« ZurückWeiter »
in SCIENCE, for September 19. The following is a list of the papers with abstracts in so far as they have been obtained:
DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY '
W. D. Richardson, Chairman.
T. J. Bryan, Secretary. What was the diet of aboriginal man? W. D. RICHARDSON.
On the constitution of butterfat: W. D. RICHARDSON.
Some experiments on simple dietaries: W. D. RICHARDSON.
Influence of segregation upon the composition of sugar products: C. A. BROWNE. The author after a brief mention of the uneven distribution of the constituents of different sugar products, such as honey, sirup, sugars, jelly, etc., produced by gravity, capillarity, evaporation and other causes, cites the specific instance of low grade molasses. Top and bottom portions of Cuban molasses, which gave no visible indications of deposits, showed from 2.50 per cent. to nearly 4 per cent. more ash and from 0.25 per cent. to 1.40 per cent. more or. ganic non-sugars in the bottom layers. Similar but less pronounced differences were observed in case of refinery molasses. As a result of the settling out of insoluble salts and gums the top portions of unmixed molasses may be expected to contain more water, sucrose and invert sugar than the bottom
GENERAL MEETING Some problems and methods in agricultural research: H. J. WHEELER.
Some physiological effects produced by radiating definite regions within a single cell: W. V. BOVIE.
Stream pollution and its relation to the chemical industries : EARLE B. PHELPS. Published in full in Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chem., 10 (1919), 928. The relation of stream pollution to the chemical industries is two-fold. Many industries require water supplies of good quality, and most of them produce liquid wastes which, if discharged without treatment into the water courses, tend to pollute those waters. With the growth of industry, and the increasing joint use of streams for the purposes of water supply and waste disposal conflicts of interest are bound to arise.
In most states this matter comes under the administrative activity of the public health officials, who likewise initiate or assist in framing the laws. Manufacturing interests have in the past exerted merely obstructive influence.
Stream pollution and its control involve problems of engineering, chemistry, biology and eco. nomics. The first aim is the fixing of standards of permissible pollution which will develop the maxi. mum advantageous use of the streams.
The subject of treatment presents many interesting chemical problems, and its study frequently leads to important recoveries of by-products. · The subject of stream pollution and its control is broader than its legal and remedial phases: its public health interests or its manufacturing in terests; its broader than state jurisdictions. It is a part of the problem of the maximum utilization and development of our waterways. As such it is essentially a Federal problem, calling for extensive investigation and uniform treatment. Its importance should be fully recognized in the crea. tion of any such federal commission as the Inter state Waterways Commission which has recently been suggested. · The building of atoms and the periodic systems:
ra the perioare systems: W. D. HARKINS. (To be printed in SCIENCE.) ! The chemical laboratory as a publicity factor: ROBERT P. FISCHELIS. See Jour. Ind and Eng. Chem., 10 (1919), 929.
The hydroscopic capacity of certain food constituents: C. A. BROWNE. The moisture-absorb. ing capacity of levulose agar, gelatin, peptone, bread, cellulose and sucrose are given for different conditions of atmospheric humidity. For ordinary conditions the power of the substances to absorb moisture decreases in the order named. As regards influence of season food products have the least moisture in February and the highest moisture in July and August. The ratio of moisture content to humidity and the influence of lag (due to time of adjustment between surface and interior moisture) are discussed. The rates of absorption for the different substances under constant humidity are given, also a few practical bearings which the results have upon commercial and analytical problems.
The relative importance of some coloring matters in sugar cane juices and syrups: F. W. ZERBAN.
Nutrition experiments with low-cost protein diets with reference to the utilization of peanut and soy bean flours: CARL O. JOHNS, A. J. FINKS and MABEL S. PAUL.
The amount and distribution of iron in the corn plant: G. N. HOFFER, R. H. CARR and I. L. BALDWIN.
