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fallen débris. These rooms were in perfect condition, just as left by the last occupants. The ceilings were standing and the objects left by the inhabitants scattered about on the floor. Nothing has disturbed them except the fine layer of dust sifted over all. One of the rooms had been filled to the ceiling and was found to be a burial room.
Mr. Morris writes :
In two second-story chambers there was a large accumulation of dry refuse. One of these yielded some excellent specimens of textiles and a burial with wrappings in a very good state of preserva tion. Above the refuse in the other room there was upon the fallen third floor a surprising number of stone implements, several bone tools, some beautifully worked wooden boards, seven coiled basket plaques (three well preserved), and a digging implement with handle of wood and blade of mountain sheep horn. In the refuse beneath this layer we have to date found the burials of five children (three with wrappings perfectly preserved), four baskets in excellent shape, a wooden dipper, some beads and various odds and ends. Three fourths of the deposit is still to be gone over. The outer covering of the wrapped bodies is particularly in. teresting. Each body was placed upon a rush mat. Then the sides were folded inward, and one doubled upward. The whole was then tied into a long package with cord or yuca strips. As yet I have not opened any of the bundles, so do not know what the interiors may contain besides the bones. These finds certainly are important. They are different from anything we have previously uncovered.
As a result of the excavations Aztec has become a popular resort for visitors. About 100 miles southwest of the Mesa Verde Park (in which the finest cliff-houses are to be found), and not over two hours' ride from Durango, Colorado, the ruin at Aztec is an attraction to all automobile tourists. During the present year more than 1,200 people visited the ruin.
practise were the principal topics for discussion.
More than 2,000 surgeons were present from all parts of the United States. Major General Sir Anthony Bowlby, who served as consulting surgeon to the British forces in France; and Sir Robert Jones, chief consulting surgeon and specialist in restoration of injured limbs at the army hospitals in France, England and Ireland, were present at the meeting.
The convention was opened by an address by Dr. J. S. Hill, of Bellows Falls, Vt., president of the congress. The remainder of the day's session was given over to technical discussions. Dr. William J. Mayo, of Rochester, Minn., delivered the inaugural address on the evening of October 20, the sessions continuing throughout the week.
A series of clinics covering every phase of modern surgery, another of afternoon meetings devoted to technical discussion of the morning's work, and a program of evening sessions, which, while arranged especially for surgeons, held much of direct interest to the general public were in progress during the week. The following program was presented:
PRESIDENTIAL MEETING, MONDAY Address of welcome, Dr. J. Bentley Squier, New York, chairman of committee on arrangements.
Address of retiring president, Dr. John G. Clark, Philadelphia.
Inaugural address, Dr. William J. Mayo, Rochester, Minn.
Introduction of foreign guests, Sir Robert Jones, Liverpool; Major Gillies, R.A.M.C., Sidcup; Sir Anthony Bowlby, London.
Sir Anthony Bowlby, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., K.C.V.O., F.R.C.S., London: “Fractures of the femur.” Discussion, F. N. G. Starr, M.D., Toronto. i
Dr. Harvey Cushing, Boston: “Brain tumor statistics.” Discussion, Dr. Charles H. Frazier, Philadelphia; Dr. Allen B. Kanavel, Chicago; Dr. Charles A. Elsberg, New York.
Dr. Alexis V. Moschcowitz, New York: “Empyema; with particular reference to its pathogenesis and treatment.” Discussion, Dr. John L. Yates, Milwaukee; Dr. James F. Mitchell, Washington.
THE AMERICAN CONGRESS OF SURGEONS
The ninth annual convention of the American Congress of Surgeons was held in New York City, beginning on October 20. Wartime developments in surgery and the possibility of their adoption to industrial and civil
national scientific societies affiliated with it Sir Robert Jones, F.R.C.S., Liverpool, Eng.: will hold their annual meeting at St. Louis, "Stiff and flail joints.” Discussion, Dr. Joseph beginning on Monday, December 29. Dr. A. Blake, New York; Dr. John L. Porter, Chicago; Simon Flexner, director of the laboratories Dr. Joel E. Goldthwait, Boston.
of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical ReDr. George W. Crile, Cleveland: "Surgical
search, will preside and the address of the treatment of exophthalmic goiter.” Discussion, Dr. J. Chalmers DaCosta, Philadelphia; Dr. Dean
retiring president will be given by Professor Lewis, Chicago; Dr. Charles H. Mayo, Rochester,
John M. Coulter, of the University of Minn.
