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Garden. The report is signed by Ernest B. and opticians' accessories, and a department Dane, of Boston, chairman of the committee; for the study of manufactured products or any Oakes Ames, '98, director of the Botanic Gar- matters of importance submitted for examiden; Edwin F. Atkins; George B. Dorr; Ar- nation by the institute. These laboratories thur F. Estabrook; W. Cameron Forbes; Rich- will serve likewise for the training of stuard M. Saltonstall; E. V. R. Thayer; Edwin dents. The purpose of the professional school S. Webster. The Botanic Garden is now situ- will be to train workers in glass, opticians and ated at the corner of Garden and Linnean mechanicians who shall be preeminently Streets and contains more than 5,000 species of qualified. flowering plants, which are cultivated for educational and scientific purposes. Dr. Asa
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL Gray was its director from 1842 to 1872.
NEWS The Journal of the American Medical Asso
WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY MEDICAL SCHOOL, ciation states that the board of directors of St. Louis, has received $300,000 to endow its the University of Cincinnati on September 9,
department of pharmacology. Half of this is said to have rejected the appointments of
sum was given by the General Education the faculty of the industrial medicine and
Board and the other half was raised by the public health department made by Dr. Carey medical school. P. McCord. This department is not directly
MR. P. A. MOLTENO and his wife have associated with the University of Cincinnati,
offered the sum of £30,000 to the University although the board of directors is authorized
of Cambridge, for the erection and maintento make appointments. The financing of the
ance of a suitable building, to be used as an department is by subscription of business men
institute for parasitological research in conof Cincinnati.
nection with the department of Professor G. THERE has been established at Paris an H. F. Nuttall. optical institute that will work in the interest ASSISTANT PROFESSOR CHAMPION HERBERT of the manufacturers of opticians' supplies; MATHEWSON has been elected professor of it will not be conducted for commercial profit metallurgy and metallography in the Sheffield but solely for the purpose of advancing optical
Scientific School of Yale University. science and the optical industries for the
Dr. Harry A. Curtis has resigned his common welfare. The forms of activity of
position at the Nitrogen Research Laboratory this new scientific institute will be: (1) a
in order to accept a professorship in chemistry training school of optics; (2) a laboratory of
at Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. research and experiment, and (3) a professional school for advanced study. The school
ISRAEL S. KLEINER, Ph.D., formerly associate of optics will train experts in the manufac
in physiology and pharmacology at the Rocketure of optical goods. M. C. Fabry, at present
feller Institute for Medical Research, has been professor of general physics at the Faculté
appointed professor and head of the departdes sciences de Marseilles, has been selected as
ment of physiological chemistry at the New the head of the new institution. M. Lucien
York Homeopathic Medical College and Poincaré, rector of the University of Paris,
Flower Hospital, New York City. has evinced an especial interest in the insti
Dr. J. G. FitzGERALD has been appointed tute and has expressed his intention of re- professor of hygiene at the University of questing a professional chair of optics at the Toronto, to succeed Dr. John A. Amyst, who Sorbonne. The laboratories will comprise a has been appointed deputy minister of health research department in which the instructors in the Federal Department of Health, Ottawa. of the school may conduct their theoretical Dr. J. PROUDMAN has been appointed proand practical researches with relation to the fessor of applied mathematics in the Univervarious kinds of glass, optical instruments sity of Liverpool.
DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE The author is indebted to Dr. H. B. Lemon CHARCOAL ACTIVATION
for valuable advice and assistance in this At the thirty-sixth general meeting of the work. American Electro-Chemical Society held in
H. H. SHELDON Chicago in September, N. K. Chaney pre
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO sented a paper on charcoal activation in which he states that the general theory in its
AGED BEAN SEED, A CONTROL POR
BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF BEANS complete form rests upon two postulates, one of which is "that elementary carbon (other DURING the progress of the investigational than diamond and graphite) exists in two work on bacterial blight of beans (Bacterium modifications, 'active' and 'inactive' or phaseoli E. F. Sm.) at the Oklahoma Agriculalpha and beta."
