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At the close of the formal session, the geologists, under the leadership of Professors J. E. Hyde and T. M. Hills, made an excursion to Newark for the study of glacial physiography and the Upper Waverly formation, while Professor W. M. Barrows conducted a zoological and botanical excursion to Sugar Grove.
Officers were elected as follows: President, F. C. Blake, Ohio State University; Vice-presidents : Zoology, F. H. Herrick, Western Reserve University; Botany, A. B. Plowman, Municipal University of Akron; Geology, J. E.' Hyde, Western Reserve University; Physics, M. E. Graber, Heidelberg University; Medical Sciences, R. J. Seymour, Ohio State University; Psychology, G. R. Wells, Ohio Wesleyan University; Secretary, E. L. Rice, Ohio Wesleyan University; Treasurer, W. J. Kostir, Ohio State University.
The scientific program was as follows:
body cavity. Anterior to this septum the abdominal cavity is entirely empty.
In the resting spore condition the fungus mass, in the males, in the early stages at least, likewise confined to the posterior portion of the abdomen, is at first white, then sulphur
nd finally greenish brown or brown in color, and only slightly coherent. While the fungus in this stage of development seems likewise to be confined to the genitalia of the host, there is apparently no septum formed, and at maturity the resting spores, scatter about the entire body cavity. The resting spores, which are extremely uniform in size,
size, are remarkably ornamented and at maturity form a dustlike mass which is freed from the insect by the disintegration of the intersegmental membranes of the abdomen.
In the few infected females that the writer has examined the fungus mass fills nearly the entire body cavity.
As noted by previous writers, many infected cicadas were found still alive and actively flying about with but a portion of the abdomen remaining, the entire posterior portion having sloughed off leaving the conidia or resting spores of the fungus exposed in such a way that every movement of the host served to scatter them.
It is hoped that a full account of the life history of this fungus will be published soon.
A. T. SPEARE BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY,
WASHINGTON, D. C.
The scientifio spirit: PROFESSOR MAYNARD M. METCALF, printed in SCIENCE for June 13, 1919.
PUBLIC LECTURE Airplanes, present and future: MR. DAVID CARROLL CHURCHILL, Oberlin.
THE OHIO ACADEMY OF SCIENCE THE twenty-ninth annual meeting of the Ohio Academy of Science was held at Ohio State Uni.
ote Uni versity, Columbus, May 29 to 31, 1919, under the presidency of Professor Maynard M. Metcalf. Seventy-nine members were registered as present; forty new members were elected.
The academy formally recognized the establishment of a new section for Psychology, with an initial membership of about twenty.
It was reported by the trustees of the Research Fund that Mr. Emerson McMillin, of New York City, had made a further contribution of two hun dred and fifty dollars in support of research work by the academy.
PAPERS The theory of chance applied to the Bacon-Shakes
peare controversy: T. C. MENDENHALL. Teleology in the teaching of zoology: W. M. BAR
ROWS. Dynamics and evolution as illustrated in the
euglenoids: L. B. WALTON. Notes on a technique for the study of Euglenida :
W. J. KOSTIR. The comparative resistance of different species of
Euglenidæ to acids : W. J. KOSTIR. Notes on a tingid destructive to beans: HERBERT
OSBORN. The European corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis
Hubn) a menace to American agriculture: E. C.
COTTON. The stratification of spiders in meadows: W. M.
BARROWS. Concerning the attachment of larval colonies of
Pectinatella and Plumatella: STEPHEN R. WIL
LIAMS. Remarks on the phylum Prosopygia: RAYMOND C.
OSBURN. The bryozoan fauna of Greenland: RAYMOND C.
OSBURN. Classification of the Salpidæ : MAYNARD M. MET
CALF. The remarkable fauna of a drop of pond water: W.
J. KOSTIR. Polymorphism and allelomorphism in Bruchus
quadrimaculatus: J, K, BREITENBECHER. Circulation of cælomic fluid in a nematode: F. H.
KRECKER. Egg laying of a leech, Piscicola: F. H. KRECKER. The columelta auris of the reptiles: EDWARD L.
