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in no other way, than by pointing out the places where so many of the remainder are to be found in a note below.*
20. Kings-two Books.] We may here observe, that still more remarkably than with the pieces which we have just quitted, we have now the benefit of a multiple testimony, both for the contents of the books on which we are entering; and so by implication, for the books themselves. We have not only the corroboration of other books, such as the two of Chronicles and Second Samuel ; but we have other historical witnesses in those speakers or writers of other times, who gave sum* i Sam. i. 11.-Judges xiii. 5. 2 Sam.vii. 1.-1 Chr.xvii. 1,&c. ü. 8.-Ps. cxiii. 7.
vii. 2-13.--1 Kings viii. vii. 3.-Matt. iv. 10.
15--26. Luke iv. 8.
vii. 7.-01 Chr. xvii. 6. ix. ).--1 Chr. viii. 33.
vii. 8-Ps. lxxviii. 70. ix. 15, &c. - Acts xiii. 21. vii. 12.–1 Kings ii. 1. xv. 22.-Hos. vi. 6.
vii. 13. Matt. ix. 13.
vi. 12. xii. 7.
1 Chr. xxii. 10. xvi. 11.-2 Sam. vii. 8.
vii. 14.-Heb. i. 5. Ps. Ixxviii. 70.
Ps. lxxxix. 30, xxv. 44.—2 Sam. iii. 14,
31, 32. 15.
viii. 18.-1 Chr. xviii. 17. xxix. 4.-1 Chr. xii. 19. xi. 1.
xx. 1, xxxi. 13.--2 Sam. ü. 4. xii. 24.-Matt. i. 6. 2 Sam. i. 14.-Ps. cv. 15.
1 Chr. xxii. 9. i. 20.- Mic. i. 10.
XX. 2. iii. 27.--1 Kings ii. 5.
xix. 16.-Kings ii. 8. v. i. I Chr. xi. 1.
xxi. 18.-1 Chr. xx. 4. v. 2. Ps. lxxviii. 71.
xx, 5. v. 13.-1 Chr. iii. 9.
xxii. 2, &c.—Ps. xviii. 2, &c.
xxii. 50.-Rom. xv. 9.
xxiii. 8.-11.-1 Chr. xi. 11. xiv. 8.
xi. 12. v. 21. xiv. 12.
xi. 27. vi. 2. xiii. 5, 6. xxiii. 18.
xi, 20. vi. 6. xiii. 9. xxiii. 21.
xi. 23. vi. 12. XV. 25. xxiii. 25.
xi. 27. vi. 18. xvi. 2. xxiv. 1.
maries of the Jewish story-as the prayer of the ninth chapter of Nehemiah-several historical psalms, the 78th, the 105th, and 106th-the long speech of Stephen, in the 7th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles ; and of Paul in the 13th chapter besides the enumeration of Old Testament worthies, which he gives in the 11th chapter of his epistle to the Hebrews. It is true, that we are uncertain of the precise authors for all the precise portions of the historical books in the Old Testament. We are unable to make such a distribution as this ; but we know that there was
no lack either of writers or inspired men, and at opportune times, for all the scriptural compositions which have come down to us. The character indeed of these compositions rests, not on our knowledge of their secondary or human authors; but on our knowledge of their divine authorship, as attested— by the general estimation in which they were held among the Jews—by the virtual consent to this of Christ and His Apostles, who would have made it known to their disciples, if they had thought the estimation extravagant or false—by the direct, attestations given to these writings in certain parts of the Old, and more especially in the New Testament—by the agreement of Jews and Christians in this matter—and by all the general arguments which we have brought to bear on the question of the canonical authority of the Jewish scriptures. As to the abundance of qualified penmen in those days, though we cannot point to the definite contributions of each or any of them—yet we know generally of their existence in the_tribe of Levi, and
schools of the prophets; and, individually, even the names of some of them. We have Samuel who did, as we have already seen, write memoirs ; and had the highest place and character of his day in Israel; and is ranked by succeeding writers with the greatest worthies of the nation.
