, 1785-1985 and II: The Archaeological and Documentary Evidence) have been translated into German, Italian, Spanish, French, Swedish, Greek, and Japanese. Black Athena won the American Book Award in 1990 from the Before Columbus Foundation.