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26. Proverbs.] In the direct history of Solomon, we read both of his Proverbs and of his Songs. (1 Kings iv. 32). And we are further informed by certain proverbs in this collection, that they were copied out by the men of Hezekiah. (Prov. xxv. 1). That Solomon their author received preternatural communications from heaven, is affirmed more than once in the history of his life. (1 Kings iii. 5; ix. 2). His wisdom is adverted to by our Saviour in Matt. xii. 42,when he spake of the queen of Sheba's visit to him. That they were mainly, if not universally, the productions of Solomon, is evident, not from their extrinsic, but, what is much stronger, their incorporated title in the first verse of the first chapter—that kind of title, which is denominated 778290s, and of which we have many examples, in the books both of the Old and New Testament. When any of the sayings in this book of Proverbs

Ps. lv. 22.-1 Pet. v. 7.
lxix. 21.-Matt. xxvii. 48.

Mark xv. 23.

John xix. 29. lxxviii. 15.-1 Cor. x. 4. Ixxviii. 24.-John vi. 31. Ixxix. 6.-Jer. x. 25. Ixxxi. 12.-Acts xiv. 16. Ixxxix, 20. xiii. 22. Ixxxix. 36.- Luke i. 33.

John xii. 34. xc. 4.-2 Pet. iii. 8. xciv. 9. - Prov. xx. 12. xcvii. 7.-Heb. i. 6. xcviii. 2.- Is. lii. 10. cv. 1.-1 Chr. xvi. 8.

Is. xii. 4. cv. 9.-Luke i. 73. cvii. 35.-- Is. ali. 18.

Ps. cx. 1.-Acts ii. 34.

1 Cor. xv. 25. cxi. 10.-Prov. i. 7.

ix. 10. cxiii. 3.-Mal. i. 11. cxiii, 7.-1 Sam. ï. 8. cxviii. 6.-Heb. xiii. 6. cxviii, 22.-Acts iv. 11.

1 Pet. ii. 4. cxviii, 26.-.-Matt. xxi. 9. cxix. 21.-Heb. xi. 13. cxix. 139.-John ii. 17. cxxxii. 8.—2 Chr. vi. 41. cxxxii. 11.-Luke i. 69. cxxxix. 12.—Heb. iv. 13. cxliv. 1,-2 Sam, xxii. 35. cxliv. 2.

xxii, 2, 3. cxliv. 3.-Heb. ii. 6.

“ And

are alleged in the New Testament, it is not most assuredly according to the manner in which Christ or His apostles would quote a merely human composition—but with the obvious respect due to canonical scriptures. The following are a few instances.--" For their feet run to evil, and make haste to shed blood," Prov. i. 16. " Their feet run to evil, and they make haste to shed innocent blood," Isaiah lix. 7. “ It is written, their feet are swift to shed blood,” Rom. iii. 15.—“My son, despise not the chastening of the Lord; neither be weary of his correction : For whom the Lord loveth he correcteth, even as a father the son in whom he delighteth,” Prov. iii. 11, 12. ye have forgotten the exhortation, which speaketh unto you as unto children, My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of him: For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth,” Heb. xii. 5, 6.—“ Surely he scorneth the scorners : but he giveth grace unto the lowly,” Prov. ii. 34. “ Wherefore he saith, God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace unto the humble," James iv. 6._“Love covereth all sins," Prov. X. 12. “Charity shall cover the multitude of sins," i Peter iv. 8. The following is very distinct and decisive.—“ If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he be thirsty, give him water to drink. For thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head, and the Lord shall reward thee," Prov. xxv. 21, 22. “Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves; but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is

mine; I will repay, saith the Lord. Therefore, if thine enemy hunger, feed him ; if he thirst, give him drink : for in so doing, thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head,” Rom. xii. 19, 20.—“ As a dog returneth to his vomit; so a fool returneth to his folly," Prov. xxvi. 11. “But it is happened unto them according to the true proverb, The dog is turned to his own vomit again ; and, The sow that was washed, to her wallowing in the mire,” 2 Peter ii. 22.*

27. Ecclesiastes.] In regard to the human

* See further

| Prov. xvii. 27.-James i. 19. Prov. i. 24.-Is, lxv. 12.

xix. 10.Eccl. x. 6, 7. Ixvi. 4.

xix. 17.-Matt. x. 42. Jer. vii. 13.

XXV. 40. i. 28.-Is. i. 15.

2 Cor. ix. 6, 7. Jer, xi. 11.

xx. 9.-1 John i. 8. xiv. 12.

xx, 20.-Matt. xv. 4.
Mic. ii. 4.

