Abbildungen der Seite

its product and find new products to sell. The all but very large establishments can probably most advantageous solution of problems of this best be carried on by a group working under character can not be left to people who are one head. Why attempt lines of demarcation? busied with the routine problems of sales and In order that research may find its fixed and production. They can best be handled by a recognized place in industry it is desirable staff, even if a very small one, set aside for this that it be carefully planned and controlled, purpose. I want to suggest that any depart- and that its results be carefully watched. So ment having such functions may be called a far as I know, these two conditions of the sucresearch department, and that industrial re- cessful coordination of research with industry search may be defined for any given establish- have not been discussed. Control in the sense ment as all that class of work which enlarges of control of the research in the laboratory the technical horizon of the establishment be- after it has been decided on has had discusyond what is necessary for the routine produc- sion, and I do not refer to it but to the determition and test of its product. You will note nation of the subjects which shall be investithat this will make a sharp distinction between gated in the research department and the a research laboratory and a testing laboratory. decision as to when the research is completed, I should not want to see a chemical laboratory, or, in case it is one that does not lead to satishowever large and elaborate its equipment or factory results, when it shall be abandoned. however highly trained its staff might be, For some five or six years this class of deciscalled a research laboratory if its sole function ions in connection with our research departhappened to be routine analysis and check on ment has been made by a committee of which the product. On the other hand, I should like the president of the company, the head of the

. to see any little room with even a very meager research department, and representatives of equipment and staff, perhaps only a single in- the sales, engineering and production departdividual, called a research laboratory provided ments are members. This committee, called the functions of that individual and equipment the research committee, meets once in two were solely the improvement of processes, in- , weeks, passes on all new subjects for the revestigation of properties of materials new to search department to handle, listens to reports the industry, development of new products, etc. on the progress of the work in hand and passes And I should want to have it called a research on recommendations in regard to the concludepartment even if the research be chiefly car- sion or discontinuance of work. In this way ried on in libraries or other places for the pur- the work of the research department is well pose of bringing information, elsewhere well coordinated with the needs of the business as known, to an establishment to which that in- a whole. As a further factor in coordination formation happens to be new.

the head of the research department is one of tion of research widely recognized might be the board of directors and sits on the executive the occasion for many small industries to start committee. The research committee has nothresearch departments, which these industries ing to do with the internal administration of now regard as possible only for large capital. the department, which is left entirely to its In this sense many small industries already have individuals with research functions who Records of the results of a research departhave other duties as well and do not clearly ment can best be kept by the accounting recognize their research functions. Under department. It is just as important to know these circumstances both the research and the the cost of research as of any other departother work suffer, and as the business develops ment, and, as in other cases, the usefulness research does not find the best relation to the of the record depends to a very large extent work as a whole.

on its subdivision. It is worth while to know Research, development and technical control what investigations contribute to business merge into each other at many points, and in success and what ones do not.

This concep

own staff.


[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


dal Snatge

Some years ago we worked out a plan of forward as a memorandum account only. In determining research cost and making credits the earlier years of the record the total to the department which has given us much volume of business done by the company was valuable information. Each investigation but a few hundred thousand dollars per year. undertaken has its cost record kept by the To summarize, I am making a plea for a accounting department in the same way that a production order has. We of course do not ask our research men to register their time

60,000 on a time clock or anything of that kind, but

50,000 we do ask them to make a memorandum of the work on which they spend their time and 40,000 turn in to the accounting department once a

30,000 week a statement of the distribution of their time over the orders running in the depart- 20,000 ment. Similarly, expenses and costs of materials are kept, and when an investigation is

10,000 closed its total cost is determined. If it happens to be one that has to do with manufacturing processes, such as test of new mate- 10,000 rials, etc., or development of new methods,

20,000 it is either charged to general expense or to the expense of some particular product. If, 30,000 however, it is a piece of work which results

40,000 in the development of a new instrument or

60,000 product for sale, it is treated in the same way

80,000 that a new instrument developed and brought 100,000 in by an outsider would be. The research


140,000 committee decides how much royalty can

160,000 properly be charged to the cost of the instrument, and then as each instrument is made the royalty is added to its cost and is credited conception and organization of research which against its cost account in the research de- will allow it to emerge as a distinct depart. partment. In that way a continuous record ment in any growing technical business and of the usefulness of the research to the busi- take its proper place just as sales, production ness is available. In cases of minor impor- and accounting do. Any technical business tance it is customary to discontinue credits ambitious to grow and render worthy service when the cost has been covered. In cases must in some way avail itself of research. where new products result they are allowed to Kenneth Mees and others have pointed out run on indefinitely. Successful developments how industry in the past has developed accumulate royalties that more than pay for around invention and research, although the the cost of their research and offset the costs distinctiveness of these functions was not of work that leads to nothing. The diagram clearly recognized, and in many cases they shows the relation of annual and accumulated were not directly associated with the business costs of research to the annual and accumu- which profited by them. Certainly an enterlated credits since the department was given prise will have a more worthy and norinal a distinct place. In a little over six years growth if its need for research is early and the total credits had equalled the total clearly recognized, and the research departcharges and the balance went to the credit ment will more easily find its proper relation side. On the books the account is closed to the business as a whole if it is established out each year to profit and loss. It is carried early and its place and functions are defined.