tural Experiment Station many measures for It would seem from data obtained here that control were attempted. The most successful the definitions of active and inactive would method so far evolved is that of eliminating need to be modified before this classification the disease by the use of aged seed. It was can have any meaning, since charcoal can be known that the causal bacteria could be culmade which is the reverse of other charcoals tivated from infected seed for only a limited in that it is relatively more active for hydro- time. gen than for nitrogen as shown by the follow With this fact in mind the infected seed ing data:
raised in our experimental plots each year Each of the volume measurements given was saved and stored. Seed four and five were calculated from pressure readings and years old has never produced bligh are reduced to normal pressure and tempera- but the percentage of germination has been ture. The amount of charcoal used in each so low as to prohibit its use under actual case was 25.7 gms. and this was left at liquid farming conditions. Two- and three-year-old air temperature until saturated. The gases seed has with one exception given blight-free were used separately and not as mixtures. plants. This one exception occurred early in
the work and in view of later results must be
ascribed to accidental infection. Charcoal
Results secured indicate that the use of Adsorbed Adsorbed
two- and three-year-old bean seed furnishes Usual type....... 926 c.c.
914 c.c. 926 c.c.1 blight-free plants when planted upon uninUgual type. ...... 1,780 c.c. 1,657 c.c. 1,780 c.c. New sample 1.... 926 c.c.
fected land and at a sufficient distance from New sample 2.... 926 c.c. 900 c.c. 755 c.c. other bean patches to insure no accidental inNew sample 3.... 926 c.c. 874 c.c. | 406 c.c.
fection. Such seed moreover has a sufficiently
high percentage of germination to make its The difference in treatment of the last
use practical under actual farming conditions. three samples was slight yet Sample 1 shows The results of the investigational work figures lying on the outside of those for which have been completed will be published Sample 2, i. e., the figures of Sample 1 have in the near future. approached each other for Sample 2. Much
C. W. RAPP more striking samples can no doubt be pre- DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE, pared.
. A. & M. COLLEGE, A report of this work will be published when
STILLWATER, OKLAHOMA completed but this will serve to point out an
NOTE ON THE FLAGELLATION OF THE apparent incompleteness in the theory set
NODULE ORGANISMS OF THE forth by A. B. Lamba and by N. K. Chaney.
LEGUMINOSE · 1 Not saturated in this particular case.
In again taking up the question of flagella2 J. Ind. and Eng. Chem., 1919, 11, 420–467. tion of the nodule bacteria, the findings re
ported in a previous paper1 are confirmed the appearance is exactly as described. But Proven cultures from Vigna sinensis and when the material is treated with hot caustic Glycine hispida were repeatedly stained and potash, it is found that the apparent scales examined, the organisms in every trial being are nothing more than rows of strong ctenoid found to have a single polar flagellum.
spines, placed as they would be in true scales. Attention was then turned to the organ- In the dorsal region the rows are curved as isms, which had before given unsuccessful they would be were they margins of ctenoid stains owing to the more abundant slime pro- scales. In the presumably related fossil duction. Pure cultures isolated from the Lepidocottus brevis (Agassiz), from the Eunodules of Trifolium pratense, Vicia villosa, ropean Miocene, the ctenoid elements are as and Melilotus alba were tried, this time suc- in Jordania, but the complete scales are prescessfully, though the staining of these organ- ent, with the circuli and basal radii as usual. isms is obviously more difficult and uncertain. It must be supposed that Jordania came from The bacteria in every case were found to such an ancestor, and represents the survival be peritrichous. It was further noted that of certain elements of scale structure without whereas the organisms of Vigna and Glycine the scales, something like the grin of Lewis have a very stout flagellum, the flagella of the Carroll's Cheshire cat. organisms from Vicia, Trifolium, and Meli
