Location Based Services and TeleCartography

Cover
Georg Gartner, William Cartwright, Michael P Peterson
Springer Science & Business Media, 27.04.2007 - 605 Seiten
This book provides for the first time a general overview of research activities related to location and map-based services. These activities have emerged over the last years, especially around issues of positioning, spatial modelling, cartographic communication as well as in the fields of ubiquitious cartography, geo-pervasive services, user-centered modelling and geo-wiki activities. The innovative and contemporary character of these topics has lead to a great variety of interdisciplinary contributions, from academia to business, from computer science to geodesy. Topics cover an enormous range with heterogenous relationships to the main book issues. Whilst contemporary cartography aims at looking at new and efficient ways for communicating spatial information the development and availability of technologies like mobile networking, mobile devices or short-range sensors lead to interesting new possibilities for achieving this aim. By trying to make use of available technologies, cartography and a variety of related disciplines look specifically at user-centered and conte- aware system development, as well as new forms of supporting wayfinding and navigation systems. Contributions are provided in five main sections and they cover all of these aspects and give a picture of the new and expanding field of Location Based Services and TeleCartography. Georg Gartner, Vienna, Austria William Cartwright, Melbourne, Australia Michael Peterson, Omaha, USA Table of Contents Georg Gartner LBS and TeleCartography: About the book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 A series of Symposiums on LBS and TeleCartography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 Progression of Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. 1 Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. 2 Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3 Structure of the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 

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Inhalt

3 System architecture
294
4 Visual Object Recognition for Object Awareness
297
5 Geo Services
298
6 Conclusions
299
Section IV Visualisation and Cartographic Communication
300
How to design a pedestrian navigation system for indoor and outdoor environments
301
2 Preparation and applicability of various multimedia presentation forms
303
22 Floor plans
304

