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6. Princes must not multiply publick Oaths without great, eminent and violent necessity, left the security of the King become a snare to the People, and they become false when they see themselves suspected, or impatient when they are violently held fast. But the greater and more useful caution is upon things than upon persons: and if security of Kings can be obtained otherwise, it is better that Oaths ihould be the

last refuge, and when nothing else can be sufficient.
L'avaritia 7. Let not the people be tempted with arguments
de Re, p. Ate
de Regni.

to disobey, by the imposition of great and unnecessa-
ry taxes: for that lost to the Son of Solomon the dog
minion of the ten Tribes of Israel.

8. Princes must in special manner be Guardians
of Pupils and Widows, not suffering their persons to
be oppressed, or their estates imbezelled, or in any
sence he exposed to the rapine of covetous persons, but
be provided for by just Laws and provident Judges,
and good Guardians, ever having an ear ready open
to their just complaints, and a heart full of pity, and
one hand to support them, and the other to avenge
them.

9. Princes must provide that the Laws may be so administred, that they be truly and really an ease to the People, not an instrument of vexation: and therefore must be careful that the shortest and most equal ways of trials be appointed, fees moderated, and intricacies and windings as much cut off as may be, lest injured persons be forced to perish under the opó pression, or under the Law, in the injury, or in the fuit. Laws are like Princes, those best and most be

loved who are most easie of accefs. Chi comora

10. Places of Judicature ouglit at no hand to be
il magiftra.
to forza é sold by pious Princes, who remember themselves to
che vendra be Fathers of the People. For they that buy the Of
là giußitia. fice will sell the Act, and they that at any rate will be

Judges, will not at any casie rate do Justice; and
their bribery is less punilhable, when bribery opened
the door by which they entred.

11. Ancient privileges, favours, customs and acts
of
f grace indulged by former Kings to their People,

must

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must not without high reason and great necessities
be revoked by their fucceffors, nor forfeitures be
exacted violently, or penal Laws urged rigorously
nor in light cases, nor Laws be multiplied without
great need, nor vicious persons, which are publick-
ly and deservedly hated, be kept in defiance of po-
pular defires, nor any thing that may unnecessarily
make the yoke heavy, and the affection light, that
may encrease murmurs, and lessen charity; always
semembring that the interest of the Prince and the
People is so infolded in a mutual embrace, that
they cannot be untwisted without pulling a limb off,
or dissolving the bands and conjunction of the whole
body.
12. All Princes must' esteem themselves as much

Nulla lex

(civilis) fibi bound by their word, by their grants, and by their soli consci. promises, as the meanest of their Subjects are by the entiam juftirestraint and penalty of Laws: and though they are bet, led eis à superiour to the people, yet they are not superiour to quibus oble, their own voluntary concessions and engagements,

quium ex.

pedat. Ter. their promises and oaths, when once they are passed tul. Apol. from them.

The Duty of Superiours as they are Judges. 1. Princes in Judgment and their delegate Judges must judge the causes of all persons uprightly and impartially, without any perional consideration of the power of the mighty, or the bribe of the rich, or the needs of the

poor. For although the poor muft fare no worse for his poverty, yet in justice he must fare no better for it: And although the rich! must be no more regarded, yet he must not be less. And to this purpose the Tutor of Cyrus instructed him, when in a controversie, where a great Boy would have taken a large Coat from a little Boy, because his own was too little for him, and the other's was too bigg, he adjudged the great Coat to the great Boy: his Tutor answered, Sir, If you were made a Judge of decency or fitness, you had judged well

in giving the biggest to the biggest ; but when you were appointed Judge, not whom the Coat did fit, but whose it was, you should have considered the ti tle and the possession, who did the violence, and who made it, or who bought it. And so it must be in judgments between the Rich and the Poor: it is not to be considered what the poor man needs, but what is his own.

2. A Prince may not, much less may inferiour Judges, deny Justice when it is legally and competently demanded : and if the Prince will use his Prerogative in pardoning an Offender against whom Justice is required, he must be carefull to give fatisfaetion to the injured person, or his relatives, by some other instrument; and be watchfull to take away the scandal, that is, lest such indulgence might make persons more bold to do injury; and if he spares the life, let him change the punishment into that which may make the offender (if not suffer Justice, yet) do Justice, and more real advantage to the injured person.

These Rules concern Princes and their Delegates in the making or administring Laws, in the appointing Rules of Justice. and doing acts of Judgment. The duty of Parents to their Children and Nephews is briefly described by S. Paul.

The Duty of Parents to their Children.

Ephef. 6.4.

1. Fathers, provoke not your Children to wrath : that is, be tender-bowelld, pitiful and gentle, complying with all the infirmities of the Children, and in their severaløages proportioning to them several usages according to their needs and their capacities.

2. Bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord: that is, secure their Religion, season their younger years with prudent and pious principles, make them in love with virtue, and make them habitually so before they come to chuse and discern good from evil, that their choice may be with less difficulty and danger. For while they are under discipline, they suck in all

that

Plutarch.de liber edu.