Observations on the diagnosis of contagious abor.
tion by guinea pig inoculation : W. A. STARIN. Fat absorption in earthworm, salamander and frog:
CHAS. G. ROGERS. The nature of the lyophilic colloids and their im
portance in theoretical and applied science:
MARTIN H. FISCHER. The normality vs. the psychopathy of the preco
cious child: FLORENCE MATEER. The clinical function of psychology: FLORENCE
MATEER. Short methods of individual examination used by
psychologists in the army: JAMES W. BRIDGES. Psychological study of a delinquent: LOUISE WOOD. The very bright child: C. THOMPSON JONES. The moral and religious psychology of late senes
cence: T. BRUCE BIRCH. Psychology applied to the problems of everyday
life: A. W. TRETTIEN. The vocality of fork, violin and piano tones :
ESTHER GATEWOOD. Relations of images in recall to directly aroused
sensations: A. SOPHIE ROGERS.
Information wanted in zoological and botanical
cases to be cited: KATHARINE D. SHARP. Use of airplane in studying vegetation: PAUL B.
SEARS. A map of Ohio prairies: P. B. SEARS. Brief notes on some Ohio plants: L. S. HOPKINS. A remarkable bud sport of Pandanus: JOHN H.
SCHAFFNER. The nature of dieciousness in the hemp: JOHN H.
SCHAFFNER. Xenia in maize and rye: A. E. WALLER. Some biological relations of the Hysteriales: BRUCE
FINK. A hitherto undescribed ascomycete: FREDA DET
MERS. Witches broom of bald cypress: FREDA DETMERS. Abscission of Populus deltoides (common cotton
wood): LOIS LAMPE, introduced by FREDA DET
MERS. Toxic and antagonistic effects of salts on yeast
(Saccharomyces ellipsoideus): SWARNA K. MITRA, introduced by E. N. TRANSEAU. Two serious diseases of wheat new to America: W.
G. STOVER. Estimates on the thickness of the sedimentary
rocks of Ohio: T. M. HILLS. Some geological features in the Akron region: G.
F. LAMB. Some future industrial centers in America as seen
by a geographer: GEO. D. HUBBARD. The location of the barrier between the Ohio and
Mississippi Palley basins in Richmond times :
AUGUST FOERSTE. Some aspects of the Waverly: J. E. HYDE. The pyrite deposits in the Ohio coals: W. M.
TUCKER, The correlation of Ohio Silurian strata with those
of Indiana: AUGUST FOERSTE. Elongation of nickel in transverse magnetic fields:
H. A. BENDER. The prevention and treatment of pneumonia: E. F.
MOCAMPBELL. Recent advances in the auditory method of meas.
uring blood pressure : CLYDE BROOKS. Vaccines and serums in coccus infections: C. B.
MORREY. Five years of progress in medical entomology:
EDNA MOSHER. A note on the technic of smear preparations : F. L.
LANDACRE. Differentiation of mucous and serous cells: EVA
CAMPBELL, introduced by F. L. LANDACRE. Note on the effect of dry heat upon the blood of
Guinea pigs: JONATHAN FORMAN. Observations upon the complement content of
the blood of guinea pigs which have been sub.
jected to dry heat: CARL H. SPOHR. Observations on the death of guinea pigs induced
by dry heat: ERNEST SCOTT. A model illustrating some features of urinary se
cretion: MARTIN H. FISCHER. The muscle-twitch curve : E. P. DURRANT. Vitamine tests with chicks: R. J. SEYMOUR and E.
P. DURRANT. An anomalous frog heart: E. P. DURRANT. A modified Waterhouse test for pure butter : CHAS.
P. Fox. Demonstration of Mendel's law: W. M. BARROWS.
DEMONSTRATIONS A case of apparent triple superfetation in the cat :
R. A. BUDINGTON. Growths on glass slides submerged in open sea
water ten days: R. A. BUDINGTON. Exhibit of Ohio Cicadellido: HERBERT OSBORN. Indications of circulation of cælomic fluid shown
by preserved nematodes: F. H. KRECKER. Model of nasal region of the lizard, Eumeces : ELVA
PUMPHREY, introduced by EDWARD L. RICE. Sections of columella auris of the lizard, Eumeces :
EDWARD L. RICE. A hitherto undescribed ascomycete: FREDA DET
MERS. Auditory_method of measuring blood pressure:
CLYDE BROOKS. Technic of smear preparations: F. L. LANDACRE. Model illustrating some features of urinary seore
tion: MARTIN H. FISCHER. A new muscle lever: E. P. DURRANT, An adjustable spring-myograph: E. P. DURRANT. An anomalous frog heart: E. P. DURRANT.
