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CONTENTS

13

...........................

THE NATURE AND FOUNDATIONS OF ELOQUENCE.

CHAP. I. Eloquence in the largest Acceptance defined, its more general Forms

exhibited, with their different Objects, Ends, and Characters ............. 23

CHAP. II. Of Wit, Humour, and Ridicule

30

SECT. I. Of Wit...

ib.

SECT. II. Of Humour

37

SECT. III. Of Ridicule.

42

CHAP. III. The Doctrine of the preceding Chapter defended

49

SECT. I. Aristotle's Account of the Ridiculous explained

ib.

SECT. II. Hobbes's Account of Laughter examined .....

50

CHAP. IV, Of the Relation which Eloquence bears to Logic and to Grammar.. 54

CHAP. V. Of the different Sources of Evidence, and the different Subjects to

which they are respectively adapted

57

Sect. I. Of Intuitive Evidence...,

ib.

Part I. Mathematical Axioms

ib

Part II. Consciousness

59

Part III. Common Sense.

60

SECT. II. Of Deductive Evidence...

65

Part I. Division of the Subject into Scientific and Moral, with the principal

Distinctions between them

ib.

Part II. The Nature and Origin of Experience.

69

Part III. The Subdivisions of Moral Reasoning

70

1. Experience

72

2. Analogy

75

3. Testimony

76

4. Calculations of Chances

78

Part IV. The Superiority of Scientific Evidence re-examined.

80

CHAP. VI. Of the Nature and Use of the scholastic Art of Syllogizing:

83

CHAP. VII. Of the Consideration which the Speaker ought to have of the Hear-

ers as Men in general.

93

Sect. I. As endowed with Understanding.

95

SECT. II. As endowed with Imagination.

ib.

Sect. III. As endowed with Memory

97

SECT. IV. As endowed with Passions.

99

Sect. V. The Circumstances that are chiefly instrumental in operating on

the Passions.

103

Part I. Probability.

.......... 104

Part II. Plausibility •

ib.

Part III. Importance

......... 108

Part IV. Proximity of Time.............

Part V. Connexion of Place..

110

Part VI. Relation to the Persons concerned.

........ 111

Part VII. Interest in the Consequences.

ib.

Sect. VI. Other Passions, as well as Moral Sentiments, useful Auxiliaries... 112

SECT. VII. How an unfavourable Passion must be calmed..

115

CHAP. VIII. Of the Consideration which the Speaker ought to have of the Hear-

ers as such Men in particular

117

CHAP. IX. Of the Consideration which the Speaker ought to have of himself . 118

CHAP. X. The different kinds of public Speaking in use among the Moderns,

compared with a view to their different Advantages in respect of Eloquence 121

Sect. I. In regard to the Speaker.......

ib.

SECT. II. In regard to the Persons addressed

.................. 124

Sect. III. In regard to the Subject :

...................... 126

SECT. IV. In regard to the Occasion.

.................... 188

....... 109

THE FOUNDATIONS AND ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES OF ELOCUTION.

CHAP. I. The Nature and Characters of the Use which gives Law to Language 162

Sect. I. Reputable Use ....

164

SECT. II. National Use......

168

SECT. III. Present Use

170

CHAP. II. The Nature and Use of Verbal Criticism, with its principal Canons. 174

SECT. I. Good Use not always Uniform in her Decisions.

176

Canon the First.....

77

Canon the Second ...

179

Canon the Third

181

Canon the Fourth

ib.

Canon the Fifth ..

182

SECT. II. Everything favoured by good Use, not on that Account worthy to be

retained

183

Canon the Sixth ..

184

Canon the Seventh

187

Canon the Eighth

18€

Canon the Ninth

18

CHAP. III. Of grammatical Purity.

192

SECT. I. The Barbarism..

ib.

Part I. By the Use of obsolete Words .............

ib.

Part II. By the Use of new Words

195

Part III. By the Use of good Words new modelled

197

Sect. II. The Solecism...

202

SECT. III. The Impropriety..

213

Part I. Impropriety in single Words.

ib.

Part II. Impropriety in Phrases .

224

CHAP. IV. Some graminatical Doubts in regard to English Construction stated

and examined.

227

CHAP. V. Of the Qualities of Style strictly Rhetorical.

237

CHAP. VI. Of Perspicuity..

239

SECT. I. The Obscure...

ib.

Part I. From Defect...

ib.

Part II. From bad Arrangement..

242

Part III. From using the same Word in different Senses.

245

Part IV. From an uncertain Reference in Pronouns and Relatives

246

Part V. Froin too Artificial a Structure of the Sentence

247

Part VI. From technical Terms...

ib.

Part VII. From long Sentences

248

SECT. II. The double Meaning ..

249

Part I. Equivocation

ib.

Part II. Ambiguity

253

Sect. III. The Unintelligible .

266

Part I. From Confusion of Thought

ib.

Part II. From Affectation of Excellence .......

268

Part III. From Want of Meaning ::::

270

Under this the various kinds of Nonsense ;

1. The Puerile

271

2. The Learned

272

3. The Profound.....

4. The Marvellous

276

CHAP. VII. What is the Cause that Nonsense so often escapes being detected,

both by the Writer and by the Reader ?

278

SECT. I. The Nature and Power of Signs, both in speaking and in thinking.. ib.

Sect. II. The Application of the preceding Principles

287

THE DISCRIMINATING PROPERTIES OF ELOCUTION.

CHAP I. Of Vivacity as depending on the Choice of Words ....

307

Sect. I. Proper Terms ....

............. ib.

SECT. II. Rhetorical Tropes

315

Part I. Preliminary Observations concerning Tropes ..................... ib.

Part II. The different Sorts of Tropes conducive to Vivacity

1. The Less for the more General

......... ib.

2. The most interesting Circumstance distinguished... ............... 322

3. Things Sensible for things Intelligible..

325

4. Things Animate for things Lifeless

327

Part III. The Use of those Tropes which are obstructive to Vivacity 331

SECT. III. Words considered as Sounds.....

338

Part I. What are articulate Sounds capable of imitating, and in what Degree ? 339

Part II. In what Esteem ought this kind of Imitation to be held, and when

ought it to be attempted?..

...... 351

CHAP. II. Of Vivacity as depending on the Number of the Words............ 353

SECT. I. This Quality explained and exemplified...

ib.

SECT. II. The principal Offences against Brevity considered

358

Part 1. Tautology.

ib.

Part II. Pleonasm .................................................... 360

Part III. Verbosity

CHAP. III. Of Vivacity as depending on the Arrangement of the Words 372

SECT. I. Of the Nature of Arrangement, and the principal Division of Senten-

SECT. II. Simple Sentences............................................. 374

SECT. III. Complex Sentences ...

388

Part I. Subdivision of these into Periods and loose Sentences

ib.

Part II. Observations on Periods, and on the Use of Antithesis in the Compo-

sition of Sentences ........

292

Part III. Observations on loose Sentences...

.... 401

Part IV. Review of what has been deduced above in regard to Arrangement 403

CHAP. IV. Of the Connectives employed in combining the Parts of a Sentence 404

Sect. I. Of Conjunctions

SECT. II. Of other Conuectives........

411

Sect. III. Modern Languages compared with Greek and Latin, particularly in

regard to the Composition of Sentences..

419

CHAP. V. Of the Connectives employed in combining the Sentences in a Dis.

course ..

423

SECT. I. The Necessity of Connectives for this Purpose

ib.

SECT. II. Observations on the Manner of using the Connectives in combining

Sentences ................

424

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