Chemical changes in cranberries during storage: FRED. W. MORSE. There are small but positive differences in the percentages of sugar and acid contained in different varieties of cranberries. The maximum of sugar is present soon after pick ing. During storage the sugar slowly diminishes as the berry makes use of it in maintaining its life processes. The rate of change is much accelerated by a rise in temperature and is most pronounced when the fruit is kept in tight, unventilated packages. Acid remains as a rule unchanged.
Respiration of cranberries : FRED W. MORSE. A simple method of estimating the rate of chemical changes in fruit at a given temperature, is to de termine the amount of Co, exhaled by a kilogram of the fruit in an hour. The CO, is produced by the oxidation of some of the soluble carbonaceous matter in the fruit's cells, hence the rate of metabolism may be closely estimated. The experi. ments showed that cranberries exhaled twice as much co, at 10° C. as at 1° and that the rate doubled again at 20°. The nearer the freezing. point, fruits are held before they are consumed, the more nearly will their quality remain like freshly picked fruit. A week at summer temperature will be as destructive to quality as a month in cold storage. | The cause of deterioration and spoiling of corn and corn meal: J. S. MCHARGUE.
The water soluble manganese of soils: W. O. ROBINSON, R. F. GARDINER and R. S. HOLMES. The results obtained by, frequently shaking 24 samples of soil with distilled water for eight days are given in this paper.
The following deductions are drawn from the data: (1) One hundredth to .1 of the total manganese of soils is soluble in water. (2) Carbon di. oxide greatly increases the solubility of the man ganese. (3) Surface soils contain much more soluble manganese than subsoils, the difference is greater the finer the texture of the soil. (4) The amount of MnO in soil extracts varies from 0-24 parts per million and is large enough to affect the bacteriological flora and probably has a more direct influence on plant growth.
The composition of ultra clay from certain soils : W. 0. ROBINSON. By the term "ultra clay” is meant that body which remains in nearly permanent suspension when the soil is treated with pure water. It has no organized structure and behaves as any colloid. It is essentially an extremely finely divided hydrous aluminum silicate, with some of
the aluminum replaced by iron. Hydrated oxides of aluminum, iron, titanium, silicon and manganese (probably) are also present. The phosphoric acid and potash of ultra clays is higher than the soil from which they were obtained. Organic matter is an ever present constituent and it is probable that it plays an important part in deflocculating the suspension. . Composition of soil extracts: M. S. ANDERSON and W. H. Fry. The salts deposited on the evaporation of the water extract of soils are much more complex in character than is indicated by a simple statement of the ions existing in solution. There is a marked general similarity between the salts obtained on evaporation of water extracts of soils and those obtained by both natural and artificial evaporation of sea-water. No salt can be expected to furnish all the salts occurring in natural deposits of saline material because these represent crystallization from a composite extract. Under ordinary soil conditions these complex salts are probably always in solution in the soil moisture. , Melezitose in honey: EDGAR T. WHERRY. Melezitose is a rare sugar, a trisaccharide, which has heretofore been but little known. Its name is from melez, the French name for the larch tree, it having been discovered in a honey dew on the European larch. It also occurs in manna, a sugary incrustation, on a leguminous tree in Persia and adjoining countries. Its occurrence in a similar material found on the Douglas fir in British Columbia has been recently described by Hudson and Sherwood.1 While the latter occurrence was under investigation, some honey received from central Pennsylvania was found to be nearly solid from the crystallization of the same sugar; and Dr. C. S. Hudson asked the writer to visit the regions where this honey was produced, and endeavor to ascertain the origin of the melezitose. After considerable study, the following origin of this substance was worked out: The scrub pine tree, and rarely other species of pine, are subject to attack by a plant louse-of the group known technically as lachnids—and a scale insect of the group known as coccids. These insects develop in midsummer in considerable numbers, and in the course of their life activities excrete a sweet material, honey-dew, which is rich in melezitose. In dry summers, after the white clover flowers have ceased to yield honey, the bees turn to this honey dew, and collect it, but it crystallizes as fast as they store it away,
1 J. Am. Chem. Soc., 40, 1456 (1919).
making the honey unattractive in appearance, and if stored in cells to be used by the bees during the winter, disastrous to the bee keepers; for during the cold weather the bees can not get water to dissolve the crystals, and starve. This occurred in 1917 and 1918, and considerable losses were suffered by the bee-keepers from this cause. But in the present year the weather was so moist during July that no melezitose was collected by the bees at all. Several kilograms of this rare sugar have been extracted from honey and purified in the Bureau of Chemistry, so that it is now available for thorough investigation of its properties. It can be readily distinguished from glucose by observation of the crystals in the honey with the polarizing microscope.