EDWARD L. RICE
Secretary DELAWARE, OHIO
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PROBLEMS OF POPULATION OF THE NORTH PACIFIC AREA AS DEPENDENT UPON THE BIOLOGY, THE OCEANOGRAPHY, AND THE METEOROLOGY OF THE
AREA For long ages before written records began. human migrations seem to have taken place over the vast Pacific region. These apparently affected the islands of the south, those of the north, and those of the the middle portions, as likewise the continental littorals of Asia and North America. Later came the era, very recent as all human history goes, of the drifting of Chinese and Japanese fishing junks upon the northern American coast, and of castaway Japanese traders upon the Mexican coast. Following this came the truly modern era, ushered in, one may fairly say, by President Fillmore's appeal to the Emperor of Japan, through the Perry embassy, for the opening up of the Hermit Kingdom in the interest of American industrial and commercial development as represented by the whale fishery, and closely identified with gold mining in California. Shortly thereafter, followed the bringing of Chinese coolies for labor in building the Pacific end of the first transcontinental railroad.
Through all these, and many other events of similar import, on down to this very summer of 1919, when hardly a day passes in which the newspapers do not contain items of some sort involving the activities of Japanese or Chinese in the industrial and commercial life of Pacific North America, can be seen a contact of Asiatics and Americans—a kind of community of interests—made not only pos
The opening paper of a symposium on “The exploration of the North Pacific Ocean,” held at the Pasadena meeting, Pacific Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science, June 19, 1919.
Scientific Notes and News ................ 135
University and Educational News .........
Discussion and Correspondence :
Three Fourths of an Octave farther in the
Scientific Books :
The Evolution of the Earth and its Inhabi. tants: Dr. Roy L. MOODIE ................ 140
A Practical Long-period Seismograph: DR. ARNOLD ROMBERG ...... .......... 141
MSS. intended for 'publication and books, etc., intended for review should be sent to The Editor of Science, Garrison-onHudson, N. Y.
sible, but seemingly inevitable, by their common possession of the great ocean, and of the human propensities for adventure, travel and gain.
In another connection I have called attention to the variety of meanings which nat. urally attach to such phrases as “ The Problem of the Pacific,” “The New Pacific," etc.
The wording of the topic, assigned to me in this symposium, when read in the light of the above reflections and along with the other topics of the program, suggests the direction my remarks should take. To the eyes of science, the situation as touching the peoples of the north Pacific area is this: Some 500,000,000 Asiatics are being brought into ever closer contact with some 6,000,000 Americans, the Asiatics being so placed geographically that scores of millions of them have about the lowest per capita allotment of any peoples on the earth of some of the primary material necessities of human life, while the Americans are so placed as to give them about the highest of such allotment.
That economic equilibrium will tend to establish itself between these two peoples is as certain as that two bodies of salt water of different density will tend to come to an equilibrium if in contact with each other.
There are two ways in which this equilibrating tendency may work itself out. (1) It may proceed in accordance with the brute instincts of self-preservation and self-realization. This is the way of material force work ing as modern commercialism and modern militarism. Frequently as the resemblance between these two gigantic forces has been noticed, it yet seems not to have been sufficiently brought home to many of us. (2) The other way in which the equilibrating tendency may realize itself is in accordance with the human reason for self-preservation and self-realization. This is the way of modern intelligence and rationality: in other words, of modern science.
Perhaps some one will question the warrant
26 The Problem of the Pacific,” Bull. No. 8, Scripps Institution for Biological Research, Uni. versity of California, June 14, 1919.
ableness of including all the Chinese, Japanese and Koreans, as I did a moment ago, when speaking of Asiatic populations, while only the small portion of all North Americans are included which live on the Pacific slope. If question of this sort be raised, my reply is that being naturalists, we are bound to think in terms of nature especially of geography, whenever we speak comprehensively of people; and hence must look at population in relation to the continental slopes, drainage areas, oceanic and fluviatile waterways, etc., which constitute their major physical environments. The “North Pacific area” is clear enough of definition geographically viewed: It includes not merely the great north ocean itself, with its islands, but also those parts of the adjacent continents, Asia and North America, whose rivers flow into the ocean. In an important sense this is a unit area of populational distribution as it is of physical geography.3
Pacific North America, as thus defined, seems to be as natural a depositing ground for immigrants from eastern Asia as Atlantic North America is for immigrants from Europe. While manifestly it would be easy to push such a criterion of unit area of peoples too far, yet recognition of it to the extent of its validity is of great practical importance.
