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eastern side of that gulf. These burst forth at the intervals of several rods, in a deep ravine, considerably elevated above the level of the sea. A stream of cold water descending from the mountain, forms with them a most agreeable natural bath, which is much resorted to for the cure of cutaneous and other diseases. The extensive ruins of brick work around, sufficiently indicate their imperial and Roman origin. The mercury in different springs, rose at once to the top of my thermometer-125°. In taste the waters were sweetish, and not unpalatable. I did not think of any tests which I could apply on the spot, nor did I afterwards discover any very decided indications of mineral properties in a bottle of the water that I carried away. The stones around are covered with a whitish incrustation, which exbaled no odor of sulphur. [The celebrated waters of Brusa, which are one or two days' journey farther east, were found from a specimen carried to England by Mr. Turner, to be nearly pure, yielding only minute portions of iron, sulphur, antimony, mercury, &c. Their temperature was 185° of Fahrenheit.] In the vicinity of Daghamam, I observed also rocks of breccia, but whether the hills above are of the trachyte or the limestone, which is so widely prevalent in that part of Asia Minor, I am unable to say. On my return to the gulf, I picked up pebbles of colored quartz, and fragments of jasper.

From the Princes’ Islands, the place of my summer residence in the Marmora opposite Chartal and Maltepi, there are a complete suite of rocks. Dr. Clarke in bis travels in Greece, Syria, &c. says that while passing down the Sea of Marmora, “ the isle of Princes appeared of white limestone." This is only a species of clay,

which forms the bases of most of the islands. Its prevailing color is white, but it varies from that to every shade of red. When covered with water it is very soft, but hardens on exposure to the vir. Owing to the action of the waves, the banks are wasting away, so that for a considerable distance around, the white earth appears beneath the water. The clays of Argentiera or Cimolo in the Archipelago, bave a striking resemblance to those of the Princes’ Islands. Resting upon the cimolite, as appears both from the higher shores and from wells sunk to a great depth, is an argillaceous iron ore. Much of the soil of the Island of Prinkipos, derives from this a dark red color. A quartz rock forms the summits of most of the islands. It exhibits in many instances, a considerable degree of stratification. Opposite Chalke, the different rocks are colored by car bonate of copper. In Chalke, a vein of copper was formerly explored, but the richer mines in the interior of Asia, have caused it to be neglected.

The specimen of talcose slate from Camara-su, the ancient Parium on the southern shore of the Marmora, was taken from the hill above the town. From the low shores of the Dardanelles, near Abydos and Sestos, you have specimens of the three principal strata. First, breccia occurs, and next, that species of carbonate of lime called oolite? Dr. Sibthorpe de. nominates it “calcareous sandstone." In this are found veins of chrystallized carbonate of lime, and oyster and other shells imbedded in great quantities. The oyster is of the same appearance with those which we purchased of fishermen in the adjacent waters. A soft species of compact carbonate of lime, usually forms

the highest rock. At Gallipoli on the north shore of the Marmora, twenty five miles from the castle of the Dardanelles, this abounds with shells.

At Tenedos, I found the order of the rocks at the hill above the town to be, breccia at the base, next, the oolite and compact limestone, while the summit was crowned with volcanic trachyte, of which you have a specimen. The southern extremity of the harbor which embosoms the castle was of breccia, and the other of limestone. Oyster and other shells are also found in the rocks, but in a less degree than at the Dardanelles, or in the Troad.

On the shore where I landed at Alexandria Troas, I observed the rock which I first called sand stone, but now suppose to be the oolite. I also passed over breccia and compact limestone of the hard and soft varieties. The latter constitutes wbat some travellers have called chalk cliffs. Among the ruins of Troas are blocks of breccia with pebbles from the size of a walnut to that of a man's head. The city walls are constructed from a singular shell-conglomerate of which you have a specimen. Its shells are small, and compacted with much apparent regularity. The rock, if such it may be called, becomes very hard on exposure to the weather. On the north side of the city, it makes its appearance at the surface.

From Smyrna you have a comple suite of specimens. Dr. Seetzen has correctly described the hills in the vicinity of Smyrna, as being mostly of brown porphiyry. The summits of all these hills are composed of this volcanic trachyte. That which is labelled “the tomb of Tantalus” is from a remarkable pile of ruins on the north side of the harbor. The castle hill of Smyrna

Vol. I.

is of hard compact lime-stone. A softer variety constitutes a lesser hill between the castle and city. In former ages as well as the present, it has been most extensively quarried for the purposes of building. It is very easily wrought, but is not durable. Breccia is seen at the base of the castle and several other hills. In the collection are also specimens of the free stone of Malta-oolite, I believe; also the compact limestone of Gibraltar.

The sepulchral stones sent you by the friends of Mr. Gridley, were obtained near the ancient Philadel. phia in Asia Minor. From some Roman words, as well as from the bad style of their inscriptions, it is probable they are not older than the Christian era. They are interesting to the philologist, in connexion with other inscriptions of the same age, as showing the interchange of the diphthong ε for the vowel c, in the imperfect tense. It is from such evidence that Coray attempts to prove their uniformity of sound among the ancient Greeks. The moderns you are aware, pronounce these and sereral other vowels and diphthongs alike. At Delos and in different parts of Greece, tomb stones of a much more remote antiquity, can be obtained for a few dol. lars. These and the modern sepulchral monuments of the Turks, might easily be brought from Smyrna. Though of little estimation in the cabinets of Europe, they would be a curiosity in our own.

These geological notices through your assistance, are I trust, substantially accurate, though they may not be scientifically expressed. As yet we have but very imperfect, and in many instances, contradictory accounts of the mineralogy and geology of the Levant. Few travellers so well qualified as Seetzen and Holland, bave

passed over its shores, and not many, I believe, have brought away specimens so widely if so judiciously collected as mine. Might it not be a subject matter of sufficient interest for some of your correspondents to colJect and arrange the materials scattered through the journals of travellers, in a Dissertation on the the Mineralogy and Geology of the East ? To this I could wish to see added a list of desiderata in the different departments of science, for the guidance of naval officers, missionaries and others, while voyaging and travelling about the Mediterranean and its adjacent seas. Gentlemen of the nary and travellers generally, in making collections of minerals seem rather to have had in view the beauty of their specimens, than scientific objects. Favored as the former are with facilities for transportation, it is desirable that like our missionaries in Palestine and elsewhere, they should endeavor to furnish our different cabinets with complete geological snites.

CHAPTER XXIII.

JEWS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN.

Boston Female Jews' Society-Its first Missionary–Feast of

Tabernacles—Jewish Synagogue-Jews of Gibraltar-Northern
Africa-Morocco-Algiers—Tunis–Tripoli–Egypt--Abyssinia
-A Jewish wedding-Eminent Jewish Physician-Jews of
Southern Europe—Rome-Proposed Jewish College-Greece.

1829.-The interruption of missionary labors which I have experienced in common with my brethren in the

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