T. D. A. COCKERELL lotus are much finer.
This confirms the work of De Rossi, Kellerman, Zipfel, and Prucha (but one convincing REPORT OF THE CO
one convincing REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF THE photomicrograph exists, that by De Rossi of
AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY ON Trifolum repens), and attention is called to
THE PREPARATION OF A LIST the fact that these workers devoted their
RECOMMENDING CHEMICAL efforts to the more slimy group, i. e., Vicia,
TEXTS FOR LIBRARIES Trifolium, Pisum, Phaseolus, Medicago. On January 15, 1919, announcement was
It is now evident that on the basis of flagel- made of the appointment of Messrs. W. A. lation, the nodule bacteria are to be divided Hamor, A. M. Patterson, and L. C. Newall, as into two distinct groups; the Glycine-Vigna a committee for the preparation of a text for group, and the Trifolium-Vicia-Melilotus the use of librarians, in recommending books group. Further observations confirming this for the chemical reading of the public, in acgrouping and dealing with cultural and phys- cordance with the suggestion submitted to iological characteristics as well as with the President Nichols by Mr. Joseph L. Wheeler, systematic position of these and related or- librarian of the Youngstown Public Library, ganisms, will be the subject of a paper en Youngstown, Ohio. Following the presentatitled, “The Nodule Bacteria of Leguminous tion of its preliminary report1 at the Buffalo, Plants” soon to be published by Lohnis and N. Y., meeting of the society, the committee Hansen.
membership was strengthened by the addition
Roy HANSEN of Mr. Wilhelm Segerblom. ILLINOIS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION The study of the needs of librarians which
was conducted by the committee at the incepTHE SUPPOSED SCALES OF THE COTTID FISH tion of its work, made it clear that what was
most desired was an authoritative series of the rare fish Jordania zonope Starks, from
reading courses, and not a mere book-list, on Puget Sound, is said to have the body above
chemical subjects. In fact, Mr. Wheeler formlateral line closely covered with ctenoid
ally requested a mode of presentment consistscales. Dr. D. S. Jordan has very kindly
ing of running texts so prepared that the sent me fragments of one of the cotypes and 1 See J. Am. Chem. Soc., 41, 95-96 of Proceed1 Ili. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 202.
The committee is grateful for the privilege of rendering this public service, for, as in Carlyle's time, “ the true university is a collection of books,” expertly selected and properly used.
W. A. HAMOR MELLON INSTITUTE, PITTSBURGH, PA.,
August 29, 1919.
“ prospect” would become interested in the chemical subjects discussed; and consideration of this view and the results of its own inquiry convinced the committee that, to accomplish the purposes desired, the reading courses should have a very definite publicity plan behind them.
In carrying out its work, the committee has prepared the manuscripts for a series of circulars which, it is thought, will make men want to read chemical literature. In order to accomplish that result, the committee has written lively and appealing essays, of about 1,500 words each, on elementary chemistry, household chemistry, general and physical chemistry, inorganic and analytical chemistry, organic and biological chemistry, industrial inorganic chemistry, industrial organic chemistry, and techno-chemical analysis, all of which have been divided into appropriate paragraphs, worded so as to bring out the importance of the subject and so as to impress the reader with the national essentiality of the chemical profession. Carefully selected books are mentioned casually in the texts of the courses, usually to conclude the paragraphs.
These courses should now be made available for the use of librarians who wish to reach ambitious persons who have the intelligence to follow a course of chemical study. They should, to serve the intended purpose, be published in attractive booklet form for distribution at libraries to persons who are engaged in chemical work or interested in the specific subjects of the various courses, and to persons who are as yet only casually engaged or interested, but who may think of becoming wellinformed on chemical subjects.
It is therefore recommended that the committee be authorized to furnish Mr. Joseph L. Wheeler with copies of the manuscripts, in order that he may endeavor to arrange for their publication in toto, and that the present committee be designated to cooperate.with Mr. Wheeler in that undertaking and in stimulating interest in chemistry through the media of libraries. It is also recommended that the courses be published by the society in The Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.