Chicago. Dr. Otto P. Geier, Cincinnati: “The physician The next general meeting of the American and surgeon in the industrial era.” Discussion, Chemical Society will be held at St. Louis. Dr. John J. Moorhead, New York; Dr. William Mo., with the St. Louis Section of the AmerO'Neill Sherman, Pittsburgh; Dr. Jonathan M. icon Che
ican Chemical Society, from April 13 to 16, · Wainwright, Scranton; R. M. Little, Safety In
inclusive. stitute of America, New York.
The thirty-fifth annual meeting of the THURSDAY
Indian Academy of Science will be held on Dr. John B. Deaver, Philadelphia: “The acute Friday and Saturday, December 5 and 6, at abdomen.” Discussion, Dr. J. M. T. Finney, Bal. Indianapolis. timore; Dr. George E. Armstrong, Montreal.
DR. FRANK SCHLESINGER, of the Allegheny Major Gillies, R.A.M.C., Sidcup, Eng.: “Plastic Observatory, was elected president of the operations for facial burns.".
American Astronomical Society at the recent Dr. C. Jeff Miller, New Orleans: “Radiotherapeutic and other methods for treatment of
Ann Arbor meeting. Dr. Schlesinger succancer of the uterus." Discussion, Dr. James F.
ceeds the late Edward C. Pichering, who for Percy, Galesburg, Ill, “Cautery''; Dr. Henry K. many years in succession had been elected to Pancoast, Philadelphia, “X-ray''; Dr. Harold C. this office. Bailey, New York, “Radium.”
MAJOR GENERAL W. C. Gorgas has been
elected an honorary member of the National FRIDAY
Academy of Medicine of Peru. Convocation of the American College of Sur
PROESSOR Anton J. Carlson, chairman of geons. Conferring of honorary fellowships.
the department of physiology at the UniverPresentation of candidates for fellowship. sity of Chicago, who was commissioned
Presidential address, Dr. William J. Mayo, captain in the Sanitary Corps in 1917, made Rochester, Minn.
major in 1918, and lieutenant colonel in 1919, Fellowship address, Sir Arthur Bowlby, K.C.B., has returned to his regular work at the uniK.C.M.G., K.C.V.O., F.R.C.S., London,
versity. In the spring of 1919 Dr. Carlson
was called to Paris and made the director of SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS the division of the American Relief AdminisThe National Academy of Sciences, as al tration known as the Children's Relief Buready announced, will hold its autumn meet reau. He has since visted Poland, Czechoing at Yale University, New Haven, on Slovakia, Austria, Jugo-Slavia, Finland, the November 10, 11 and 12. Professor Henry Baltic states and parts of western Russi, A. Bumstead is chairman of the local com- paying particular attention to putting the mittee, the other members being Professor child-welfare work on a national and perLafayette B. Mendel and Professor Ross J. manent basis. Harrison.
HERBERT E. GREGORY, who for the past five In accordance with the vote taken at the months has been serving as acting director of Baltimore meeting, the American Association the Bishop Museum in Honolulu, has refor the Advancement of Science and the turned to take up his work at Yale University.
Baltimore meeting, the American Association
It is announced that Dr. J. Rodríguez Carracido, the chemist and president of the University of Madrid, is a member of a Spanish delegation leaving soon for the United States.
CAPTAIN CAFFE, formerly of the Royal Air Force. left Winnipeg, Manhattan, in an air: plane on October 31, to attempt the rescue of J. B. Tirrell, the geologist and mining engineer, reported to be “frozen in ” and without supplies in the Rice Lake district. Attempts made to reach Mr. Tirrell by boats have been unsuccessful.
SIR BERTRAM WINDLE, F.R.S., in his annual report to the governing body of University College Cork, announces that his resignation of the presidency of the college will shortly take effect. He has accepted an invitation from St. Michael's College in the University of Toronto to deliver a course of lectures on “ Science in relation to the scholastic philosophy” during the first three months of next year.
Dr. R. H. A. PLIMMER, reader in physiological chemistry, University College, London, has been appointed head of the biochemical de partment of Craibstone Animal Nutrition Research Institute, which is under the direction of Aberdeen University and the North of Scotland College of Agriculture.