T he fundamental nature of the issue between Asiatics and Americans is clearly reflected in the character of the American legislative measures which have been proposed, and in some instances made into law, against the immigration of Asiatics.
That the issue is not primarily one of race 3 In Fundamental Geological Problems of the North Pacifio Ocean Region, contributed to the symposium by George D. Louderback, occurs this: “The contrast between the geologic and geographic conditions of the eastern states and of the Pacific states of the United States is marked, and their geologic history is to a considerable extent unrelated, while there are striking similarities between the conditions obtaining along the eastern and western coasts of the North Pacific Ocean." This is interesting and may be significant taken in connection with my suggestion of a “unit area of populational distribution."
is the way of cialism and mblance
is shown by the fact that the exclusion pro- are not the sole, nor even the most important posals are never aimed at Asiatics indiscrim- ones bearing on the case. inately. Without exception, I think, the meas. Not only is Pacific North America the natures apply only to Asiatics upon whom the ural depository for the semi-destitute peoples economic conditions of their native lands rest of eastern Asia who migrate to America, but most heavily; those, namely, who live by the as long as there exists an immense Asiatic toil of their hands. The classes-public population in such economic condition, and as officials, persons of large affairs, professional long as there exist such alluring chances in men, and students—who enjoy considerable Pacific America for relieving that condition, economic independence, are welcome in Amer. it is hardly possible that any device of politics ica, travel widely over the continent, and or law or any gentlemanly arrangements will mingle freely and pleasantly with the citi. be able to permanently stay the movement zens everywhere. Because of their approxi. for such betterment. The problems concern mate economic and cultural equality with some of the most elemental and mighty forces those among whom they are, and because of of human nature—the forces which antedate the smallness of their number, these classes and condition politics and law and gentleof Asiatics give rise to no perplexities, eco- manly conduct, as the tree with its roots antenomic, racial or of any other kind.
dates and conditions the tree with its blossoms The race element undoubtedly comes into and fruit. the labor immigration problem with great During these very last weeks comes the reforce finally, but only as a consequence of eco- port that 5,000 Asiatics came into the Pacific nomic conditions, and at the locus of great States of Mexico during March, 1919, and est pressure of these conditions. Except for that the total immigration to that country the economic element almost certainly there last year was 100,000. And entrance into would be no problem of Asiatic immigration Pacific Mexico means an entrance into Pacific for the simple reason that there would be no United States sooner or later. So subtle and such immigration.
pervasive and powerful are the forces which The sole, or at least the chief motive of Asiatic are impelling Asiatic immigration into Amerlaborers in coming to America is to improveica that exclusion treaties and laws and other their hard economic lot. And because of the mere contractual arrangements will be inrestraint upon their travel which this hard capable of controlling them. lot imposes, they are bound to take advan- Am I not right in supposing it is the comtage of the first chance which presents itself plexity and subtlety of these forces-economic for accomplishing their aim.
in the sense of physical poverty affecting the No Chinaman who has barely money enough great masses of Asiatics; racial as affecting to pay the cheapest steamer passage across the these same portions of both Asiatics and Pacific, is going to the additional expense of Americans; and instinctive of self-preservaa railroad journey to Kansas City or St. Louis tion and self-realization of all the people of for work if he can get as good wages in both continents—that makes the growing Seattle or San Francisco. And no Japanese breach in the traditional friendships between farmer who crosses the Pacific under like con- the United States and Japan incomprehen. ditions is going to the Mississippi valley to sible to the acutest observers of both coun. raise corn and wheat, if he can do better tries? “I do not know how to account for raising potatoes or berries or celery on the it," frankly and almost despairingly declares bottom lands of the Sacramento and Colorado Baron Shibusawa, one of the oldest and most rivers. Nor is any Chinaman or Japanese intelligent of Japan's business students of going to Lake Michigan or Cape Cod to fish America. And the replies which he records if he can do as well fishing at Monterey or having received from distinguished Americans San Pedro. But these basal considerations to whom he appealed for light, shows that
tatos and"., friendships growing