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momentarily at temperatures above its melt- Of the whole number 40 per cent. are proing point. Such an interpretation is untrue fessional meteorologists. Many have urged since this phenomenon has been observed by strongly that the practical applications of several investigators' with materials such as meteorology be emphasized and that special the minerals quartz and albite, which, while efforts be made to interest engineers, business in the process of melting, may exist for some men, shippers, farmers, fruit growers, aviators hours at temperatures above their true melt- and others whose work is closely dependent on ing points. Correctly interpreted, Findlay's the weather. Those who study merely for its distinction holds good for cases of true meta- scientific interest will have much to gain from stable equilibrium, in which no change of association with those who apply meteorology phase is in progress, and which are the cases in the conduct of their business. Two leadhe evidently had in mind.
ing views expressed concerning the type of
J. B. FERGUSON organization are: GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY,
(1) That the society should be popular in CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON, nature in order to get as many as possible September, 1919
interested in the scientific aspects and appli
cations of meteorology and climatology, and ORGANIZATION OF THE AMERICAN
in this way to advance the science by united METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY
effort and funds to promote research, and (2) [Objects: The advancement and diffusion of the that the society should be strictly scientific, knowledge of meteorology and climatology; and and have rigid qualifications for membership, the broadening of their applications in public so that the professional meteorologists can by health, agriculture, engineering, aeronautics, indus
close personal contact cooperate in research to try and commerce.]
the best advantage. These two views may SINCE the publication of the original an
not be incompatible if the society when nouncement in SCIENCE, August 22, 1919, pp.
organized welcomes as a member any one who 180-181, several thousand circulars have been distributed among prospective members. Up elects from among the members, fellows, as a
is interested in the aims of the society, and to December 1, 470 had indicated their desire
recognition of eminence in meteorology or to join the society when organized. Roughly, climatology. It is generally agreed that all the percentage make-up of these is as follows:
members and fellows should have the same 1. Weather Bureau
privileges and pay the same dues. The coun2. Cooperative observers of the Weather Bu
cil of the society would, naturally, be com6
posed almost of fellows. Thus, the affairs of 3. Army, Navy and other government people professionally interested in meteorology.
the society would be directed by its scientists,
8 4. Business men, farmers, engineers and
with the close backing of a large body of others professionally interested in meteor
interested members. ology
8 Dues must be sufficient to pay current ex5. Teachers and students
penses of issuing a periodical leaflet of news, 6. Canada
notes, queries, etc., but they must not be 7. Latin America
burdensome for the large group of underpaid 8. Amateur meteorologists (not classed above)
government employees and teachers who are includes those formerly engaged in
interested. If more than 500 members are meteorological work
procured, dues of $1 per year would probably
be sufficient. Much has been said in favor 9 A. L. Day and E. T. Allen, “The Isomorphism
of an endowment fund, and, as some have and Thermal Properties of the Feldspars,” Publication No. 31 (1905) Carnegie Institution of suggested, also library, instrument, scholarWashington. J. B. Ferguson and H. E. Merwin, ship, and building funds. To procure endowAm. J. Sci., 46, 417 (1918).
ment, the society will probably be incoporated
and provisions made for contributing, sustaining and patron memberships.
A preliminary meeting to discuss organization plans and to nominate officers of the American Meteorological Society will be held at the close of the meteorological program of the Philosophical Society of Washington, Saturday evening, December 20. The meeting for organization will take place at Soldan Hill School, St. Louis, December 29, at 2 P.M., and sessions for the presentation of papers will be held December 30 and 31. Joint sessions are being arranged with the Amer ican Physical Society and the Association of American Geographers for December 31 or January 1. Plans are being made for a meeting in New York on January 3.
A tentative constitution and by-laws, conforming as far as possible with the numerous and diverse suggestions received, is being drafted, and will be printed about December 10, along with the programs and abstracts of papers to be presented at the St. Louis and New York meetings. These, with details as to hotel accommodations in St. Louis, will be mailed up to December 20 to those who have indicated their desire to join the society.
