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Descend, and open your uncharged ports:
Those enemies of Timon's, and mine owl., Shame that they wanted cunning, in excess,
Whom you yourselves shall set out for reproof, Hath broke their hearts. March, noble lord,
Fall, and no more : and,—to atone your fears Into our city with thy banners spread :
With my more noble meaning,—not a man By decimation, and a tithed death,
Shall pass his quarter, or oflend the stream (If thy revenges hunger for that food,
1 of regular justice in your city's bounds, Which nature loathes,) take thou the destin'd tenth ; But shall be remedied, to your public laws, And by the hazard of the spotted die,
At beaviest answer. Let die the spotted.
'T is most nobly spoken. | Sen. All have not offended;
Alcib. Descend, and keep your words, For those that were, it is not square to take,
| The Senators descend, and open the gates. On those that are, revenges : crimes, like lands,
Enter a Soldier.
Sol. My noble general, Timon is dead;
Entomb`d upon the very hem o'the sea :
And on his grave-stoue this insculpture, which
With wax I brought away, whose soft impression With those that have offended : like a shepherd,
Interprets for my poor ignorance.
Alcib. [Reads.] Here lies a wretched corse, of wretched soul 2 Sen. What thou wilt,
Seek not my name: A plague consume you wicked caitiffs left! Thou rather shalt enforce it with thy smile,
Here lie I Timon; who, alive, all Itving men did hite : Than hew to 't with thy sword.
Pass by, and curse thy fill; but pass and stay not here thy gait. 1 Sen. Set but thy foot
These will express in thee thy latter spirits : Against our rampir'd gates, and they shall ope; Though thou abhorr'dst in us our human griefs, So thou wilt send thy gentle heart before,
Scorn’dst our brain's flow, and those our droplets To say thou 'lt enter friendly.
which 2 Sen.
Throw thy glove; From niggard nature fall, yet rich conceit Or any token of thine honour else,
Taught thee to make vast Neptune weep for aye That thou wilt use the wars as thy redress,
On thy low grave, on faults forgiven. Dead And not as our confusion, all thy powers
Is noble Timon; of whose memory Shall make their harbour in our town, till we
Hereafter more.—Bring me into your city, Have seald thy full desire.
And I will use the olive with my sword : Alcib. Then there's my glove; Make war breed peace; make peace stint war; make
each Cunning in this line is not used in an evil sense, h it with
Prescribe to other, as each other's leech. its ancient meaning of knowledge, wisdom ;-Excessive shame that they have wanted wislom has broken their hearts.
Let our drums strike,
Tue original quarto edition of Troilus and Cressida | Cressida' into a regular tragedy. He complains that was printed in 1609. No other edition of the play was the chief persons who give name to the tragedy are left published until it appeared in the folio collection of alive: Cressida is false, and is not punished." The 1623.
excitement of pity and terror, we are told, is the only The original story," says Dryden, “ was written ground of tragedy. Tragedy, too, must have “ a moby one Lollius, a Lombard, in Latin verse, and trans- ral that directs the whole action of the play to one Jated by Chancer into English ; intended, I suppose, a centre.” To this standard, then, is Shaksppie's · Troilus satire on the inconstancy of women. I find nothing of and Cressida 'to be reduced. The chief persons who it among the anciente, not so much as the name Cressida give name to the tragedy are not to be left alive. once mentioned. Shakspere (as I binted), in the appren- Cressida is not to be false; but she is to die : and so ticeship of his writing, modelled it into that play which terror and pity are to be produced. And then comes is now called by the name of Troilus and Cressida.' the moral :Withont entering into the question who Lollius was, " Then, since home-bred factions ruin springs, we at once receive the Troilus and Creseide' of Chau. Let subjects learn obedience to their kings." cer as the foundation of Shakspere's play. Of his per- The management by which Dryden has accomplished fect acquaintance with that poem there can be no
this metamorphosis is one of the most remarkable er. doubt. Chaucer, of all English writers, was the one amples of perverted ingenuity. He had a licentious who would have the greatest charm for Shakspere. age to please. He could not spare a line, or a word, of Mr. Godwin has justly observed that the Shaksperian what may be considered the objectionable scenes te commentators have done injustice to Chaucer in not
tween Pandarus, Troilus, and Cressida. They formed more distinctly associating his poem with this remark.
