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practically all civilized countries were ad far as independence is concerned, it is to be herents of the various existing international said that the manner of organization admits bodies. Hence the aggregate money contri- of much elasticity and large freedom of bution per county joining the new inter action of any section apart from the Union national bodies will probably not be any to which it may belong, or of the Union apart more, more likely less, than under the old from the council. system.
The present convention is to continue for The organization of the new international twelve years, beginning January 1, 1920, subbodies may appear to be not as simple, orject to renewal and modification at the end perhaps not even as independent, as the of this period. The general meetings are to former ones. Thus, for example, instead of take place every three years when there will having such a brief and convenient name as be opportunity for changes in organization “International Geodetic Association " we or statutes, as future experience may suggest. would have now “ Section of Geodesy of It will not be necessary for a union to meet at the International Geodetic and Geophysical the same place as the council, or for all the Union.” (The International Research Coun- various unions to meet together. A section cil does not insist upon having its name also may furthermore call a special meeting when added.) Many of the geophysical delegates found necessary. from the various represented countries, it The objects of the International Geodetic appeared, would have preferred the name and Geophysical Union are stated in the “International Geophysical Union," in ac- official version as follows: cordance with the original proposal. However the executive committee of the Inter
committee of the Inter 1. To promote the study of problems concerned national Research Council, at its preliminary
with the figure and physics of the earth.
2. To initiate and coordinate researches which meeting in Paris last May, adopted the ex
depend upon international cooperation and to propanded name on the motion of the repre
vide for their scientific discussion and publication. sentative of Italy.
3. To facilitate special researches, such as the Most likely there will naturally come into
comparison of instruments used in different counuse simplified designations, as, for example: International Geodetic Section (or committee), International Seismological Section In conclusion, it may not be amiss to say (or committee), etc. This would conform to that the six sections of the International the corresponding names for the “national Geodetic and Geophysical Union as finally sections," as they have been tentatively called established were in general accord with those in the United States, or “national com- the American Geophysical Delegates were inmittees," as they are called in England and structed to recommend. The French had France.
originally proposed but two sections, Geodesy The basic idea of retention of the name of and Meteorology, to which was added a third, section (or of committee) is, of course, that
Seismology, in the Royal Society proposals. the particular branch of geophysics repre
However, as the result of preliminary, insented by the section is to be considered as
formal meetings at Brussels of the various but a part of the broad, general subject of
national delegations, discussion soon develgeophysics. The fruitful, fundamental idea
oped practical unanimity in the proposals to is that there will be at least once in three
have each main branch of geophysics repreyears a general symposium on the main
sented by an independent section. The resobranches of geophysics, rather than independent, uncoordinated meetings on special
lutions passed by section (c) (Meteorology) branches. In that respect there is certainly
and (d) (Terrestrial Magnetism and Eleca great gain in the new organization of geo
tricity) are good illustrations of the prophysical bodies over the old ones. And as visions taken also as to cross-relationships
between sections of a union or between differ- tunity for public service and the lesson will ent unions.
not be lost. The participation of our college As far as the future advancement of the in the war is a cause for quiet satisfaction, particular subjects of Terrestrial Magnetism and perhaps we may pause for a moment to and Terrestrial Electricity are concerned, it glance at some of the activities of the instiis believed that a step of fundamental im- tution which has been or is to be your inportance was taken at Brussels by the assign- tellectual home. A member of our faculty ment of these subjects to a section by itself gave up his practise and went to Washington rather than relegating or subordinating them to assume control of important matters there. to some other branch of geophysics with On speaking to him of his unselfishness, he which they might have but a very remote, or replied that his lot was not worthy of symeven but a purely administrative connection. pathy when contrasted with the sacrifice of
Besides receptions tendered by the burgo- the many young second lieutenants in the master (Adolf Max), the Minister of Edu- medical service, who had their wives and cation, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, op- babies at home to be supported by the meager portunity was afforded for a visit and recep- salary paid by the government. This gention on July 26 at the Uccle Royal Observa- erous sentiment was illustrative of the spirit tories, to whose director, Monsieur G. that spent itself freely for the welfare of the Lecointe, the signal success of the local country. arrangements is to be largely ascribed.