CHARLES F. BROOKS WEATHER BUREAU,
WASHINGTON, D. C.
cheaper food. (2) Nitrate of soda is itself an important ingredient of fertilizer, and any decrease in the consumation of nitrate for making acid should react in favor of a decreased demand, and so of a lower price, for nitrate of soda. The various methods of introducing nitrogen compounds into the acid-making process are reviewed, and the methods in common use for controlling the chamber process are briefly described. Attention is directed to the gradual extension of the analytical method for chamber-process control, and to the improved results attained where this method has been adopted. The Gay-Lussac tower, as a means of recovering the nitrogen compounds, is not yet an ideal, nor yet an efficient, piece of apparatus, and the need exists for either (1) an improved type of Gay-Lussac tower; (2) an auxiliary to the Gay-Lussac tower; or (3) a substitute for that tower, capable of effecting a higher percentage of niter recovery.
Check meal work of the Society of Cotton Products Analysts (in particular reference to the moisture and ammonia determinations: F. N. SMALLEY.
The Deroode-perchloric acid method for determining potash: T. E. KEITT.
A rapid and accurate method for determining nitrogen in nitrate of soda by the Devarda method, and the use of the Davission scrubber bulb: C. A. BUTT. A rapid and reliable method for determining nitrogen in nitrate of soda, suitable for routine analysis, consists of reduction of the nitric nitrogen to ammonia by the use of 3 grams Devarda's Alloy, 20 mesh, in a solution of 300 c.c. volume containing 3–5 c.c. sodium hydroxide 45° Be. The distillation of the ammonia is carried out synchronously with the reduction, using the regu. lar Kjeldahl apparatus fitted with the Davisson type of scrubber, which prevents alkali mist reaching the receiving flask. An aliquot of the nitrate solution, corresponding to .8517 grams sample, is used and the ammonia collected in N/2H_SO, Ti. trations are made in the usual way, using methyl red indicator. Results are reported showing accuracy of method.
The rapid and accurate determination of nitrate, as ammonia, in nitrate of soda by a modification of the Kjeldahl-Gunning method vs. the deceptive west coast or refraction method. Correct and rapid application of the modified Kjeldahl-Gunning method to mixed fertilizers containing nitrate: H. C. MOORE. The author compares the various methods in common use for analysis of nitrate of soda,
THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY.
F. B. Carpenter, Chairman
H. C. Moore, Secretary Injurious effects of borax in fertilizers on crops: B. W. KILGORE.
The conservation of nitrate of soda in the chamber process for the manufacture of sulfuric acid: ANDREW M. FAIRLIE. In connection with the prevalent protest against the high cost of food, means for conserving nitrate of soda in the manufacture of sulfuric acid has a two-fold interest: (1) The lowest possible consumption of nitrate of soda in the manufacture of sulfuric acid means low cost for producing the acid, and, as sulfuric acid is a principal item in the cost of making acid phosphate, cheaper sulfuric acid should result in cheaper phosphate, and cheaper phosphate, in
referring to the relative convenience of these meth- esses where potash can be obtained in localities ods for fertilizer chemists. Also points out again near consumption centers and in the development that the West Coast method is deceptive and recom- of by-products. Western producers must meet mends that it be eliminated from contracts govern. the handicap of high freight rates to eastern ing transfers of commercial, nitrate of soda. Also markets, although the development of by-products shows development of a modification of the Kjel. and improved methods may overcome this handidahl-Gunning (sulfuric-salicylic) method for the сар. rapid and accurate determination of nitrate, as
The relative availability of nitrate nitrogen and ammonia, also indicates errors in this method as
commercial organic nitrogen-field and cylinder sometimes used. Also shows correct application of
experiments: A. W. BLAIR. For more than 20 the method to mixed fertilizer containing nitrate.
years, the New Jersey Experiment Station has The caking of sulphate of ammonia: C. G. AT- been studying by means of field and cylinder ex. WATER AND DR. J. F. W. SCHULTZ. Sulphate of periments, the relative availability of nitrate ni. ammonia, even when dried and screened to fit it trogen from organic sources. The work has been for fertilizer use by itself as a top dressing, has conducted on two types of loam soil and also on shown a tendency to cake in certain cases. Exami. a loam with varying admixtures of coarse white nation of the material that had given trouble sand to represent soils varying in texture. For all finally indicated in this case that the trouble was of these soils, except those containing 80 per cent. due to the presence of salts of pyridine bases or more of sand, the nitrates have stood first in which are deposited with the salt in the saturator. yield of dry matter and percentage of nitrogen These impurities give the salt a slightly sticky na- recovered in the crop. Under the most favorable ture; cause absorption of water and caking. By conditions, only a little over 60 per cent. of the passing dry ammonia gas through the sulphate to applied nitrogen can be recovered in the crop. neutralization, the pyridine was set free and the Under less favorable conditions, the percentage objectionable characteristics removed.
