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Having therefore obtained help of God, I continue to this day witnessing both to small and great, saying none other things than those which the prophets and Moses did say should come.' “ And when he had appointed them a day, there came many to him in his lodging; to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God, persuading them concerning Jesus both out of the law of Moses, and out of the prophets, from morning till evening."t “ But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets.” even unto this day when Moses is read, the vail is upon their heart."Il That the book of the law was not confined to the legal part of the Pentateuch, is evident from its being appealed to for the historical facts of the narrative, as in Gal. iv. 21 -26, where the story of Hagar and her son is ushered in by a challenge on those who are of the law to hear the law. And there is even reason to believe that the whole of the Old Testament was at times designated as “the Law” or “Book of the Law.” The quotation in John X. 34, seems to have been taken from the Psalms, and yet is said to be taken from the “ Law.” The people in John xii. 34 allege their having heard out of the law, that which must have been read or told to them out of the Psalms. And our Saviour in John xv. 25, makes a quotation from the Psalms as from the law. The truth is, that the names
• Acts xxvi. 22.
Rom. iii. 21.
+ Acts xxviii. 23.
properly and primitively annexed to one portion of the Jewish scriptures was at length extended to the whole—as being all of the same complete and rightful authority over the faith and consciences of men.
10. Still however the Pentateuch is often singled out from the other scriptures, by its original and appropriate designation of the Book of the Law. So that, beside the scriptural evidence for the individual books of the Pentateuch, there is much of that evidence to be found in the general references made to the Pentateuch on the whole, under the title of the Law or Book of the Law. But of the many citations which might be produced, a very few must suffice. “ Observe to do according to all the law, which Moses my servant commanded thee." “ This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth.”+ “ As Moses the servant of the Lord commanded the children of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses." “ And keep the charge of the Lord thy God, to walk in his ways, to keep his statutes and his commandments and his judgments and his testimonies, as it is written in the law of Moses.”ll “ But the children of the murderers he slew not: according unto that which is written in the book of the law of Moses, wherein the Lord commanded
There are besides quotations in the New Testament as from the law, of words only to be found in the prophets-so that their whole Bible must have often been designated the · Book of the Law," and hence the strong probability that the book taken from the temple and carried at the Roman triumph, though termed by Josephus the book of the law, was the temple copy of the whole Hebrew scriptures.
† Josh. i. 7, 8. † Josh. viii. 31. 1 1 Kings ii. 3.
saying, "* &c. “ And Hilkiah the high-priest said, I have found the book of the law in the house of the Lord.”+ David “ left before the ark of the covenant of the Lord, Asaph and his brethren, to minister before the ark continually, and to do according to all that is written in the law of the Lord which He commanded Israel." I Jehoiada appointed the offices of the house of the Lord, by the hand of the priests, the Levites, whom David had distributed in the house of the Lord, to offer the burnt-offerings of the Lord as it is written in the law of Moses." I
" Then stood up Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and his brethren the priests, and builded the altar of the God of Israel, to offer burnt-offerings thereon, as it is written in the law of Moses the man of God." “ As it is written in the book of Moses.” 1 they read in the book in the law of God distinctly,
the sense, and caused them to understand the reading." “And they found written in the law which the Lord had commanded by Moses, that the children of Israel should dwell in booths in the feast of the seventh month.”** “ On that day they read in the book of Moses, in the audience of the people.”tt “ Therefore the curse is poured upon us, and the oath that is written in the law of Moses the servant of God.”
66 As it is written in the law of Moses, all this evil is come upon us.”I1 We could produce quotations
* 2 Kings xiv. 6.
† 2 Kings xxii. 8. Ii Chr. xvi. 37—40. || 2 Chr. xxiii. 18. Ezra üi. 2. [ Ezra vi. 18. ** Neh. viii. 8, 14. tt Neh iii. 1.
If Dan. ix 11, 13.
equally express, but too numerous for insertion, that might be gathered from the New Testament. These are the testimonies of different ages, taken from different books, and marking the existence and authority of a document entituled the book of the law or the book of Moses, in exceeding different periods of history—from the days of Joshua, bordering immediately on those of Moses, and at intervals downward to the age of Christ and His apostles. And what we have now alleged in behalf of the book of the law in cumulo, can also, as we shall see presently, be alleged of its individual parts. And it should be remarked, that each part shares in the benefit of such general testimonies, or testimonies in the gross, as have been just now adduced by us. A reference when made, not to a particular book, but to the book of the law, is an expression of confidence, an act of homage, done to the authority of the whole. A quotation from any one of the five books in the Pentateuch, if given not as a quotation from that particular book, but as from the Pentateuch at large, speaks for the respect in which the whole Pentateuch was held. In the language of Scottish law, it homologates the whole record. If a reference to the book of Numbers be made in this way, the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, and Deuteronomy, all participate in the advantage of
• Instead of exhibiting the words of these quotations in the text, let it be enough that we point out the places of them here. Mark xii. 19, 26. Luke ii. 23 ; X. 26 ; xvi. 29; xxiv. 27. John i. 45. Acts xv. 21 ; xxiv. 14. Rom. x. 5. 1 Cor. ix. 9. Gal. iii. 10. Add to these the whole substance and texture of the epistle to the Hebrews.
it. But let us pursue this scriptural, this best of all evidence, for the canon of the Old Testament, more into its details.
11. Genesis.] The most satisfactory quotations are those which at once present the extract and name the book or the writer whence it is takenyet, without naming either book or writer, such may be the identity or even close resemblance of the words extracted, as to demonstate the reality of the quotation, and so to demonstrate the existence of the elder work at the time that the later work was produced. Even when the passage exhibited in proof of this does not amount to an extract, there may at least be an undoubted reference and allusion in it to the earlier publication. And there is a certain manner of introducing these quotations which demonstrates, not only the existence of the prior document, but the respect and religious authority in which it is held. The phrase “it is written,” $5T1 yeygas puevov, when not accompanied with the mention of any book, is as much the appropriated phrase for indicating that the book referred to is a sacred one, as the term ygan is of scripture. And thus“ behold it is written," is tantamount, saving when the book is specified and is known not to be canonical, is tantamount to “behold it is in scripture”—or we have it in scripture. And thus might we gather proofs out of the posterior scriptures, not for the existence only but for the divine authority of the book of Genesis. We shall only in the text instance from the Old Testament, the continuous allusion made to its contents, in the earlier half of the cv. Psalm. And we can