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brought out Rahab, and her father, and her mother, and her brethren, and all that she had ; and they brought out all her kindred, and left them without the camp of Israel,” Josh. vi. 23.
By faith the harlot Rahab perished not with them that believed not, when she had received the spies with peace.” Heb. xi. 31. 66 But we have far more ancient references than this, as the following: “And they buried him in the border of his inheritance in Timnath-serah, which is in mount Ephraim, on the north side of the hill of Gaash," Josh. xxiv. 30. “ And they buried him in the border of his inheritance in Timnath-heres, in the mount of Ephraim, on the north side of the hill Gaash,” Judges ii. 9.*
17. Judges.] This history begins where that of Joshua ends, or takes up the narrative of Jewish affairs immediately after the death of the great captain of Israel, of which event it makes mention. The portion of history embraced in this book is made the subject of a general reference by Paul in Acts xüi. 19-21-as also in the eleventh chapter of the Hebrews. “ And after that he gave unto them judges,” &c., Acts xiii. 20. Here Paul, by quoting history that was only recorded in the book of Judges, at the same time and in the same manner with other history only recorded in the book of Exodus, does equal honour to both
these books, and expresses the like confidence in both. The following is a distinct allusion to a subject in this book. “ And the three hundred blew the trumpets, and the Lord set every man's sword against his fellow, even throughout all the host," Judges vii. 22. “ For thou hast broken the yoke of his burden, and the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, as in the day of Midian,” Isaiah ix. 4. That the transactions in this book were written at a very early period, is obvious from the mention of them in the books of Samuel, and in the Psalms-as the reader may perceive by comparing Judges iv. 2; vii. 4; xi. 2; with 1 Samuel xii. 9-11-Judges ix. 53, with 2 Samuel xi. 21-and Judges v. 5, with Psalm Ixviii. 8, 9. It is a striking proof of the early composition of the book of Judges, that, at the time of its being written, as appears from i. 21, the Jebusites still dwelt in Jerusalem-whereas we might infer from 2 Samuel v. 6, &c., that the total expulsion of them from that city must ve taken place at the hands of David. Other vestiges of its high antiquity are to be found—and so as to harmonize with the idea that Samuel was the writer of it. For Samuel being a writer of scripture, we have strong evidence in Acts iii. 21 -24-particularly in the latter of these two verses, where it is said that “ all the prophets from Samuel have foretold of these days.” That he was the writer of the book of Judges, is the confident opinion of many of our biblists. We might add, though without laying much stress on the observation, that, if the adage of Matt. ii. 23 be a
reference to Judges xiii. 5, 7,- then is there testiinony in one of the gospels to the prophetical character of this book. *
18. Ruth.] There are certain of the books, whose canonicity reposes mainly on the undoubted fact of their having entered as constituent parts into that collection of writings termed Scripture, in the days of the New Testament; and on the homage rendered to them generally, and without any exception whatever, being specified by the founders of the latter dispensation--and that notwithstanding their earnest and repeated dissuasives against vain traditions, or "Jewish fables" of all sorts, or aught that in any shape made unwarrantable usurpation of a divine authority. We are not, however, altogether destitute of scriptural allusions to the subject matter, of which this book is the only known record—as may be seen in the references below.t In the first verse of the first chapter of this book, the era of the judges is spoken of, as having already elapsed; and in the last verse of the last chapter, the genealogy of Ruth's family terminates with David-which intimates it to have been written in the days of this Jewish monarch; and, in all likelihood by Samuel. We may add that Matthew notices Ruth expressly in his genealogy-as if pointing to the memorial that is left of her.
+ Ruth ii. 1.—Matt. i, 5. Judg.iv. 7,15.-Ps. Ixxxiii.9, 10. iv. 12.-1 Chr. ii. 4 V. 5. xcvii. 5.
Matt. i. 3. vi. 11.--Heb. xi. 32.
iv. 18.-1 Chr. ii. 4. vii. 25.-Ps. lxxxiii. 11.
Matt. i. 3.
19. Samuel-two books.] In entering on this portion of scripture, it seems proper to remark, that, in more than one direct history of the same events, we have a duplicate or triplicate evidence -a concurrence of testimonies for the same subject-matter-besides a certain countenance and authority given by these writers to each other, who thus depone alike to one and the same his
That Samuel himself wrote the greater part of these books, is a general and confident opinion. A scriptural writer he undoubtedly must have been*—though we are unable precisely to define all the scriptures which he wrote. “Now the acts of David the king, first and last, behold, they are written in the book of Samuel the seer, and in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the book of Gad the seer." We are also told of his
employment as a writer in 1 Samuel x. 25.• " Then Samuel told the people the manner of the
kingdom, and wrote it in a book, and laid it up before the Lord.” This last circumstance, by the way, is another scriptural indication of the practice of laying up all the writings, that were to be preserved, in a holy place; and it strengthens the security that we feel in the safe keeping of the canonical scriptures—the EvdiceOET01-laid up in « arca ecclesiastica,” εν τη κιβωτω της διαθηκης, in “ armario synagogæ.” Certain it is, at all events, that we have very many confirmations of these books of Samuel in other scriptures.
“ Behold the days come that I will cut off thine arm, and
Acts üi. 24.
+ 1 Chr. xxix. 29.
the arm of thy father's house, that there shall not be an old man in thine house," 1 Samuel ii. 31. “ So Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the Lord; that he might fulfil the word of the Lord, which he spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh,” i Kings ii. 27.—“Now make us a king to judge us like all the nations,” 1 Samuel viii. 5. “ I will be thy king; where is any other that may save thee in all thy cities ? and thy judges, of whom thou saidst, Give me a king and princes? I gave thee a king in mine anger, and took him away in my wrath," Hosea xiii. 10, 11. “And afterward they desired a king, and God gave unto them Saul,” Acts xiii. 21.—“So the priest gave him hallowed bread: for there was no bread there but the shew-bread that was taken from before the Lord," 1 Samuel xxi. 6. “ But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did when he was an hungered, and they that were with him; how he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shew-bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests,” Matt. xii. 3, 4.-“ And David came to Baal-perazim, and David smote them there, and said, the Lord hath broken forth upon mine enemies before me, as the breach of waters. Therefore he called the name of that place, Baal-perazim,” 2 Samuel v. 20. “For the Lord shall rise up as in mount Perazim, he shall be wroth as in the valley of Gibeon, that he may do his work, his strange work; and bring to pass his act, his strange act," Isaiah xxviii. 21. We can dispose of the profusion of these testimonies