recovery is much lower, often amounting to only
one third of the amount applied. The average reThe caking of sulfate of ammonia and acid phosphate mixtures: C. G. ATWATER AND J. F. W.
covery of nitrate nitrogen in the field experiments
was 37 per cent. and of organic nitrogen 261 per SCHNULTZ.
cent. It is suggested that the reason for the The American potash industry: R. O. E. DAVIS.
larger return from nitrate nitrogen than from Domestic production of potash grew from 1,000 tons
organic nitrogen may be found in the immediate in 1915 to 9,000 in 1916, 32,000 in 1917, and E5,000
availability of the former, The plant is thus in 1918. At the close of 1918 there was a potash
given a good start and on account of the rapid producing capacity in this country of approxi.
growth which it makes, it is able to utilize the mately 100,000 tons per annum. The sources of
nitrogen more fully than the plant which must wait potash are widespread, covering about sixteen
for a supply of available nitrogen, until the orstates in various sections of the Union. The main
ganic matter has gone through the process of deproduction has come from Nebraska and California.
CHARLES L. PARSONS, Fourteen cement plants have installed methods of
Secretary collecting potash from flue dust. Two blast fur
(To be continued) naces have similar methods in operation. Five molasses distilleries are recovering potash from their wastes. A number of beet sugar refineries recovered small amounts of potash. The Green sands of New Jersey are a source of potash for A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of two plants. One plant is utilizing Georgia shale Science, publishing the official notices and pro as a source of potash. One plant at Marysvale, ceedings of the American Association for Utah, is utilizing alunite, and kelp formed the
the Advancement of Science basis of operation for four large companies on the
Published every Friday by Pacific coast. Other minor sources exist, such as wood ashes, wool washings, and the brines of the THE SCIENCE PRESS great Salt Lake basin. The best prospects for
GARRISON, N. Y. the development of a permanent industry in competition with foreign potash appears to be from
NEW YORK, N. Y. the gradual solving of technical details of proc- Entered in the post-office at Lancaster, Pa., u rocond class mather
The advance of physical science during the CONTENTS
past century, and the application of the reAgricultural Botany in Secondary Educa
sults gained therein to industry, and espetion: PROFESSOR HERBERT F. ROBERTS..... 549
cially to the means of transportation and
intercommunication, have made desirable and Grants for Research of the American A880
available, areas of the earth's surface hitherto ciation for the Advancement of Science:
unsought or inaccessible. Because of the dePROFESSOR JOEL STEBBINS
velopment of mechanical agencies through Scientific Events :
science, the present age, more than any other,
is characterized as an age of economic exThe British Association and Scientific Research; The Work of the National Commit
ploitation. The freedom and mystery of the tee on Mathematical Requirements; Chemical
older earth are departing, and soon will be Lectures at West Point and Annapolis 561 gone forever. Never again will there be an:
other Odyssey. The spirit of the new Age of Scientific Notes and News
Steel is over us—the spirit of exploitative
and capitalized industry, that is reaching with University and Educational News
567 magnificent ease out to the remotest confines: i
of the planet, uncovering all the secret places, Discussion and Correspondence:
and blazing plain bare trails athwart the Charcoal Activation: H. H. SHELDON. Aged
earth, straight to the very capitals of the Bean Seed, a Control for Bacterial Blight
ancient fairylands of geography. What mysof Beans: C. W. RAPP. The Flagellation of tery is there left in Peking or Timbuktu, in the Nodule Organisms of the Leguminose: Samarkand or Candahar? To commerce, the ROY HANSEN. The supposed Scales of the names of the nations are but words in a Cottid Fish Jordania: PROFESSOR T. D. A.
game; their habitations but the squares of COCKERELL
red and black on the chess board upon which !
the game is played; their remoteness a mere Report of the Committee of the American Chemical Society on a list recommending
relativity of cost of communication. Chemical Tests for Libraries: W. A. HAMOR. 569
In a sense that is far from Emerson's this
spirit is embodied in the words : Special Articles :
Far or forgot to me is near, An Unercelled Medium for the Preservation
Shadow and sunlight are the same, of Cadavers: PROFESSOR ARTHUR WILLIAM
The hidden gods to me appear, MYER
And one to me are shame and fame.