66 Moses and Aaron among his priests, and Samuel among them that call upon his name; they called upon the Lord, and he answered them," Ps. xcix. 6. “ Though Moses and Samuel stood before me,' Jeremiah xv. 1. “ Yea and all the prophets from Samuel," Acts ïïi. 24. “ He gave judges until Samuel the prophet,” Acts xiii. 20. “Time would fail to tell of David and Samuel and the prophets,' Heb. xi. 32.-And then we have Nathan the seer, and Gad the seer, both of them recorded in 1 Chron. xxix. 29, as the writers of national history. And we have Solomon.-And we have Ezra.-And we have transcribers as well as original writers-for instance the men whom Hezekiah employed to copy out the Proverbs of Solomon.
* In 1 Chr. xxix, 29, there occur the names of no less than three Jewish historians two of which do not appear in the titles of any of our sacred books. There are a good many other instances besides -as in 2 Chr. xii. 15 ; xiii. 22 ; xx. 34 ; xxvi. 22, where Isaiah is specified as one of the writers of Jewish history; and Xxxiii. 19, where mention is made of the written sayings of the seers. There is reference made also to what undoubtedly were other than scriptural books, as the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel, as in 1 Kings xiv. 19. There is reason to believe that there were chronological and political histories, diverse from those now extant in our Bibles, yet valuable documents notwithstanding. In as far as they are referred to in scripture, they must be regarded as at least true narratives of the history for which they are quoted ; and they seem to have been thus referred to in 1 Kings xy. 7. 2 Chr. xvi. 11; xxiv. 27 ; xxv. 26 ; xxvii. 7; xxvii. 26 : xxxii 32 ; xxxv. 27. These seem to have been more ample records than those which have been actually transmitted to us,
In short we have no want of a sufficient human agency to account for all the compositions which have come down to us. For the character of these we must examine the evidence in regard to their nature and quality viewed as productswhich may be altogether independent of our knowledge in regard to the names of the men who were used instrumentally in the production of them. It is evident from 1 Kings viii. 8 & ix. 21, that at least certain parts of these compositions must have been written during the currency of the kingdom of Judea, or prior to the captivity by Nebuchadnez
The intimate connexion of these books with others in scripture, as with the Chronicles, and the prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah, speaks strongly for their own rank and authority as canonical writings. But we have more particular and express evidence for this in such quotations as the following: “ And when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon concerning the name of the Lord, she came to prove him with hard questions,” &c. 1 Kings x. 1, &c. . of the south came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon,” Matt. xii. 42.—“ And behold, there came a man of God out of Judah by the word of the Lord unto Bethel, and Jeroboam stood by the altar to burn incense. And he cried against the altar in the word of the Lord, and said, O altar, altar! thus saith the Lord, Behold, a child shall be born unto the house of David, Josiah by name, and upon thee shall he offer the priests of the high places that burn incense upon thee, and men's bones shall be burnt
66 The queen
upon thee, 1 Kings xü. 1, 2. " And as Josiah turned himself, he spied the sepulchres that were there in the mount, and sent, and took the bones out of the sepulchres, and burnt them upon the altar, and polluted it, according to the word of the Lord, which the man of God proclaimed, who proclaimed these words," 2 Kings xxiii. 16.—“And Elijah the Tishbite said unto Ahab, As the Lord God of Israel liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according to my word,” 1 Kings xvii. 1.
“ Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain ; and it rained not on the earth by the space of three years and six months. And he prayed again, and the heaven gave rain, and the earth brought forth her fruit,” James v. 17, 18. But far the most illustrious testimony, and by which the character of “scripture” is most distinctly and expressly given to the book of Kings is the following—“ The children of Israel have forsaken thy covenant, thrown down thine altars, and slain thy prophets with the sword; and I, even I only, am left, and they seek my life, to take it away."
“ Yet I have left me seven thousand in Israel, all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal, and every mouth which hath not kissed him," i Kings xix. 10, 18. not what the 'scripture' saith of Elias ? how he maketh intercession to God against Israel, saying, Lord they have killed thy prophets, and digged down thine altars ; and I am left alone, and they seek my life. But what saith the answer of God unto him? I have reserved to myself seven thou
6 Wot ye