Section I General Aspects
12
Design constraints on operational LBS
13
1 Introduction
14
2 Two LBS that work
15
KDDI EZ Naviwalk
16
Camineo guides
17
3 What these working LBS show us we need in future
19
32 Context architectures
20
33 Positional fusion and rationalisation
21
34 Application development
22
4 Conclusions
23
Location Based Services and GIS in Perspective1
26
2 Modeling for LBS
30
22 Location modeling
31
23 Context modeling and adapting
33
24 Geospatial data processing and modeling
34
3 Research challenges for LBS
35
31 Naïve users and nextgeneration GIS
37
32 Spatiotemporal analysis and mining of mobile geospatial data
38
33 Onthefly generalization and visualization
39
34 Interoperability issues
40
35 Privacy and social issues
41
4 Conclusion
42
A Market and User View on LBS
47
11 Mobile Positioning and Location Based Service
48
12 Summary of Positioning Methods and Accuracies
49
2 Market aspects
50
22 Value Chain for LBS
52
23 Regulatory and Legal Aspects
53
24 Ownership of Location Data Privacy Issues
54
32 Suitability to the Use Case
55
33 Critical Success Factors for LBS from Users perspective
56
4 Conclusion
58
What makes LocationBased Services fail?
59
2 Examples
60
22 LBS for dealer shows
61
3 Technical Solutions and their Pitfalls
62
32 Processing the Inquiry
63
33 Transfer of Instructions
64
41 Access to the Service
65
43 Transfer of Instructions
66
52 Processing the Inquiry
67
53 Transfer of Instructions
68
6 Combined Influences
69
62 Technology Legality
70
The Transition from Internet to Mobile Mapping
73
1 Introduction
74
2 Contrasts in Development between the Wired and the Mobile Internet
76
22 Content Development
78
23 Compatibility with Existing Media
79
24 Developing a user base and paying for information
80
25 Free maps
81
26 Competition from wired Internet map use
82
32 GPS integration
83
33 People Tracking
84
4 Mental maps and wayfinding
85
42 Mental map formation in wayfinding
86
5 Conclusion
87
Theory and development of research in ubiquitous mapping
89
1 Map Communication
90
12 Origin of Map Communication
91
2 Mapping World
92
21 From Map to Mapping
93
22 Egocentric mapping
94
3 Fundamentals of ubiquitous mapping
95
32 Ubiquitous nature of maps
96
33 Difference between GIS and Ubiquitous Mapping
97
4 Research in ubiquitous mapping
98
42 Applications in Tokyo
103
5 Conclusion
105
Positioning
106
Positioning LBS to the third dimension
107
1 Introduction
108
3 Limitations in 3D positioning technologies
111
4 Opportunities of combined GPSGalileo positioning for urban environments
113
5 Discussion
116
Altitude Determination of a Pedestrian in a Multistorey Building
119
2 Overview of indoor location systems
120
3 Altitude determination of a pedestrian using a barometric pressure sensor
123
5 Determinations of the sensor drift
124
6 Determination of a characteristic curve for the barometric pressure sensor
125
7 Determination of the height in the building
126
8 Concluding remarks and outlook
127
TerminalCentric Location Services in the IP Multimedia Subsystem
131
1 Introduction
132
2 The IP Multimedia Subsystem IMS
133
3 Location Mechanisms and Standards
135
4 IMS Presence Location Client Architecture
136
5 IMS Presence Location Performance
139
6 Related Work
140
7 Conclusion and Future Work
141
WiKaF A Knowledgebased KalmanFilter for Pedestrian Positioning
143
2 System architecture
145
22 Knowledgebased filtering
146
23 Central KALMANfilter for optimal multisensor integration
148
3 Further workflow of WiKaF
150
4 Conclusions and perspectives
151
Mapindependent positioning of land vehicles with causative modified motion equations
153
1 Motivation
154
2 Multisensor system
155
3 KALMANfilter algorithms with causative motion equations
157
4 Creation of a Position Finding Module
159
5 Results from different testdrives
161
6 Conclusions
163
Modelling and Awareness
165
Shortest Path Search in MultiRepresentation Street Databases
165
1 Introduction
166
2 Related Work
167
3 A Short Introduction to Nexus
168
4 The Concept of MRep Relations
170
42 Generating MRep Relations
171
5 An Approach for Shortest Path Search in MRep Databases
172
52 Determining Possible Paths
173
53 Calculating the Costs
174
54 Realization of the Approach
175
6 Summary and Outlook
176
RegionBased Representation for Assistance with SpatioTemporal Planning in Unfamiliar Environments
179
2 Collaborative Assistance with SpatioTemporal Planning
181
22 Partially unformalized constraint systems
182
23 Dealing with the complexity of geographic information
183
31 Structural aspects of spatial environments
184
4 Hierarchies in Artificial Spatial Systems
185
5 Regionalize and Conquer
186
51 Regionbased assistance with spatiotemporal planning
188
6 Outlook and Future Work
189
A LogicBased Foundation for Spatial Relationships in Mobile GIS Environment
192
1 Introduction
194
2 Related Work
195
3 Preliminaries
196
4 Algebraic and Topological Structure
197
5 Expressivity Power
199
51 Qualitative Geometry
200
6 Conclusion and Further Work
201
From TurnByTurn Directions to Overview Information on the Way to Take
205
2 ContextSpecific Route Directions
207
3 Overview Information on the Way to Take
209
An Outline
210
5 Summary
214
Geocoding Japanese Walking Directions using Sidewalk Network Databases
217
2 Sidewalk Network Databases
218
3 Natural and Formal Route Descriptions
221
33 Grammar of Formal Route Statement FRS
222
6 Conclusion
229
The concept of relevance in mobile maps
231
2 The concept of relevance in other disciplines
233
3 Relevance in mobile cartography
234
32 Relevance types
235
4 Relevance assessment and relevance measures for mobile cartography
236
42 Information retrieval functions
237
45 Geographic information relevance assessment
238
5 Applications of relevance in mobile cartography
239
6 Relevance visualisations
242
7 Conclusions
244
A KnowledgeBased Map Adaptation Approach for Mobile Map Services
247
1 Introduction
248
12 Previous research
249
2 The GiMoDig map service
250
3 Map Specification Knowledge Base MSKB
253
32 Map specifications
256
33 Implemented algorithm
257
34 Meeting the requirements of context modelling
258
4 Map Specification Tool
259
5 Concluding remarks
262
A visual editor for OGC SLD files for automating the configuration of WMS and mobile map applications
265
1 The OGC SLD Specification a formal representation of maps
266
2 The ArcMap2SLD Converter
267
3 Evaluating the SLD support of WMS servers
270
4 SLDs for configuring mobile maps
274
5 Summary and Outlook
276
Towards OrientationAware Location Based Mobile Services
279
2 PointtoDiscover