Mark vii, 10.
Zech, vii 13.

xx, 22.-Rom. 12. 17.
ii. 4.—Matt. xiii. 44.

1 Thess. v. 15. ii. 6.-James i. 5.

1 Pet. iii. 9. iii. 7.-Rom. xii. 16.

xxi. 3.-Mic. vi. 7, 8. iii. 9.-Mal. iii, 10.

xxi. 22.--Eccl. ix. 14, &c iii. 12.-Rev. iii, 19.

xxii. 1.

vii. 1. iii. 34.-1 Pet. v. 5.

xxii. 8.-Hos. X. 13. vi. 18.-Rom. ïïi. 15.

xxii. 9.-2 Cor. ix. 6.
vi. 25. - Matt. v. 28.

xxiij. 29.-Is. v. 11.
ix. 8.
vii. 6.

xxv. 7.-Luke xiv. 10.
xi. 25.-1 Cor. ix. 8, 9, 10. XXV. 9.-Matt. v. 25.
xii. 4.
xi. 7.

xviii. 15. IV. 8.-13. i. 11.

xxvii. 1.-James iv. 13, &c. Jer. vi. 20.

xxvii. 20.-Eccl. i. 8. vii. 22.

xxviii. 13.-1 John i. 9, 10. Amos v. 22.

xxviii. 20.-I Tim. vi. 9. xv. 16.-1 Tim. vi. 6.

xxix. 23.-Matt. xxiii. 12. xv. 24,- Phil. iii. 20.

Luke xiv. 11. Col. iii. 1, 2.

XXX. 4.-John iii. 13. xvii. 13.-Rom, xii. 17.

Isaiah xl. 12, &c. 1 Thess. v. 15.

xxx. 6.-Rev. xxii. 18, 19 1 Pet. iii. 9.

XXX. 8.- Matt. vi. 11.
Ivii. 15.-Is. v. 23.

"*

authorship of this book, though not ascribed to Solomon by name, it is by undoubted designation -and that, within the limits of the work itself, which begins with the announcement of its own parentage, as “ The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king of Jerusalem."

And not by designation only is it fastened upon Solomon—but by description also, applicable to him, and not so applicable to any other of whom we know.-“ And moreover, because the Preacher was wise, he still taught the people knowledge; yea, he gave good heed, and sought out, and set in order many proverbs.' And that he was the author of the words as well as of the thoughts—the writer as well as the conceiver of this book —S

-seems very obvious from chap. xii. 10. This does not exclude, however, the idea of an amanuensis, which detracts not in the least from the full authorship-any more than it does from the authorship of Paul, that he did not write manually every word of his epistles. We have the general consent both of Jews and Christians for the canonical authority of this book; and though we can allege no express quotation from it in the other scriptures-yet such are the resemblances, if not the references, which might be found in it, that, from within the work, itself, we can offer some things to confirm, while there is nothing to discredit the external testi

Eccl. xii. 9. See of his wisdom and works in the direct history. 1 Kings iii. 12; iv. 29, 32; x. 1, &c.

† He seems to have written with his own hand the whole epistle to the Galatians-Gal. vi. 11-but not so the Romans-Rom. xvi. 22-though he assumes and rightly the sole anthorship of the cpistle. See Rom. i. 1, &c; ix. I, &c.; X. 1, &c.; xv. 14, 24.

mony. The following is the only instance that we shall produce in the text.-“ For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil," Eccl. xü. 14. “ For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad," 2 Cor. v. 10. “ In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men, by Jesus Christ, according to my Gospel,” Rom. ii. 16.* 28. Song of Solomon.]

We read of the songs of Solomon in 1 Kings iv. 32. The internal evidence against the canonical authority of this book has been regarded by many to be so strong, as to outweigh the external testimony which might be adduced in its favour. But, if the discredit grounded on the nature of its contents can be removed, this should restore to their full and proper force the outward credentials—consisting of the exscriptural testimonies ; and of all those general arguments that might be founded on the undoubted place, which, along with the other books, it has ever held in the canon of the Old Testament. The great repugnance that is felt towards the acknowledgment of its scriptural rank, arises from the imagery employed in it, which

* See further
Eccl. i. 8.-Rom. viii. 20, 22.

v. 2. - Matt. vi. 7.
v. 15.-1 Tim. vi. 7.
vii. 3.-2 Cor. vii. 10, 11.
vii. 20.-- John i. 8.
X. 20.-Rom. xiii. 2.

Eccl. xi. 1.-Matt. x. 42.

2 Cor. ix. 9, 10
xi. 5. -John iii. 8.
xi. 9.-1 Cor. iv. 5.

2 Cor. v. 10.
xii. 11.-John x. 11, 14.
xii. 14. Rom. xiv. 10.

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