In 1914 Dr. Stimson, a veteran of our Let us hope that the powerful stimulus Civil War, went from this college into the given geophysical research by the Inter- front trenches with the Belgians and showed national Research Council will bear the them by candlelight antiseptic methods for desired fruit and bring about in each country the treatment of wounds. He returned there adequate recognition of the needs for the again in 1916 and was planning a third trip advancement of our knowledge of the physics before he died in 1917. of the earth!
One of our professors took the New York Louis A. BAUER Hospital unit to France. Another was chief
officer in charge of all the pathological labA MEDICAL SCHOOL, IN THE WAR
oratories in France. We visualize such men
as healing the wounds of those hurt in battle AND AFTER
or seeking out new methods of cure in the LADIES and gentlemen of the classes enter
laboratories behind the lines. ing the Cornell Medical College, on behalf
One of the women graduates of this college of the President, the Acting Dean and the
went abroad as secretary to the head of the Faculty, I bid you welcome! A year ago the Bellevue Hospital unit. When later the chief college opened under the shadow of the world
of that hospital went to the front he left her war and saddened also by the death of our
in charge of the base hospital, the younger great dean, William Mecklenburg Polk. To- men
10- men remaining there willingly recognizing day the college reopens with its ranks filled,
her superiority. with new men added to its staff, and with im
Ith im- Another of our professors was at first portant departments remodeled on modern
chosen to standardize surgical dressings for lines. Dr. Polk's policy of reorganizing one
the American Red Cross. He also trained department after another upon sound sci
135 army surgeons in the surgery of war entific principles has been continued since
wounds. This course aroused their enthuhis death.
siasm both when it was given and later in The war brought to every one the oppor- retrospect abroad, and it brought the com
1 An address of welcome to the students of the ment from the Surgeon-General's Office that Cornell University Medical College, September 29, it was the best constructed and most compre1919.
hensive course given in the country. This
master surgeon finally won his way to the front in France and, although suffering from the results of a grievous fall which brought great pain at every foot-step, he trudged for miles with our advancing armies. This portrays the spirit of courage and sacrifice which should be a fundamental principle in the practise of your profession.
To those who remained at home the mental hardship of so doing was often very great. One of our professors, when asked to enter the service, was bluntly told by Dean Polk, “If you wish to close this school you can accept this offer.” So the man stayed at home and nearly lost his life later in gas experiments for the government.
The war brought its special scientific problems. In this school 429 men were trained in roentgenology, and the first portable x-ray apparatus for use in the field was here constructed.
Through a special knowledge acquired in Bellevue Hospital, another professor so perfected the ventilation system in the submarine that one of our United States boats remained submerged for four days, a world record.
From this school went one who had the scientific supervision over the nutrition of the United States Army. Another distributed a million dollars' worth of food among the Serbians and recently left that country with its fields 90 per cent. planted and its people blessing the American officers for their kindly generosity.
Some of our students entered the regular fighting forces, one leaving the college during his second year in medicine and returning as a major. We welcome those men back to their work with us.
Many other services, heroic and intellectual, were rendered by and through this institution during the great crisis. I have mentioned only a few instances which have come to me. It has been said that no man should be vain of personal accomplishment. Davenport says that if an individual has been given great powers of heart and mind which have been properly developed by education, his intelligent reaction to circumstances is a question
of innate mental endowment and, therefore, not a matter for personal conceit. It is permissible, however, to say that you, who are now placed in an environment suggestive of moral and mental capacity, may profitably develop your own capacities each according to his individual endowment.
I have briefly sketched the war activities of some of your teachers. They are in this work of teaching, not for financial reward, but in spite of the lack of it. Professors salaries have not risen during the war but the professors have not gone on strike.