After a business has assumed large propor- tion should be more often opened to serious tions, and research functions are distributed consideration. in scattered manufacturing and engineering Inasmuch as there are probably about as departments, it is difficult to gather them to- many different notions of naturalist” as gether and coordinate them.

there are users of the word it may be necessary Let me remind those of you who may to say that by this term I now mean any one think this conception of research degrading who is actively interested in living things as that the present scientific limitation of the such. word is modern and confined to the exact In primitive societies most of the leaders sciences. The Century Dictionary gives its are naturalists. In fact in most cases their definitions in this order:

leadership depends on attainments of that sort. 1. Diligent inquiry, examination or study, The medicine man gains and holds his posi

2. Laborious or continued search after facts tion very largely through his shifty use of or principles,

knowledge of certain characteristics of ani3. Investigation,

mals in general and of his fellows in parand quotes from Cowper

ticular. The chieftain also usually bases his He sucks intelligence in every clime

influence on successes derived from familiarity And spreads the honey of his deep research with activities of all sorts of animals. CerAt his return—a rich repast for me,

tain women may gain indulgence or even genso I think that the definition which I pro

eral respect through exceptional familiarity

with medicinal and food values of great pose does not violate good usage. Even if

numbers of plants and animals. It is, of it did would not the possibilities of development and usefulness to industry which this

course, easy to see that primitive leadership

is thus conditioned because primitive man is definition allows justify it in the same way that Bryce, in his “ American Common

individually in contact with the natural en

vironment and appreciative of its mysteries; wealth," writing of the third quarter of the

also because in an unspecialized social group last century, said that the application of the

all the members are sufficiently acquainted university" to many institutions, which were no more than colleges or in some

with every phase of activity to be able to

understand and fairly to evaluate unusual cases high schools, was a favorable sign be

skill and intelligence. cause it showed an aspiration, and that where

As society advances in complexity from the aspiration existed the reality would follow? We all know to what a large extent

primitive stage and as more and more special.

ization occurs there are larger and larger this forecast has come true.


numbers of individuals removed from natural LEEDS & NORTHRUP COMPANY,

to artificial conditions of existence. Not only PHILADELPHIA, PA.

so, but many of them are so far removed that they cease to have any knowledge of natural

existence and so become entirely out of symTHE NATURALIST'S PLACE IN HIS

pathy with those who retain some contact COMMUNITY1

with and some interest in the natural order of BEFORE beginning discussion I may say that things. This remoteness from nature may be I am not trying to say anything new physical as in the city dweller, or mental as original and that I am not quite sure that I in the rural resident who sees nothing but a shall be able to make myself entirely clear in pecuniary return through manipulation of the limited time at my disposal. I do think, same natural object. Thus it happens that however, that the points which I shall men- the abilities of the naturalist tend to be ob1 Read at the meeting of the Bay Section of the

scured, ignored or derided in a complex soWestern Society of Naturalists, Stanford Univer

ciety. His standing amongst his fellows is sity, November 29, 1918.

reduced to the lowest rank and his influence



nears the vanishing point. It requires pecu- time and restricted outlook. (6) He may so liar devotion to a cause to face such obscurity condense, simplify and popularize available and indifference hence those who chose to be information as to make it not only usable but naturalists under such conditions are often to some extent tasteful to those unskilled seclusive, reticent and even indifferent to in- in scientific thought. Thus the sympathy of terests of others.

his fellows may be extended and their positive In recent years there has been a good deal

support secured. (7) He may be on the lookof discussion of the need of considering the out for young people with ability who need wholeness of organisms, of organizations of encouragement to proceed along lines of study various social groups, etc. Every one seems in natural history and he may so encourage ready to concede that we do not know a thing them. (8) Last, but not least, he may himuntil we know all its relationships and that we self give time consistently and regularly to do not know an organism or an organization consideration of the problems of his comuntil we know all its component parts. Every munity and of society at large and he may one seems willing to concede in the abstract then exert his voice and influence for the that an organism is not complete if even the things which from his broad viewpoint apsmallest part be missing or the obscurest pear right. Thus he may to some extent act function impaired. Practically when it comes as a balancing power even though he may not to cases this view is not fully sustained as is have or care to exercise powers of aggressive well illustrated in case of the naturalist whose leadership. talents are insufficiently used and whose From the foregoing it must appear that the valuable point of view is largely ignored. naturalist should be accorded and that he The community as a whole suffers material should be willing to assume a place of very loss from his submersion.

