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at the most vital procedureviz., the allotment of grants—will sufficiently indicate. If some of the accessories have a different appearance, surely allowance may be made for the disturbance caused by the greatest war in history –H. H. Turner, General Secretary of the British Association, in the London Times.
SPECIAL ARTICLES THE BOURDILLON WATER STILL THOSE who wish to obtain an abundant supply of " conductivity” water may be interested in a distilling apparatus which has been in use in this and other departments of the University of Wisconsin for the past few years. This still was originally described by
EXPLANATION OF FIGURES Fig. 1. Steam Generator and Boiler. A, boiler, 15-liter capacity, copper; A', dash plate; B, trap with removable lid, copper: C. lead to condenser. 7-inch diameter, block tin; D. condenser-tube, 6 feet long. 1 inch inside diameter, block tin; D, outlet for escaping gases, block tin; D", outlet for condensed water, block tin; E, inlet for washed air, block tin; F, soda-lime tower and H,80, in pumice tower (the figure shows but one jar); F', outlet to out-of-doors; G, upper condenser jacket, 12 inches
long, 4 inches diameter, copper; H, lower condenser jacket, 18 inches long, 4 inches diameter, copper; 1, rubber connection serving as expansion joint.
FIG. 2. Air Pump and Wash Train J, aspirator; J', air inlet from out-of-doors; J", water and air outlet of aspirator sealed into top of jar; K, pressure jar; K', water outlet of pressure jar K; K", air outlet of pressure jar K; L, wash jar containing commercial H,80,; MM, soda-lime towers; N, dust filter of cotton-wool; 0, washed air outlet connecting with E of Fig. 1.
Bourdillon. It was first used in this uni- supply to the aspirator. Contamination of versity by Mr. M. Meacham in 1914–15 in the the interior of the condenser tube D from the laboratory of Dr. S. F. Acree. With this ap- outside is prevented by inserting absorbing paratus slightly modified from the original the chambers F of soda-lime and H,SO, in writers have been able to secure a very good pumice between D' and the out-of-door outgrade of water by a single distillation of let F'. laboratory tap water.
By using special care and after continued Referring to the accompanying illustration, use for some time, water with a specific conFig. 1 consists of a boiler and condenser and ductivity of 0.4 x 10-4 mhos has been obtained Fig. 2 of an air-washing apparatus. The es- from tap water by a single distillation. With sential feature of the operation of the still is a fifteen-liter boiler on an ordinary gas-range the washing with a stream of purified air of burner, no difficulty has been encountered in steam and of hot condensed water while spread securing eight to ten liters of water per day out over the large interior surface of the con- having a specific conductivity of from 1 to senser-tube. During operation the steam 2 x 10-6 mhos. After the apparatus has been passes from the boiler A (Fig. 1) through the started and regulated, it requires very little trap B and upward through the condenser attention. The following data are offered as tube D. At the upper end of D it is con- an example of what may ordinarily be exdensed and runs while still hot down the sides pected of this still. of D to the bottom where it is further cooled
TABLE I before being discharged into the receiving
Specific Conductivity of Water Obtained from Tap vessel. During the passage through D the
Water by a Single Distillation with Potassium steam and hot water are washed by a stream
Acid Sulphate and Phosphoric Acid of purified air which is forced into D at the bottom and passes upward and out at the top
KHSO4 Added to Water In Boller H3PO4 Added to Water in Boller carrying with it volatile impurities from the Samp. No. Conductivity X 10 Samp. No. Conductivity X 10+ steam and hot water. The nonvolatile im
1.15 purities are retained in the boiler.
0.97 It is usual to put about one gram of KHSO,
0.89 or H, PO, into the boiler for each two or three
0.94 liters of water, although this may not be
0.89 essential. In the construction of the con
Average 0.94 | Averagel 1.14 denser it is better to have the workman use muriatic acid rather than rosin as a flux for
J. P. BENNETT soldering, because the latter substance may be
JAMES G. DICKSON
BOTANY DEPARTMENT, difficult to remove from the interior after
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN completion. In the arrangement of the airwashing system it is essential to have the soda-lime towers between the acid jar and the condenser to prevent any volatile fumes from
A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of the acid passing into the condenser. It is Science, publishing the official notices and probetter that air be forced rather than drawn
ceedings of the American Association for through the apparatus, because this avoids the
the Advancement of Science possibility of contaminating the air stream by
Published overy Friday by leakage of laboratory gases inward. The air pressure obtained from the pump may be THE SCIENCE PRESS regulated by varying the height of the water LANCASTER. PA. GARRISON, N. Y. outlet K' as well as by regulating the water
NEW YORK, N. Y. 1 Trans. Chem. Soc., 103, 791, 1913.