In Ludwig's physiological laboratory in Leipzig there was an old servant named Salvenmoser who had helped the professor for thirty-five years. When Salvenmoser wished his pay raised be became ill and retired to his quarters in the upper part of the physiological laboratory. During this time the celebrated Professor Ludwig could perform none of his celebrated experiments, and as much as a week might pass before the pay was raised; then Salvenmoser recovered from his illness and the experiments were resumed. In thinking over this little story it seems to me to have been prophetic of the workers of the present day, for many of them have been converted into Salvenmosers—willing to thwart the great experiments of world endeavor by feigning illness. But university professors, however underpaid and hard pressed, have not gone on strike, but stand prepared to serve you for the common good.
I do not know how many of you have read an opening paragraph which has for several years been in the catalogue of the Cornell University Medical School:
The objects of this school are:
2. To conduct researches into the cause and cure of disease.
As a matter of fact, these two objects are not separable, for in order to produce a modern physician of the best type he must be educated in the atmosphere of developing knowledge which we call research. A cynic of another generation has remarked that the ancients tried to make medicine a science
direction to hail the retut of a m
and failed, while the moderns tried to make it a trade and succeeded. But now the modern trend is in the direction of a true science of medicine.
As you doubtless know, the department of medicine has been reorganized under the wise direction of Dr. Conner. It is our great pleasure to hail the return to Cornell and to the New York Hospital of a man of the exceptional ability of Dr. Foster who for several years has been professor of medicine at the University of Michigan. At Bellevue Hospital the reorganization of the medical clinic by Dr. Conner has placed it in a position to become one of the most powerful influences for medical progress in the country. A fulltime staff, Drs. Du Bois, Peters, Barr, Alexander (and McCann will join them), all of whom have been recently discharged from the military or naval services of this country, are giving their entire time for the purpose of instructing students and for carrying on researches into the cause and cure of disease. Three of these men are graduates of the P. and S., two of our own college. Some of the men are supported from the funds of the Russell Sage Institute of Pathology, given by Mrs. Sage for the benefit of the sick poor, and others are supported by friends of the college.
This undertaking followed several years after the introduction of full-time men on the surgical division under Dr. Hartwell. We may all rejoice at the rich opportunities for learning which are offered both in medicine and surgery in Bellevue Hospital.
Another very notable increase in the potential power of the school as a teaching institution has been attained during the summer through the appointment of Dr. Schloss as professor of pediatrics. The true guiding principle of every successful institution has been followed, the appointment of the best man available in the country to fill the place. The highest opportunities for work in pediatrics now lie open to the students of this school and under the best of direction.
An old Swiss physician, Sondereggers, once wrote a letter of advice to a father whose son desired to study medicine, and this letter has
so much idealism in it that it seems permissible to read it to you.
There is nothing greater or more beautiful in the world than man. He is the mightiest and most elevated example of thought and education. His existence, his struggle, his suffering, are all in the highest degree wonderful and stimulating. Thou must bring clear eyes and fine ears, a great talent for observation, patience and again patience for endless study, a clear critical mind which grows stronger in time of necessity, and yet a warm, susceptible heart which understands and sympathizes with every sorrow; religion and moral earnestness which have dominion over lust, money and honor; also a becoming exterior, a polished demeanor, health of body and spirit. All these thou must possess or thou wilt be a bad or an unhappy physician. Thou must carry great knowledge even like to a camel's burden, and also preserve the freshness of the poets. Thou must overcome all arts of charlatanry and in so doing remain an honorable man. Medicine must come first and be thy relig. ion and politics, thy joy and thy sorrow. Therefore I would never advise anyone to be a physician. If he still wishes to be one, warn him again and severely; if he wishes it notwithstanding; then give him thy blessing in so far as he is worthy of it; he will need it.