Dr. Donald W. Davis, Ph.D., has returned to his position as professor of biology at William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va. He spent the last three months of his stay overseas in research work in genetics at the John Innes Horticultural Institution.
PROFESSOR GEORGES E. DREYER, of Oxford University, delivered the first lecture at Western Reserve University School of Medicine on the H. M. Hanna Lecture Fund, on October 27, the subject being “ Vital capacity and physical fitness."
study of practising physicians who desire to acquaint themselves with current medical and surgical investigation. The course will be gin next June, and is being arranged by a committee of three members of the faculty of the school of medicine. There will be short, intensive courses, without degrees, and a longer course, which will lead to the degree of A.M. in medicine. The latter is especially designed for regular students who may wish to continue their study before taking up their practise. It will be in connection with the establishment of several teaching fellowships.
Lloyd's Register of Shipping has presented £10,000 to the fund which is being raised to establish a Degree in Commerce at the University of London.
In the Towne Scientific School of the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Milo S. Ketchum, has been made professor of civil engineering, he filling the post made vacant by the death of the late Dr. Edgar Marburg. He brings with him as assistant professor Dr. Clarence L. Eckel, from the University of Colorado. This department loses Dr. William Easby, Jr., professor of municipal engineering and Charles L. Warwick, assistant professor of structural engineering.
Dr. A. G. Hogan has left Kansas State Agricultural College to take the chair of biochemistry in the medical school of the University of Alabama, at Mobile. He will be succeeded at the Kansas college by Dr. J. S. Hughes.
PAUL EMERSON, Ph. D. (Iowa State), has resigned as associate bacteriologist at the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station to accept the position of assistant professor of soils and assistant chief in soil bacteriology at Iowa State College. In that institute H. W. Johnson, M.S., has been transferred from his position of assistant in soil bacteriology to that of associate professor of soils and assistant chief in soil chemistry in humus investigations.
SINCE Fordham Medical School closed the registration in the freshmen and sophomore classes and decided to close in 1921, Dr. Carl
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
NEWS It is planned to establish a post-graduate school in medicine in Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. The department is intended to offer opportunities for further
P. Sherwin has been transferred from the yet to do heavy labor, picking up or sweeping medical school, where he held a professorship up fallen leaves for fuel. Gardens and fields in physiological chemistry, to the university. therefore are usually entirely free of old The department of chemistry in the university decaying vegetable material. In this conhas been entirely reorganized with Dr. Sher- nection an observation upon the absence of win as the head; John A. Daly and George J. leaf spot diseases on field crops in South Shiple are are professors and Walter A. Hynes, China is of possible interest. William Wolfe and William J. Fordrung, as- Sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas), tobacco sistant professors.
(Nicotiana tabacum), turnips (Brassica camDr. H. L. IBSEN, of the University of Wis- pestris), onions (Allium cepa), chard (Beta consin, has been appointed assistant professor cicla), beans (Phaseolus sp.), carrots (Daucus of animal husbandry in charge of the courses carota) and cauliflower (Brassica sp.) are and the experimental work in genetics at the
commonly grown in South China. ObservaKansas State Agricultural College.
tion of these field crops has shown them to be CHARLES HARLAN ABBOTT, Ph.D. (Brown,
surprisingly free from the leaf spot diseases '18), has become instructor in zoology in
which would ordinarily affect these crops in Massachusetts Agricultural College.
the United States. These observations have
been at two separate periods, at both times the MR. HUBERT SHEPPARD has been elected in
weather being very moist and with temperastructor in anatomy in the University of tures which would not limit development of Kansas.
the causal fungi. It would seem as if these Dr. A. E. HENNINGS, formerly professor of farmers in their utilization of all waste matephysics at the University of Saskatchewan, rial as fuel and the consequent removal of Saskatoon, Canada, and more recently assist- sources of infection, maintain their crops ant professor of physics at the University of almost entirely free from these diseases. That Chicago, has accepted an appointment in the is, apparently the absence of leaf spot diseases department of physics at the University of may be accounted for by the field sanitaBritish Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. The tion, practised unknowingly by the Chinese departmental staff as now constituted is rep- farmers. resented by Drs. T. C. Hebb, A. E. Hennings, These observations are put forward only as J. G. Davidson and Mr. P. H. Elliott.