Entered in the post-office at Lancaster, Pa., us recond claw peter
GEOPHYSICS AT THE BRUSSELS
MEETINGS, JULY 18-28, 19191 UNDER the auspices of the International Research Council, which met at Brussels in the Palais des Académies, July 18-28, 1919, there was established, besides other international unions of astronomy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, scientific radiotelegraphy, etc., the International Geodetic and Geophysical Union, consisting of the following sections and officers :
Since there were represented at Brussels this time only the countries of the Allies, it was concluded to defer complete organization of the sections until the entrance into the Union of other countries to be invited by the International Research Council. In the case of Section (6) (Seismology), since the agreement among nations belonging to the International Seismological Association, formed before the war, does not expire until April 1, 1920, it was necessary to postpone any organization, whatsoever, of the section. However, as the central office of the association is at Strasburg, it is fitting that it continue there when the Section of Seismology is organized. Professor E. Rothé has been appointed to the chair of geophysics, at the University of Strasburg, France. The rector of the university invited the delegates at Brussels to attend the opening, on November 11, 1919, of the university, now under French auspices. · The Executive Committees of the Sections were for the present limited to the president, vice-president and secretary, excepting in the case of (e) (Physical Oceanography) where Sir Charles Close (British Ordnance Survey)
University and Educational News ........
Discussion and Correspondence:
MCADIE, GEORGE P. PAYNE. Orogenics of
Scientific Books :
Morse on the Living Lamellibranchs of
Special Articles :
Resemblances between the Properties of Surface Films in Passive Metals and in Living Protoplasm : PROFESSOR Ralph S. LILLIE. 416
The American Chemical Society: DR. CHARLES
L. PARSONS ........ ................. 421
1 Basis of an account which the writer was requested to give before the combined meeting at Ann Arbor, September 4, 1919, of the American Astronomical Society, American Mathematical Society, and the Mathematical Association of America.
MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for review should be sent to The Editor of Science, Garrison-onHudson, N. Y.
Secretary and Director Central
William Bowie (U. S. Vincenzo Reina (Italian Lt. Col. G. Perrier (Army
Coast and Geodetic Sur- Geodetic Commission) Geographic Service, vey)
Paris) b. Seismology..
Organization deferred c. Meteorology ........
Sir Napier Shaw (British A. Angot (French Me- C.F. Marvin (U. S. Weather
Meteorological Office) teorological Bureau) Bureau) d. Terrestrial Magnetism
A. Tanakadate (Univer- Charles Chree (Kew Ob- Louis A. Bauer (Carnegie sity of Tokyo)
| Department of Terrestrial e. Physical Oceanogra
.......... H. Lamb (University of G. P. Magrini (Hydrograpic Manchester)
Office, Venice) f. Vulcanology ...... A. Riccò (Observatory H. S. Washington (Car- A. Malladra (Vesuvius Ob.
pegie Geophysical La- servatory)
and Mr. G. W. Littlehales (U. S. Hydro- former International Geodetic Association, it graphic Office) were made additional members was decided to defer the appointment of comof the executive committee of that section. mittees and the organization of international
The officers of the International Union of research work in geodesy until the next general Geodesy and Geophysics are: President, M. meeting (1922) of the Union, or until some Charles Lallemand (director, Levelling Serv- previous special meeting. At a joint meeting ice, France); general secretary, Colonel H. G. of geophysicists and astronomers it was finally Lyons (Army Meteorological Service, Great decided to leave to the International AstroBritain). These two officers, with the addition nomical Union the future international variaof the presidents of the Sections, who are the tion-of-latitude observations. vice-presidents of the Union, constitute the Section (c) (Meteorology) it was generally Executive Committee of the Union.