Milk with high apparent acidity: FRANK E. RICE. Individual cows were found giving milk with titratable acidities as high as .22 per cent. Several tests were applied to this type of milk as well as to normal milk both fresh and sour. The results were as follows: (1) Formaldehyde titration indicated that where high casein was present, high apparent acidity might be expected. On the other hand, some samples were found with high apparent acidity which were not unusually high in casein. (2) Titration by the Van Slyke oxalate procedure indicated that phosphates were always somewhat higher in this class of milk. (3) Electrometric and colorimetric methods showed the hydrogen ion concentration to be similar to that of normal fresh milk. (4) Electrical conductivity was no higher than in normal milk. (5) Methyl ene blue and alcohol tests were always negative. (6) High solids and solids-not-fat usually but not always accompanied high apparent acidity. (7) This condition was always found in the early stages of lactation but occasionally also in late stages. (8) Observation did not indicate that feeds were a factor in causing high apparent acidity.
Effects of sulphur in manure-phosphate composts: W. E. TOTTINGHAM. Sulphur and rockphosphate have been composted with manure, both separately and together. Analysis after four months of fermentation has shown the production of high titratable acidity where sulphur was present, with consequent increases of citrate-soluble P,0; where rock-phosphate was also present. Application of these composts to pure sand, together with nutrient salts, to sandy soil and to silt loam for greenhouse cultures of barley has led to increased yields of seed from the sulphur-phosphate compost, as compared with the compost of phos
phate alone. Similar results have followed the application of sulphur and rock phosphate to field plots of barley in unmanured sandy loam. The peculiar, outstanding feature of the results has been that sulphur alone has shown as great seed producing power as the combination of sulphur with rock-phosphate, under these conditions.
The quantities of preservatives necessary to inhibit and prevent alcoholic fermentation and the growth of molds : MARGARET C. PERRY and GEORGE D. BEAL. Sterile dextrose broth, to which known quantities of preservative had been added, were inoculated with pure cultures of Sacc. cerevisia and P. glaucum. The tubes were incubated at room temperature until positive results were obtained in check tubes. In case of no gas formation or of failure to obtain a visible growth of mold, dextrose agar plates were poured to determine the point at which complete sterilization took place.
Shark meat as an edible product: ALLEN ROGERS. This paper deals with the use of shark meat as a food product and shows that it would be possible to secure approximately 200,000 pounds of this material daily or 75,000,000 pounds annually. Assuming that the market price could be set at 10 cents it shows that at the present time we are wasting a food product with a value of $7,300,000. The edible portion of the shark consists of about 50 per cent. of the weight of the body and resembles in its texture and flavor either the halibut or sword fish. In some markets this product is now being sold under the name of deep sea sword fish and a certain species of shark known as dog fish is being canned and labelled grey fish. Cooking experiments have shown the food to be very palatable and nourishing.
CHARLES L. PARSONS,
A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of Science, publishing the official notices and pro ceedings of the American Association for
the Advancement of Science
Published every Friday by
GARRISON, N. Y.