We will be glad to have all students entering this college feel that they are welcome guests to its halls, guests who come as men and women earnestly desirous of enjoying such intellectual opportunities as are here generously offered. I would ask you to show your appreciation of the gifts which private endowment makes possible, in that you should treat the building and its contents with that scrupulous care and reverence which you would naturally bestow upon the personal property of a generous benefactor who was also a great friend. If you accept what there is here in good spirit, and if the external life of the country permits an orderly community life within these walls, you will find opportunities for golden days in the time to come.
SCIENTIFIC EVENTS COOPERATIVE CONSERVATION OF THE
INDIANA-LAKE MICHIGAN SAND DUNES For some time a quiet agitation for the setting aside of this unique region abounding in rare and valuable flora and fauna specimens has been prevalent in scientific circles. The reservation of this region was formally advocated in a report of Stephen T. Mather, director of the National Park Service at Washington in 1917. The National Dunes Park Association, of which Mr. William P. Gleason, of Gary, Indiana, is now president, has also taken up the matter and has secured a large membership of adherents who enthusiastically advocate the preservation of this wonderland region.
All of these movements have been largely combated by the residents of Porter county, in which the choicest of the dunes are located because of an undercurrent of various misunderstandings. It has been thought by the Porter county residents, and notably the commercial interests of Valparaiso, the county seat, that through a setting aside of the dunes, bordering its fifteen miles of lake front, for a park, would deprive the county of its industrial development which many have held to be paramount to the preservation of those “ useless sand hills." The Valparaiso Chamber of Commerce standing primarily for the industrial and commercial development of its valuable water front, strongly opposed any movement looking to the securing of the former objective and the loss of the latter.
Recently there has come into being a new spirit of cooperation. Ex-State Senator Bowser, of Chesterton, Porter county, a director of the National Dunes Park Association has laid a proposal before the Valparaiso Chamber of Commerce, that both bodies cooperate in the attainment of the objectives which have hitherto been considered antagonistic. The bond of cooperation has been formed through the appointment of a general committee, a legal committee and a boundary committee by President John Sievers, of the Chamber of Commerce. Of these the boundary committee consisting of W. E. Harris, Herman Pollentske, Edward Morgan, J. G. Johnson, Guy Stinchfield, George Pearce, Frank R. Theroux have reported in favor of a three-mile lake front park dedicated to Porter county, but this
committee wisely qualified their report by stating that the final settlement of boundaries could not yet be determined and many related interests and questions would need to be considered before the limits could be fixed.
It is significant that at a later meeting the Valparaiso Chamber of Commerce passed the following resolution which shows that the business men of Porter county appreciate the importance of the dune conservation under: taking.
The Valparaiso Chamber of Commerce recommend to the National Dunes Park Association that a board of three consulting engineers be ap. pointed before any final steps on ultimate boundary lines are taken. An industrial engineer to be selected by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the American Society of Civil Engi. neers; an engineer on town planning by the Society of American Architects; and a scientist by the Agricultural Department and the Smithsonian Institution to plan coordinately for the proper relation of the industrial, esthetic and scientific Dune-Land heritage nature has placed in the lap of Porter County.
THE IOWA POLICY CONCERNING STATE
The thirty-seventh General Assembly of the State of Iowa authorized the creation of state parks out of funds from the fees obtained from hunters license fees. It provided that $50,000 be taken out of this fund and on the recommendation of the fish and game warden and the Iowa State Board of Conservation to the executive council state parks could be created and lakes improved. The governor and executive council later (in 1917) appointed L. H. Pammel, of Ames, Joseph Kelso, of Bellevue, and John F. Ford, of Fort Dodge, members of this board, the curator of the historical department being an ex-officio member. The board met and elected Mr. E. R. Harlan secretary and L. H. Pammel chairman.
T his board and the fish and game warden recommended the purchase of what is known as the Devil's Backbone Park in northwestern Delaware county. The executive council directed the purchase of some 1,200 acres