considerable importance in our social order. At this point it may be well to raise the The character of this place will vary materially question as to the proper status of the nat- with conditions. In a small community existuralist in our own social order. Should he be ing under very simple conditions a naturalist expected to take the highest place in leader- of even modern abilities might be expected in ship? Or a secondary place? Or should he most cases to be dominant in leadership. In be denied any leadership at all? Intelligent a larger, more complex community only one answer to such questions requires some exami- of exceptional ability might reach great nation of the naturalist's worth to his com- prominence. In such a community the natmunity or to society at large. Typically a uralist of moderate ability would probably be statement of this worth may be brought under limited to exerting influence in various ways. the following heads. (1) He may make dis- His efforts might bring larger results and his coveries which will extend the sources for life accomplish more than in the smaller comfood, clothing, transportation and manufac- munity though obscured by his relatively less ture. (2) He may make discoveries which importance. Here and there are a few natenable better preservation and greater con- uralists of sufficient general ability to assume servation of resources in health and wealth. leadership in national affairs. It is a matter (3) He may make discoveries which will en- of great importance that they should be enable better understanding of the fundamental couraged to do so. laws governing the activities of all living This paper must further concern itself things. (4) With his broad outlook he may mainly with the naturalist of moderate ability, so organize all available knowledge as to ob- limited opportunities and restricted field, that tain better development of natural resources is to say the ordinary sort. It seems to me and better distribution and use of natural that he ought to be encouraged to think of products. (5) He may so systematize useful himself as having an obligation to the cominformation as to make essential features munity, an obligation beyond the direct rereadily available for specialists with limited sults of his scientific work, the obligation of personal activity and interest in community Since there may be some who are still affairs. This interest might be manifested by wondering what is the object of this paper I public and private discussion of public prob- may call attention to the fact that we have lems and community affairs. In such dis- to-day some very strong evidence pointing cussions the naturalist is peculiarly equipped to the view that the day of individualism is for seeing the necessity of complete analysis rapidly passing and that the day of collecof a question since he himself is repeatedly tivism (of some sort) comes on apace. It is no confronted with complex situations due to a more permissible for the man of science to multitude of factors, all of which must be shut himself up in his own interests and to more or less accurately evaluated. He is also assume an air of lofty indifference to the aims able to see the need of giving time for a and aspirations of other people than it is for situation to develop itself since he is so the business or professional man to do so. familiar with the fact that Nature is un- It is time for the man of science to take some hurried in her operations whether their dur- cognizance of public affairs and to assume an ation be seconds or ages. He is able to see active part therein, however small, no matter the need of caution and accuracy in procedure how much he may be tempted to go into his since he is so frequently confronted with laboratory or his woods and fields and to errors due to the impossibility of eliminating ignore the general interests of humanity. It chance combinations. That is to say, the seems to me not at all beneath the dignity of naturalist is able to bring to the consideration such a body as this to consider ways and of a problem those methods which tend to means of getting in closer touch with the accuracy of judgment and clarity of vision. people about us, of arousing their interest in Certainly any individual who can do this in us and our interest in them, and thus cona community should exert a valuable influence. tributing our share toward the harmonizing

Since the members of a highly specialized of society as a whole. I feel certain that community have a marked tendency to become there are hundreds of people in this state narrow, one-sided, and so, to a considerable who ought to have some interest in some or degree, abnormal, it is very necessary to have all of the things which we as individuals are some influence in the other direction. This, doing. I think our state would be a better too, the naturalist may be able to supply to a state if there were some understanding of that great extent. Popular talks on natural phe- sort. It seems to me that we are too much nomena in connection with schools, churches disposed to let the especially able men like or other organizations may be made of value. Dr. Jordan, Dr. Ritter, Dr. Evermann and Pictures may be largely used for this pur- others do what they can and to feel that we pose. Ordinary conversations may often be ourselves are thereby relieved of obligation. turned to advantage along this line. Simple I do not think that is a correct attitude. If exhibits of various sorts may be possible. we want to have the general public respond Any method which will induce even super

as it should to the call for progress in scificial acquaintance of the general public with entific matters, we must each be willing to the great world of life is of distinct advantage sacrifice some prejudice, some leisure and from the standpoint of the human community some effort for the good of the cause. I however it may be from the scientific stand- think too that we should collectively look point. Note particularly in this connection over the field and consider the possibility of that the beneficial effect is reciprocal, i. e., instituting or extending some activity that the narrow are broadened, the one-sided more will help. What I have said simply indicates rounded and the abnormal made more nearly some of the lines along which I think activity normal on the one hand, while on the other might possibly be directed. hand the naturalist is stimulated, pleased and In conclusion, let me say that I think the supported in his work, both financially and naturalist ought to fill in his community a morally in a way not before possible.

place of influence or of leadership, that be


« ZurückWeiter »