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and in this also he propounded himself imitable by us. For if Innocence itself did suffer fo great Injuries and Disgraces, it is no great Matter for us quietly to receive all the Calamities of Fortune, and Indiscretion of Servants, and Mistakes of Friends, and Unkindnesses of Kindred, and Rudeneffes of Enemies, fince we have deserved these and worse, even Hell itself.
5. If we be tempted to Anger in the Actions of Government and Discipline to our Inferiors (in which Cafe Anger is permitted so far as it is prudently instrumental to Government, and only is a Sin when it is exceffive and unreasonable, and apt to disturb our own Difcourse, or to express itself in imprudent Words or violent A&tions) let us propound to ourlelves the Example of God the Father, who at the fame Time and with the fame Tranquility decreed Heaven and Hell, the Joys of bleffed Angels and Souls, and the Torinents of Devils and accurfed Spirits: And at the Day of Judgment, when all the World shall burn under his Feet, God shall nor at all be inflamed, or shaken in his effential Seat and Centre of Tranquility and Joy. And if at first the Cause seems reasonable, yet defer to execute thy Anger till thou mayst better judge. For as Phocion told the Athenians, who upon the first News of the Death of Alexander were ready to revolt, Stay a while; for if the King be mot dead, your Halte will ruine gou; but if he be dead, your Stay cannot prejudice pour Affairs, for he will be dead to-morrow as well as today. So if thy Servant or Inferior deferve Punishment, itaying till to
morrow will not make him innocent ; but it may poflibly preserve thee fo, by preventing thy striking a guiltless Person, or being fu. rious for a Trifle.
6. Remove from thyself all Provocations and Incentives to Anger; especially, 1. Games of Chance and great Wagers. * Patroclus killed his Friend, the Son of Amphidamus, in his Rage and sudden Fury,
rifing upon a cross Game at Table. Such also are Ιματα το ότι παίδα κατέκταγον 'ΑμφιδάμανταNo, ir séraire duo esegjárosdi gera bris, Iliad, f.
petty Curiofities and worldly Bufiness and Carefulness about it : But manage thyself with Indifferency, or Contempt of those external Things, and do not spend a Pallion upon them ; for it is more than they are worth. But they that defire but few Things Qui pauca can be crossed but in a few. 2. In not heaping up requirunt: with an ambitious or curious Prodigalty any very cu- excidunt, rious or choice Utensils, Seals, Jewels, Glasses, pre-Plaut. cious Stones ; because those very many Accidents which happen in the spoiling or Loss of 'thelė Rarities, are in Event an irresistible Cause of violent Anger. 3. Do not entertain nor fuffer Tale-bearers : For they abuse our Ear first, and then our Credulity, and then steal our Patience, and it may be for a Lie; and if it be true, the Matter is not confiderable ; or if it be, yet it is pardonable. And we may always escape with Patience at one of these Outlets : Either, 1. By not hearing Slanders, or 2. By not believing them, or 3, By not regarding, the Thing, or 4. By forgiving the Person. 4. To this purpose also it may lerve well, if we chufe ( as much as we can) to live with peaceable Persons, for that prevents the Occafions of Confusion: And if we live with prudent Persons; they will not easily occasion our Disturbance. But because these Things are not in many Mens Power, therefore I propound this rather as a Felicity than a Remedy or a Duty, and an Art of Prevention rather than of Cure.
7. Be not inquisitive into the Affairs of other Men, nor the Faults of thy Servants, nor the Mistakes of thy Friends ; but what is offered to you, use according to the former Rules, but do not thou go out to gather Sticks to kindle a Fire to burn thine own House. And add this; if my Friend said or did well in that for which I am angry, I am in the Fault, not he; but if he did amiss, he is in the Misery, not I: For either he was deceived, or he was malicious, and either of them both is all one with a miserable Perfon, and that is an Object of Pity, not of Anger.
8. Use all reasonable Discourses to excuse the Faults of others, considering that there are many Circum$ 2
Itances of Time, of Person, of Accident, of inadvertency, of Infrequency, of Aptness to amend, of Sorrow for doing it; and it is well that we take any Good in Exchange for the Evil done or suffered.
9. Upon the rising of Anger instantly enter into a deep Confideration of the Joys of Heaven, or the Pains of Hell : For Fear and Foy are naturally apt to appease this Violence.
10. In Contentions be always paffive, never active, upon the defensive, not the affáulting Part; and then also give a gentle Answer, receiving the Furies and · Indiscretions of the other like a Stone into a Bed of Moss and loft Compliance; and you shall find it fit down quietly: Whereas Anger and Violence make 'the Contention loud and long, and injurious to both the Parties.