- 1

that they are first taught, and believe it infinitely. Potior mihi Provide for them wife; learned and vertuous Tutors,

ratio vivendi

honeftè,quàm and good Company and Discipline *, seasonable Bap- & optime ditism, Catechism and Confirmation. For it is a great cendi, vide, Folly to heap up much Wealth for our Children, and tur. Quintil. not to take care concerning the Children for whom Heb. 12. 9: we get it. It is as if a Man should take more Care Crates apud about his Shod than about his Foot.

3. Parents must * Moewe Pity at home ; that is, they cand. must give good Example and reverent Deportment in ': Tim. 5. A? the Face of their Childrens and all thofe Instances of Charity which usually endear each other, Sweetness of Conversation, Affability, frequent Admonition, all Significations of Love and Tenderness, Care and Watchfulness, must be expressed towards Children, that they inay look upon their parents as their Friends and Patrons, their Defence and Sanctuary, their Treasure and their Guide. Hither is to be reduced the Nursing of Children, which is the first and most natural and neceffary Instance of Piety which Mother's. cân Shew to their Babes; a Duty from which nothing will excuse, but a Disability, Sickness, Dan ger or publick Necessity:

4. Parents must provide for their own according to their Condition, Education and Employment ; called by St. Paul, a laying up for their Children, that is, a Timi sit an enabling them by competent Portions, or good Trades, Arts or Learning to defend themselves against the Chances of the World, that they may not be exposed to Temptation, to Beggary, or unworthy Arts. And although this must be done without Covetoufnefs, without Impatience and greedy Defires of making them rich; yet it must be done with much Care and great Affection, with all reasonable Provifion, and according to our Power : And if we can without Sin improve our Eftates for them, that also is Part of the Duty we owe to God for them. And this Rule is to extend to all that descend from

US,

altho'we have been overtaken in a Fault, and have unlawful Iflue; they also become Part of our Care, yer so as not to injure the Production of the lawful Bed.

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s. This

5. This

Duty is to extend to a Provifion of Conditions and Eftate of Life, (a) Parents muft, according to their Power and Reasonprovide Husbands or Wives for their Children. (6) In which they must secure Piety, and (c) Religion, and the Affection and Love of the interested Perfons; and after thefe, let them make what Provifions they can for other Conveniences or Advantages : Ever remembring that they can do no Injury more afflictive to the Children, than to joyn them with Cords of a disagreeing Affection : It is like tying a Wolf and a Lamb, or planting the Vine in a Garden of Coleworts. Let them be per fuaded with reasonable Inducements to make them willing, and to chufe according to the Parents Wish, but at no hand let them be forced. Better to fit

up all Night, than to go to Bed with a Dragon, (4) Νυμφευμάτων μεν η εμυ πατήρ εμος Μέριμναν έξι, και εκ έμων κρίνειν τα. Emrip. Electr. Me tibi Tyndareus vitâ gravis auctor & annis

Tradidit ; arbitrium neptis habebat avus. Ovid. in Ep. Herm. (6) Liberi fine consensu parentum contrahere non debent. Andromache apud Exerit pidem cum perita fuit ad nuptias, refpondit, patris fui effe fponfalium fuorum curam hal bere : & Achilles apud Homerum Regis filiam fine patris sui confenfu noluit ducere, Il. 10 "Ην δ δη με σόωσι θεοί, και είχα κώμαι, Πηλεύς τω μοιέπονται γυναίκα gagéase ) autós. Et Juftinianus Imperator ait, naturali fimul & civili ratione congru ere, nè filii ducant uxores citra Parentum authoritatem. Simo Terentianus parat abdica. tionem, quia, Pamphilus clam ipso duxisset uxorem. Iftiusmodi fponfalia fiunt irrita, nifi velint Parentes': At fi fubfequuta eft copula, nè temerè refcindantur connubia muloze lua. dent cautiones & pericula. Liberi autem quamdiu fecundùm leges patrias lui juris non funt, clandeftinas nuptias fi ineant, peccant contra Quintum Preceprum, & jus naturale fecundarium. Propriè enim loquendo, Parentes non habent Tesolar, five poteftatem, led authoritatem;' habent jus jubendi aut prohibendi, fed non'irritam faciendi. Atque etiam ifta authoritas exercenda eft fecundùm æquum & bonum , fcil. ut nê morofus & dif. ficilis fit Pater. Mater enim vix habet aliquod Juris præter suafionis & amoris & gratitudinis. Si autem Pater filiam non collocaffet ante 25. annos, filia nubere poterat qui voluerat, ex Jure Romanorum. Pacer enim authoritas major aut minor eft ex legibus pa. triis, & folet extendi ad certàm tatem, & cum exspirat quoad Matrimoniumns & cft me jor in filias quam filias. Num. 30.

(c) Eosdem quos maritus nõlle deos & culere solas uxor deber, supervacaneis autem re. ligionibus & alienis fuperftitionibus fores occludere. Nulli enim Deûm grata funt facra que mulier clanculùm & furtim facit. Plútarch. Conjug. Precept. Gen. 24. Vocemus puede jam, & gitaramus es ejus,

The Duty of Husbands, &c.
See Chap. 2. Sezt 3

Rules

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