agreed could usefully and effectively suppleAccording to the method of organization and ment, by confining its work to research and the interpretation put upon the office of secre- fundamental problems in meteorology, the tary, it is expected that the affairs of the functions and work of the pre-war Internaunions and sections, between the triennial tional Meteorological Committee. The latter, meetings of the General Assembly, will be as it consisted of official weather-bureau directlargely conducted by the respective secretaries, ors, necessarily had to concern itself as is the case also with regard to the general with administrative and official meteorological secretaryship of the International Research questions. In the unavoidable absence of the Council, to which Professor Arthur Schuster elected president, Sir Napier Shaw, no organiwas reelected. Thus, according to the official zation of work was attempted except the passor French version of the statutes of the Union, ing of two resolutions to the following effect: which were made to conform to those of the
(a) That there be appointed a Joint Committee council, the secretary's duties are defined as
of the International Astronomical Union and of the follows:
Section of Meteorology of the International GeoThe secretary of a section shall act as director detic and Geophysical Union for investigational of its central bureau. He shall be responsible for work on solar radiation. the conduct of correspondence, the management of (6) That international work in atmospheric eleethe resources, the custody of the documents, the tricity, as far as possible, be placed under the dipreparation and issue of publications and such rection of a committee nominated partly by the other matters as the General Assembly may refer Section of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity to him,
and partly by the Section of Meteorology. Organization of Work.-In section (a) The work of section (d) (Terrestrial Mag(Geodesy), which is to take the place of the netism and Electricity) could be more com
Units of Financial Contribu
pletely organized than that of the other sec- The executive committee of the Section of tions, as it happened that there were present at Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity on July Brussels six members of the pre-war Interna- 25, in order to carry into effect these resolutional Magnetic Commission of the Interna- tions, appointed ten committees, the complete tional Meteorological Committee, viz: Agnot composition of which was deferred until the (France), Bauer (U. S. A.), Chree (England), entrance into the Union of other countries. Palazzo (Italy), Schuster (England), and Thus the committee-plan of distribution of Tanakadate (Japan). After the election of international researches in terrestrial magnetthe officers on July 24 and discussion of the ism and electricity (atmospheric electricity, status of work of the pre-war International earth currents, polar lights, radiotelegraphyMagnetic Commission, the following eight reso- strays, etc.), as adopted by the International lutions were passed:
Astronomical Union, was also followed in sec
tion (d) as, in fact, generally in the other sec1. That a committee be appointed to consider the best method of securing an adequate compari- . 110
tions, as far as they could be organized. son of the magnetic instruments in use in different
Annual Funds.—The basis of votes and countries, and to consider as to the best method of
financial contributions is that adopted by the measuring the magnetic elements in absolute units. 2. That the Section of Terrestrial Magnetism
International Research Council, viz: and Electricity concurs in the resolution of the
Number of Number of Meteorological Section that international work in atmospheric electricity should be as far as possible
Population of Countries placed under the direction of a committee nomi
Less than 5 millions ........1 nated partly by the Section of Terrestrial Magnet
Between 5 and 10 millions. . 2 ism and Electricity, and partly by the Section of Between 10 and 15 millions.. 3 Meteorology.
Between 15 and 20 millions.. 4 3. That the Section of Terrestrial Magnetism Over 20 millions .......... 5 and Electricity would welcome cooperation with the International Union of Scientific Radio-telegraphy Each country may include the native inin the investigation of the electric phenomena of habitants of its colonies in its population. the higher atmosphere.
Self-governing dominions have a separate 4. That a committee be appointed on the syste- voting power according to above scale. It is matic exchange of magnetic curves.
expected that there will be at least fifty con5. That special committees be appointed from tributing units, hence, the total annual funds time to time for the investigation and report on which may be available for the international specific problems in terrestrial magnetism and elec researches of a Union will be about 50 times tricity.
the unit of contribution, whatever that be 6. That the Section of Terrestrial Magnetism
finally. The funds are to be obtained, by the and Electricity would welcome cooperation with
International Research Council, through a the International Astronomical Union in investi.
national research organization, academy, or gating the relationships between solar and terres
governmental agency. trial magnetic and electric phenomena.
It is not possible under the present statutes, 7. That the ex-officio members of the executive
for a country to join only one or more of the committee be empowered to elect additional members to serve until the next ordinary meeting of
sections of the Geodetic and Geophysical the Union.
Union. In this respect, then, the organiza8. That the executive committee consult with
tion of the new international associations the executive committees of other sections of the (unions) differs from the pre-war ones-a Union and report to the general secretary of the country could join, for example, only the Union the amount of funds annually required by International Geodetic Association, not, necthe Section during the period of the present con- essarily, also the International Seismological vention.
Association. As a matter of fact, however,
tons) differs from the pre-war o onesena