The American Chemical Society: DR. CHARLES
The first exploitation of new territories has always been made by adventurers driven by the primitive Wanderlust; by men impatient of sitting in sodden security, but ever eager
1 Address before the Iota Chapter, Sigma Xi, University of Kansas.
MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for review should be sent to The Editor of Science, Garrison-onHudson, N. Y.
to voyage on and try the hazard of new concerned, it yet remains for biologists to fortunes. It is to men like these that we owe exploit the deeper mystery and the more thrilthe opening of new regions to settlement. In ling story of life itself in all its protean them through all ages has spoken the soul of forms upon that surface. If this transformaOdysseus :
tion means the elimination of the poetry of
the naïve childhood of the race, we may yet, Push off, and sitting well in order, smite The sounding furrows, for my purpose holds
perchance, find a higher poetry in the grander So sail beyond the sunset and the baths
rhythm of a developing social life and a more Of all the western stars, until I die.
harmonious evolution of wider racial ideals.
Such at least are the deeper reflections of The world, however, has passed through
science science that has come both to destroy this epoch. No new lands lie under the sun
and to fulfill. waiting discovery, for the earth's surface, in
In no other field of industry is the scientific all its essentials is roughly known. The
age working greater changes than in agrihome of El Dorado, the Fountain of Per
culture. The cldest, the most primitive and petual Youth, the Seven Cities of Cibola,
the most necessary of occupations, agriculBagdad, the Land of Ophir, Cipangu, Lhassa,
ture, has been, until the last centruy, the field the country of Prester John and the city of
most neglected by science. In the older the Great Khan, like the Poles of the Earth
countries of Europe, a sharp social stratificaand the Old Moon Mountains African,”
tion, involving contempt for manual labor all these have faded out of the romanticism
among the so-called upper classes, has been of twilight obscurity into the daylight monot
one of the retarding factors in agricultural ony of the commonplace. Magical names
development. Agriculture there is still largely that once lured mankind, have vanished like
the occupation of the peasant, and for the the Wagnerian gods, over
most part, the university and the peasant bridge into the Valhalla of their
never meet. While this is rather a bald and
radical statement of the situation, it holds We will do well to pause for a moment to
good in its general outlines for most of the contrast the modern movement that is en
European states operating under the aristomeshing the carth in a net of industrial
cratic systems of the past, while in the rest, enterprises, with the spirit of the Age of
the prejudice referred to still survives as a Discovery just closing, that we may better
social memory. orient educational work with respect to future
In our own country, settled at the outset by necessities and present demands. Especially is this required of the sciences, upon the
immigrants who chiefly came from a body of
land-loving and free-holding people, social development of which industry depends. In the field of biology, the extent to which
prejudice toward agriculture is a compara
tively minor matter, economically speaking. botany becomes an effective factor in modern education, depends very largely at the present
Strange to say, however, the very favoring time, whether we will it so or not, upon the
conditions of our environment have hindered degree to which it can be brought to effi
agricultural development along scientific lines. ciently cooperate in practical affairs.
Our land was originally boundless and seemFor our greater and our lesser happiness, ingly inexhaustible. It was impossible not the boyhood of the human race is past. We to make a living on a farm, and anybody are growing up socially and economically, and could become the possessor of one.
There the inevitable outcome is going to be the no agricultural economic problems to mastery of the globe by means and for ends solve, beyond the question of markets for the that are scientifically economic, and in the surplusage of the farm. What wonder that long run unquestionably altruistic. If this de- agriculture awakened scant interest in the velopment means the elimination of mystery scientific world. If the soil began to yield and glamor so far as the earth's surface is less as the years went by, under a wasteful,