PRESERVATION OF CADAVERS One can not contemplate the history of human dissection without a profound sense of gratitude for the discovery of three chemicals, the use of which in embalming has completely transformed the laboratory of gross anatomy. Could they have been introduced earlier, human dissection long since would have lost its forbidding aspect. Although Scheele discovered glycerin in 1779, it was not used for the preservation of anatomical material until 1868, almost a century later. This was not until a year after formaldehyde had been discovered by Hoffman and, although the antiseptic properties of the latter were not revealed till twenty years later. this event soon was followed by its introduction into histologic and gross anatomic technique in 1890 by Blum, junior and senior respectively, The earlier discovery of phenol by Runge in 1834, with the subsequent relation of its antiseptic properties by the revolutionary usage of it in surgery by Lister in 1867, and its application in the preservation of anatomic material by Laskowski in the same year, or even in 1864, completes the trinity of substances so largely responsible for freeing dissection of the human body from the noisome burden previously imposed by post mortem decay. An occasionally delayed necropsy still can suggest to present-day medical students just what this freedom meant to anatomists and students of anatomy of the past. Surely nothing has been a greater boon to human anatomy and anatomists than the miracle wrought by these and other chemicals, the proper use of which bids fair to make our anatomical laboratories practically odorless.
For unless the bodies can not be obtained soon demands not only a considerable initial exenough after death to make proper preserva- pense, but also imposes a relatively high cost tion possible, the human anatomist or medical of maintenance. With its use it also is diffistudent no longer need labor in an atmosphere cult to prevent marked shrinkage of the matewhich announces their presence even to those rial, in the course of months and years. The who seek them not.
same thing applies to the storage of material While we have been exceedingly fortunate in tanks over methyl alcohol. Immersion in a in the matter of embalming the dead, and watery solution, on the other hand, while have improved upon the historic-or even geo- obviating this difficulty, introduces others. logic-method of cold storage by adapting Since the water penetrates the bodies, it abcurrent commercial equipments, much yet re- stracts the preservatives from the tissues, and mains to be desired in this respect. Several bodies so immersed dry quickly when exposed years since, while reflecting upon the various to an atmosphere of low humidity. While methods now in use, it occurred to me that drying during storage is obviated by submineral oil ought to possess many advantages. mersion in watery solutions the bodies often Since various vegetable oils, notably turpen- remain at or come to the surface and must then tine, oil of cedar, benzol, etc., had been used, be depressed. Evaporation of the water also it seemed strange indeed that mineral oils carries odors with it, besides reducing the total also should not previously have been resorted quantity of fluid. A room full of tanks conto. This would seem particularly likely dur- taining oil on the other hand remains pracing the last decades in which oil played such a tically odorless and needs no further attention. very prominent rôle in the industries. It While most of the difficulties except drying semed all the more perplexing that mineral experienced with other methods are obviated oils should not have been resorted to because by storage of the cadavers on open racks after resins, pitch, tar, etc., had been used centuries covering the material with a thick coating of ago for the very purpose. Moreover, attempts vaseline, the application of the latter is timealso had then been made to imbed the dead consuming, relatively expensive, and does not in honey, resin and fats, after the manner of make for tidiness. Moreover, portions of the nature in imbedding insects in amber. It is skin easily become uncovered of vaseline and true that nature also made such experiments dry, and when the nose, mouth and eyes are with crude oil on a gigantic scale at La not thickly coated, mold also can get a footBrea, but that is a relatively recent discovery. hold, in spite of the extra wrapping required. Nevertheless, it seems strange that the finding With the use of all these methods, except of these beds with their rich booty, some years immersion in a water solution, inspection of since did not suggest the use of mineral oils the material is difficult, while it is exceptionfor the storage of anatomic material to me or, ally easy with the use of oil. Moreover, the for that matter, to others. Indeed it is so in- oil extracts practically nothing from the mateexpensive when contrasted with cold storage rial and softens and later protects the epiderthat it seems that it could not have been mis. Since its specific gravity is low, bodies overlooked in the course of the development of easily sink by their own weight. Hence, as modern methods for embalming and preserv long as there is sufficient oil in the tanks, all ing material for dissection. However it is material is hermetically sealed and no sponpossible that the use of crude oil was con- taneous subsequent exposure need be feared, sidered and abandoned before the development for there is practically no loss through evaporof modern methods of distillation, because ation. Material stored in it for over two crude petroleum very plainly would seem to years appears to be in identically the same be quite unsuited for the purpose.
condition as when first immersed. Since Cold storage, while excellent for the preser- bodies which have become decidedly ædematous vation of material for short periods of time, during the process of embalming may be ex