A SYSTEM OF COOPERATION
AND INDUSTRY Much has been written in recent months pointing out in unmistakable terms the value of chemical research to industrial companies and organizations. There has been described an enormous number of problems within the range of chemistry and chemical engineering, which are at present confronting the industrial world or which, by their solution, would vastly enhance the efficiency of their processes or the marketability of their products. Many papers have discussed the methods by which such investigational work might be introduced; some going into much detail as to the establishment of departments of chemical research within the industrial plants themselves, and others revealing the advantages which would obtain by causing these several investigations to be studied in centralized laboratories of industrial Research.8 Still others have pointed out the advantages to the ind to the industrial organizations of permitting
1 Duncan, “The Chemistry of Commerce," No. Amer. Rev. (1907), 241, and “Some Chemical Problems of To-day,” ibid. (1911), 224. Hamor, “The Value of Industrial Research,” Scientific Monthly, 1-86 (1915), and “The Research Couplet,” ibid., 6–319 (1917). Bacon, “The Remuneration of Industry by Research,” Sci. Am., 116–281 (1917). Bacon and Hamor, “Some Present-day Problems of Chemical Industry," J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 11, 470 (1919).
2 Mees, “Planning a Research Laboratory for and Industry,'' J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 10, 476 (1918).
3 Bacon, “The Industrial Fellowships of the Mellon Institute,” ibid., 11, 371 (1919). Symposium on “An Institute for Cooperative Research as an Aid to the American Drug Industry,” ibid., 11, 59; 11, 157; 11, 377 (1919). Annual Report of the Honorary Advisory Council for Scientific and Industrial Research of Canada, March 31, 1919, Canadian Official Record, August 7, 1919.
some of their perplexities to be investigated within the laboratories of the college and the university.
It is not the purpose of this paper to elaborate upon any of these proposed methods for the solution of the chemical research problem, nor to suggest any new solution, but rather to discuss a phase of the situation upon which but little has been said, e. g., the advantages which may be derived by the college or university itself by the establishment within its department of chemistry of a cooperative system of industrial research.
It is of too common occurrence to be longer neglected that many unfortunate “ diseases" are frequently encountered in the small college and university chemistry de partment. The members of the staff are too often fearfully overworked, and this results not only in lowering their our physical well. being and mental repose, which reflects only too plainly in the quality of the work they present to their classes, but may even result in the presentation of courses by a plan which is an imposition to the student and a discreditable reflection upon the institution.
Investigational work is often, very often, entirely excluded from the program of the instructing staff. This may be because of a lack of time, or it may be the result of indifference, but whatever the cause it is a most serious mistake. Investigational work is the one thing which is able to keep a teacher from becoming “stale” and falling into the otherwise almost inevitable “rut.” A few of the leading universities in the country have set the excellent precedent of not only permitting each instructor time in which to do research but actually expecting him to do this and determining his rating to a certain extent upon his ability at research.
We often find students in their junior or senior years assisting in the instruction work in the freshman and sophomore laboratories. It is evidently necessary to do this or else to go without such assistance entirely, but it is
4Post Doctorate Fellowships," J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 11, 278 (1919). “Report of the Committee on Cooperation between the Universities and the Industries,” ibid., 11, 417 (1919).
far from being a satisfactory arrangement. The professor is not greatly benefited, as he is obliged to keep a very close supervision over these assistants and often correct their mistakes, and the students usually fail to accept them as much more than a joke.
The average college is usually desirous of obtaining men to become candidates for advanced degrees. This is not only justifiable ambition but sound business, for on the average the men who go farthest in their study of a science while attending college as graduate students are the men who later become the recognized authorities in their respective departments. But the average college has difficulty in obtaining even a sufficient number of candidates for postgraduate work to take care of the college assistant work that is desired.
Again, many a good man would like to take advanced degree work but can not find the funds. For even if he is granted an assistantship it seldom pays more than $300 to $400 per year, and this is insufficient for a living. If it were made $800 many more men would be attracted to the work.
Even the salaries of the professors themselves are often pitifully inadequate, and it becomes almost a necessity for the staff members to accept work, analytical usually, from extraneous sources in order to obtain a reasonable living income. It is evident that such work is undertaken only at the expense of the already oppressed college courses and belaboredo
As a means of remedying some of the difficulties presented above, a properly directed system of cooperation between the college and industry has great possibilities. Such a system may be briefly drawn as follows: That industrial companies and associations shall be solicited to present their chemical problems to the college for solution.
That in consideration of a specified stipend to be paid in advance by the company or association to the college, the latter will undertake through its department of chemistry to solve such problems as may at the time be presented.