11. In the Actions of Religion be careful to temper all thy Instances with Meekness, and the proper Instruments of it : And if thou beeft apt to be angry, neither fast violently, nor entertain the too forward Heats of Zeal, but fecure thy Duty with conftant and regular Actions, and a good Temper of Body with convenient Refreshments and Recreations.
12. If Anger arises suddenly and violently, first restrain it with Confideration, and then let it end in a hearty Prayer for him that did the real or seeming Injury.' The former of the two stops its Growth, and the latter quite kills it, and makes Amends for its monstrous and voluntary Birth.
Remedies against Anger, by way of Confideration.
1. Consider that Anger is a profeffed Enemy to Counsel; it is a direct Storin, in which no Man can be heard to speak or call from without : For if you counsel gently, you are despised;
it and be vehement, you provoke it more. Be careKai pardrobvwy usvoia spam ful therefore to lay up beforeμέλλω κακα, Θυμός δε κρείσων hand a great Stock of Reafan zőv špecây Beasurid Twv. Medea and prudent Confideration, that like a besieged Town you may be provided for,
and be defensable from within, fince you are not
Ogunos paver inov, BULON is Peevishness : And so is al
εσς σύμμαχον βλάβης συνεργον ways either terrible or ridiculous. χαλαιμίας, χρημάτων απώλεια, 5. It makes a Man's Body mon- en drei Socīs apprzóv. Itrous, deformed and contemp
Ariftot, tible, the Voice horrid, the Eyes cruel, the Face pale or fiery, the Gate fierce, the Speech clamorous and 'loud. 6. It is neither manly pisos nor ingenious. 7. It proceeds from Softness of Spirit and Pufillanimity, which makes that women are more angry than Men, fick Persons more than healthful, old Men more than young, unprofperous and calamitous People than the blessed and fortunate. 8. It is a Passion fitter for Flies and Infeets than for Persons professing Nöbleness and Bounty,. 9. It is trou blefome not only to those that suffer it, but to the that behold it ; there being no greater Incivility of * Entertainment than for the Cook's Fault, or the difiere quid Negligence of the Servants, to be cruel, or outra-cana portis gious, or unpleasant in the Presence of the Guests, ingratiusista? 10. It makes Marriage to be a necessary and unavoidable Trouble; Friendships, and Societies, and Familiarities to be intolerable. 11. It multiplies the Evils of Drunkenness, and makes the Levities of Wine to run into Madness. 12. It makes innocent Jefting to be the Beginning of Tragedies. 13. It turns Friendship into Hatred; * it makes a Man S 3
lofe himself and his Reason and his Argument in Difputation. * It turns the Defires of Knowledge into an Itch of Wrangling. * It adds Infolency to Pow
* It turns Justice into Cruelty, and judgment into Oppression. * It changes Discipline into Tediousness and Hatred of liberal Institution.
* It makes a prosperous Man to be envied, and the une fortunate to be unpitied. * It is a Confluence of all the irregular Paltons : There is in it Envy and Sorrow, Fear and Scorn, Pride and Prejudice, Rashness and Inconfideration, rejoycing in Evil and a Defire to infli& it, Self-Love, Impatience and Curiosity. * And lastly, though it be very troublefome to others, yet it is most troublesome to him that hath it.
In the Use of thefe Arguments and the former Ex"ercises be diligent to observe, left in your Desires to fupprefs Anger you be passionate and angry at your
self for being angry ; like Physicians, who give a maro biten bitter Potion when they intend to eject the Bitterness
of Choler; for this will provoke the Person and ingui eluunt,
crease the Passion. But placidly and quietly set upon the Mortification of it ; and attempt it first for a Day, refolving that Day not at all to be angry; and to be watchful and observant for a Day is no great Trouble : But then, after one Day's Watchfulness it will be as eafie to watch two Days as at first it was to watch one Day; and fo you may increase till it becomes easie and habitual.
Only observe that such an Anger alone is criminal which is against Charity to myself or my Neighbour; but Anger against Sin is a holy Zeal, and an Effect of Love to God and my Brother, for whose Interest I am passionate, like a concerned Person: And if I take Care that my Anger makes no Refletion of Scorn or Cruelty upon the Offender, or of Pride and Violence, or Transportation to myself, Anger be
comes Charity and Duty. And when one commended Plutar. de Charilaus, the King of Sparta, for a gentle, a good odio & invi- and a meek Prince, his Collegue faid well, How can he dia. be good, who is not an Enemy even to vicious Perfors?