280
3 Technological Requirements
283
32 3D Environment Models
284
4 OrientationAware Mobile Devices
285
43 Related Work
286
5 Creative Histories Mobile Viewer
287
GeoServices and Computer Vision for Object Awareness in Mobile System Applications
291
1 Introduction
292
2 User Scenario
293
23 Verbal guidance
305
24 Images
306
25 Videos
307
27 Online services
308
4 Additional Design Goals
310
5 Conclusions
313
A story of interface design
317
1 Introduction
318
3 Dancing_without_gravity
319
4 Our_approach
320
5 The_work
321
51 Art_direction
322
7 Interfaceinformation collapse
325
8 Conclusion
328
Landmarks and the perception of a space in web delivered 3Dworlds
329
1 Introduction
330
3 Evaluation
334
4 Results
336
42 Landmarks
341
5 Relevance of research results to LBS and Smallscreen devices
343
Comparing the effects of different 3D representations on human wayfinding
345
1 Introduction
346
2 Some preliminary studies
348
Background and experimental strategy
349
31 The stimuli used in the experiments
350
Pilot Study
351
34 Results
352
35 Discussion
353
4 Conclusion
354
An Approach towards SemanticsBased Navigation in 3D City Models on Mobile Devices
357
2 Related Work and Challenges of Mobile 3D City Models
358
21 Mobile 3D Rendering
359
23 Standardization and Distribution
361
32 Concepts of SketchBased Navigation
362
33 SketchBased Navigation Vocabulary
363
4 ClientServer Architecture for 3D Visualization
365
42 Client System
367
Augmented Reality for Ubiquitous Computing
369
2 Mobile augmented reality platform
372
22 User Interface
373
23 Tracking infrastructure
375
24 Applications
377
3 First experiences with large scale data models for AR
380
4 Automating visualization generation
381
Gas utility company
382
Pedestrian navigation
383
44 Semantic reasoning engine
385
45 Building visualizations
386
46 System integration
387
Tracking target objects for navigation
388
5 Conclusions and future work
389
Towards Mobile Augmented Reality in Unprepared Environments
393
1 Introduction
394
2 From Mobile Augmented Reality to Anywhere Augmentation
395
3 Previous Work
398
32 Feature Extraction
400
4 System
402
5 Annotation Interface
403
51 Corners
405
52 Edges
406
53 Regions
407
61 Corners
409
63 Regions
410
7 Discussion
412
8 Conclusion
413
A Really Simple Syndication RSS Approach
417
2 Portable Maps
418
3 Syndication
420
4 Syndication for TeleCartography
422
5 Internet Syndication
424
6 RSS and Atom
425
7 TeleCartography through RSS Feeds
427
71 Base Map
428
72 Thematic Data
429
8 Conclusions
430
Section V Applications
432
Graz in Real Time
433
1 Introduction
434
2 The data
436
3 The realtime mapping system
439
4 The results
440
42 Traffic migration
441
5 Discussion
442
6 Conclusions
443
Some experiences with Geographical Studies in Estonia
445
1 Introduction
446
22 Collecting positioning data
448
23 Positioning data
450
3 Data
451
4 Accuracy of mobile positioning in the Estonian GSM network
453
42 Calculated positioning bias
454
43 Comparison of mobile positioning and GPS data in 2004
455
44 Comparison of two methods for calculation of central point of positioning sectors
457
5 Discussion and conclusions
458
A Framework for DecisionCentred Visualisation in Civil Crisis Management
461
1 Problem statement
462
2 Actors and their information needs
463
3 Knowledge
466
4 Metainformation
468
5 Knowledge sources
471
6 Examples
472
Providing an Information Infrastructure for Map Based LBS The approach of the City of Vienna
478
1 Introduction
480
21 Data requirements of LBS
481
23 TeleCartography
482
32 The digital Geodata Warehouse
485
33 Change Management of Geodata
488
4 Rendering Geographic Services
489
43 Providing Web Services
490
5 Conclusion
491
A locationbased educational service
493
1 Introduction
494
2 Principles to guide the application of MoGeo in higher education
496
3 MoGeo Technology
497
4 Teaching the four traditions of geography with MoGeo
500
41 The spatial tradition
501
42 The area studies tradition
504
43 The humanenvironment tradition
505
44 The earth science tradition
506
5 Future work
507
6 Conclusions
508
Bata Positioning System A real time tracking system for the worlds largest relay race
511
1 The Batavieren relay race
512
3 Basic requirements and setup
513
4 BPS 10 the protoype
514
5 BPS 20 the current system
517
6 BPS 30 prototype Development of a real time LBS
519
7 Conclusion
523
Smartphonebased information and navigation aids for public transport travellers
525
1 Introduction
526
2 Requirements
528
23 Navigation and guidance for public transport travellers
529
3 Related Work
530
4 Design of the personal travel companion
531
41 Pedestrian route calculation and modelling of interchange facilities
532
42 Navigation and orientation in complex public transport interchange buildings
533
43 Positioning
536
5 Prototypical implementation
539
6 Conclusion
541
EASYGO A public transport query and guiding LBS
545
2 An overview of EASYGO LBS
547
3 EASYGO Subsystems and route searching
548
31 The Public Mode Subsystem
549
4 Accuracy of mobile positioning
550
5 Accuracy Assessment Results
552
6 Concluding remarks
554
An innovative GPS and Camera Phone Based Travel Assistant for City Tourists
557
1 Introduction
558
2 Application scenarios
559
21 Service registration
560
23 Guiding the tourist and route adaptation
561
24 Collecting impressions
562
3 System architecture and components
563
32 Multimedia GeoServer
566
33 Object Recognition
568
34 Travel Diary
570
35 Integration Platform
572
Development of Cultural Inheritance Information System using LBS Technologies for Tourists
574
2 Motivation and Site Information
576
3 System Architecture
577
4 System Implementation
578
43 Main service 1
579
44 Main service 2
580
5 Conclusion
581
LWDInfosystem Tirol visual information about the current avalanche situation via mobile devices
583
1 Introduction
584
3 Conception and implementation
586
4 Results
587
41 Maps for mobile devices
588
42 Maps representing the current air temperature wind speed and direction
589
43 Maps representing the regional avalanche danger scale for colorblind people
590
Spatial tracking in sport
593
2 Rally
594
3 Orienteering
595
4 Soccer
599
5 Ballooning
601
6 Sailing
603
7 Conclusion
604
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Über den Autor (2007)

William Cartwright is the Deputy Executive Director of the International Human Rights Law Institute, DePaul University College of Law and Coordinator of the Jeanne and Joseph Sullivan Program for Human Rights in the Americas.

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