an illustration of what may be called field
sanitation, carried out on a large scale with DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE apparently successful results. This would sug
NATURAL FIELD SANITATION IN CHINA gest that in the United States much could be In the thickly populated parts of South
gained by more careful field methods and the
8 China there are a considerable number of Professor F, H. King in his very interesting people who financially are very poor; it is a book, “Farmers of Forty Centuries,” discusses the constant struggle with them to obtain food use of compost heaps very completely. The use for themselves and for any live stock which of compost heaps containing remnants and wastes they may possess, such as chickens and ducks, of plant material is of course a great means for a few hogs, or possibly a carabao. Fuel is
the dissemination of diseases of crop plants. also very scarce and such waste vegetable
Since one reading Professor King's work might matter as becomes dried is promptly utilized
consider it to refute the present suggestion, it for heating purposes. This struggle for food
seems well to explain that in South China such
compost heaps are much more uncommon than in and fuel leads to a prompt utilization of all
the region around Shanghai and Shantung provwaste vegetable material. Small leaves, in
ince, and although compost heaps have been seen significant to us for this use, are picked up near Canton they are few and do not seem to play sometimes one by one and it is a very common the part in the agricultural scheme that they do sight to see small boys and girls, too small as farther north.
of all vegetable the one a prompt utilier the
elimination of sources of infection of cropdustrial Research has just been issued; it plants.
covers the period from August 1, 1918, to The writer appreciates the danger of gen- July 31, 1919. Earl Curzon, of Kedleston, eralizing upon such a subject. However the the Lord President, records that during the
past year the work of the Department of Sciof all vegetable material and the other an entific and Industrial Research has steadily almost entire absence of leaf spot diseases, grown in usefulness and in amount. The are both so noticeable that the coincidence and
passage from war to peace, he says, reveals suggested explanation seem worthy of note.
more and more clearly as it proceeds the ATHERTON LEE
need for the sympathetic encouragement and BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY
organization of research in every sphere of A METHOD OF IMBEDDING IN PARAFFINE
national life. Encouraging progress is re
corded in several directions. Thus a marked The following method of imbedding tissues
change is observed to be taking place in the in paraffine preparatory to sectioning has
attitude of industry towards scientific reproven so satisfactory in routine work in our
search; both masters and men are beginning laboratory that this brief note of description
to recognize its vital importance. Something is offered.
also has been done to increase the number of The imbedding is done in paraffine buttons formed on the surface of cold water. Melted
trained research workers, the demand for paraffine is allowed to flow from a pipette
whose services rose rapidly not only in indown the side of a glass dish with sloping
dustries, but also in the universities and govwall, such as a finger bowl, nearly full of
ernment departments. The report of the Adwater. On reaching the surface, the paraffine
visory Council, signed by the administrative hardens below, forming a button still liquid
chairman, Sir William McCormick, describes above and anchored securely at one edge to in greater detail the various branches of the the glass. The tissue is now p'aced in the department's work. The work of the Food fluid paraffine and oriented. More paraffine Investigation Board grew enormously during may then be added to thicken the button if the year. The field to be covered is so large necessary. A label is attached by its end and the range of scientific knowledge so wide, with a small drop of paraffine. The button is that only a complex organization could hope then disengaged from the class by a dissecting to deal with the problems effectively. The necdle and carried on the point of the latter board accordingly set up six' committees to below the surface. It is at once transformed deal respectively with fish preservation, engito a glass of water inverted over a basin, neering, meat preservation, fruit and vegewhere it remains until solid.
tables, oils and fats, and canned foods; and Large thick buttons may be obtained in this these committees have in turn appointed way without the use of glycerin, paper boats seven special committees. The therapeutic or frames. The rapidity with which imbed uses of oxygen, shown by recent practise to ding may be done by this method is perhaps be capable of very great extension, and being its chief recommendation,
actively investigated by the Medical Research LEO H. SCHATZ
Committee in close cooperation with the REED COLLEGE
Oxygen Research Committee of the Depart
ment. The Industrial Fatigue Research QUOTATIONS
Board was established jointly by the Medical SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH IN Research Committee and the Department, the ENGLAND
former being responsible for administration. The fourth annual report of the Committee The demands made upon the Board have far of the Privy Council for Scientific and In- exceeded all anticipation, while industrial un