no part of the “rubbish " he desired to remore. He has able play. But although the main incidents in the heightened them wherever possible; and what in Sliakalventures of the Greek lover and his faithless mistress, spere was a sly allusion becomes with him a positive as given by Chaucer, are followed with little deviation, grossness. Now let us consider for a moment what yet, independent of the wonderful difference in the cha- Shakspere intended by these scenes. Cressida is the racterisation, the whole story under the treatment of exception to Shakspere's general idea of the female cha Shakspere becomes thoroughly original. In no play racter. She is beautiful, witty, accomplishel, but she does he appear to us to have a more complete mastery is impure. In her, love is not a sentiment, or a passion, over his materials, or to mould them into more plastic --it is an impulse. Temperament is stronger than will. shapes by the force of his most surpassing imagination. Her love has nothing ideal, spiritual, in its composition. The great Homeric poem, the rude romance of the de- It is not constant, because it is not discriminate. Set. struction of Troy, the beautiful elaboration of that ting apart her inconstancy, how altogether different is romance hy Chancer, are all su'vjected to his wondrous Cressida from Juliet, or Viola, or Helena, or Perdita! alchemy; and new forms and combinations are called There is nothing in her which could be called lore: no forth so lifelike, that all the representations which have depth, no concentration of feeling,-notining that can preceded them loo's cold and rigid statues, not warm bear the vame of devotion. Shakspere would not perand breathing men and women. Coleridge's theory of mit a mistake to be made on the stject; and he has the principle upon which this was effected is, we have therefore given to Ulysses to describe her, as he conno doubt, essentially true :
ceived her. Considering what his intentions were, and “ I am half inclined to believe that Shaksnere's main what really is the high morality of the characterisation, object (or shall I rather say his ruling impulse ?) was
we can scarcely say that he has made the representation to translate the poetic heroes of Paganism into the not
tvo prominent. When he drew Cressida, we think he less rude, but more intellectually vigorous, and more
had the feeling strong on his mind which gave birth to featurely, warriors of Christian chivalry, and to substan- the 129th Sonnet. A French writer, in a notice of this tiate the distinct and graceful profiles or outlines of the play, says, “ Les deux amants se voient, s'entendent, et Homeric epic into the flesh and blood of the romantic sont heureux.” Shakspere has described such happidrama, --in short, to give a grand history-piece in the ness :robust style of Albert Dürer." *
“ A bliss in proof,—and pror'd, a very woe; Dryden, we have seen, speaks of Shakspere's "Troilus
Before, a joy propos'd ; behind, a dream : and Cressida' as a work of his apprenticeship. Dryden
All this the world well knows; yet none knows well
To sbun the heaven that leads men to this hell." himself aspired to reform it with his own master-hand. It was this morality that Shakspere meant to teach The notion of Dryden was to convert the • Troilus and when he painted this one exception to the general purity • Literary Remains, vol. ii. p 188.
of his female characters.
TROILUS AND CRESSIDA.
PRIAM, King of Troy.
Hector, son to Priam.
se. 1; sc. 3; sc. 4 ; sc. 6; se. 9.
Troilus, son to Priam.
Paris, son to Priam.
sc. I; sc. 3; sc. 4; sc. 8.
HELENUS, son to Priam.
Æneas, a Trojan commander.
SC. 4; sc. 5. Act V. sc. 2; sc. Il.
ANTENOR, a Trojan commander.
Appears, Act III. sc. 3.
PANDARUS, uncle to Cressida.
sc. 2; sc. 4. Act V. sc. 3; sc. 11.
Appears, Act V. sc. 8.
AGAMEMNON, the Grecian general.
Act V. sc. 1; sc. 5; sc. 10. MENBlaus, brother to Agamemnon. Appears, Act I. sc. 3. Act III. &C. 3. Act IV. sc. 5.
Act V. sc. 1 ; se, 8: sc. 10.
ACHILLES, a Grecian commander,
Act V. sc. I; sc. ); sc. 6; sc. 7; sc. 9.
AJAX, a Grecian commander.
Act V. sc. 1; sc. 5; sc. 6; se. 10.
ULYSSES, a Grecian commander.
sc. 5. Act V. sc. 1 ; sc. 2; sc. 5.
Nestor, a Grecian commander.
sc. 5. Act V. sc. 1; sc. 5; sc. 10.
DIOMEDES, a Grecian commander.
PATROCLUS, a Grecian commander.
Act V. sc. 1.
sc. 4; sc. 8.
Appears, Act I. sc. 2.
Servant to Troilus.
Servant to Paris.
Appears, Act V. sc. 5.
Appears, Act III. sc. I.
Appears, Act V. sc. 3.
Appeurs, Act II. sc. 2. Act V. sc. 3.
Cressida, daughter to Calchas.
sc. 5. Act V. sc. 2.
SCENE,—TROY, AND THE GRECIAN CAMP BEFORE IT.
On one and other side, Trojan and Greek,
Sets all on hazard :- And hither am I come Of cruel war: Sixty and nine that wore
A prologue arm'd, b—but not in confidence
Of author's pen, or actor's voice; but suited
Leaps o'er the vaunto and firstlings of those broils, With wanton Paris sleeps,—and that 's the quarrel. Beginning in the middle; starting thence away To Tenedos they come;
To what may be digested in a play.
* Sperr up. The ongipal has stirre up, but we prefer the Dardan, and Tymbria, Ilias, Chetas, Trojan,
alteration. The relative positions of each force are contrasted.
The Greeks pitch their pavilions on Dardun plains; the Trojans And Antenorides, with massy staples,
are shut up in their six gated city. Spert is used in the sense And corresponsive and fulfilling 5 bolts,
of to fasten, by Spenser and earlier writers.
Johnson has pointed out that the Prologue was • Orgralous-proud-the French orgueilleux..
spoken by one of the characters in armour. This was noticer, Pulfilling. 'The verh fulfil is here used in the originai sense because in general the speaker of the Prologue wore a black of fill füll.
c Vaunt- the van.