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standing without the village, and built probably as a defence against pirates, is now converted into a dwelling house. Extensive gardens, as well as vineyards and orchards, are found in the vicinity. The produce of these is sent to the Constantinople market, which depends for its supply of vegetables and fruits, on the coasts of Asia. Bread stuffs come principally from Russia and Egypt, by the Bosphorus and Dardanelles.
The Aga of Chartalami is a mild old man, from whom I have experienced many civilities. I first made bis acquaintance under the following circumstances. Soon after I had removed to the islands, being on a visit one day'at Constantinople, the boatmen endeavored to take advantage of my desire to return, and demanded an extravagant price. I refused to pay it, and went to the chancellor's and obtained a tescari for passing by land frem Scutari. On reaching Maltepe, for which place, it seems, our passport was made out, the boatmen there, were still more exorbitant in their demands. Though it was now dark, I determined in accordance with my uniform practice, not to submit to their impositions. Accordingly, we pushed forward another hour to Chartalami. [I soon found the benefit of such a decided course with the islanders. After repeated and unsuccessful attempts to defraud me, they began at last to say I was an Englishman, and one of the boatmen consented that if I would excuse the past he would hereafter be content with whatever I should give him. In like manner I found individuals among the different tradesmen, who were glad in the end to obtain my custom on reasonable terms.]
On reaching Chartalami, it was necessary to appear before the Aga. It was unusual for Franks to enter the town on foot, at so late an hour. He therefore advised us not to attempt crossing over to the island that night, but directed us to the head Greek, who as we afterwards understood was to be responsible for our appearance in the morning. In times like the present, it seemed proper to exercise caution respecting strana gers. Having ascertained however by return of the messengers who accompanied us on the morrow, that I had taken up my residence at Prinkipos, I ever after found this fine old Turk most ready to oblige me. Nor did it appear to be with a view of obtaining the backshish or present. At the feast of the corban-beiran, he did indeed send me a present of lamb, for which in common with others who were honored with his notice, I sent back perhaps twice the value in money. But then on this occasion even his royal master is accustomed to remind the foreign ambassadors by a basket of oranges or the like, that the season of gifts has come. And doubtless it was more the fault of his servants than of himself, that the animal which fell to my share had been slaughtered so long, as to make it necessary speedily to follow the bearer out of the door. The good aga invariably declined the small fee which it had been customary to pay for the tescarees. His police officer once stopped an Ionian Greek that was in my company, and charging him with being a subject of the Porte, demanded at least payment of the haratch or poll tax. The lad had from poverty been necessis tated to wear the dress of a rayah, but the Turk supposed he had ventured to lay it aside, relying solely on my protection. Not being disposed to countenance any. of the old Janissary practices, I directed the whole party to move forward to the house of the aga. We found
him sitting on his divan, which was a board spread with a coarse covering; and living in no better style than the poorest of those whom he governed. Immediately on seeing me, he mildly rebuked the officer for his clamorous manner, and dismissed us with an apology after listening only to my statement.
I once had occasion to ask some little indulgences, and though it was contrary to my practice to offer presents to any of the authorities, I begged him to accept of a steel pen. At the time, I was not aware that from their mode of writing with a reed, it would be of no service to him. He however received the trifle very graciously, not giving the slightest intimation that to him it was no better than a useless toy. I requested him when he should visit the island on purposes of business, to favor me with his company at meals.
But though he contented himself with spreading his seat in the coffee house as usual, he manifested his friendship in various ways. Even while hearing the causes that were brought before him, he would stop to salute me by placing his hand on his breast, with a gentle inclination of the head and a smile. His agent too in the islands needed only the mention of my name, to grant passports under circumstances, where others met with a refusal.
Having obtained the necessary papers at Chartalami and bathing on the shore beyond the town, in an hour to the southeast we reached Panteichion, a Greek village of about sixty families. Here are considerable remains of an ancient wall, to which it owes its name. There are also many scattered fragments of marble, but we discovered no inscriptions. We saw the ruins of a church which the people said had fallen forty
years ago, but which they do not suffer to be removed. 66 Thy servants take pleasure in her stones, and favor the dust thereof."' Near the church was a well of water, which St. Pantaleon, had blessed. They told us also of another agiasma, or sacred fountain, near by, and which they said had a particular medical effect on a certain day of the year. Nicholas, who has lived too long with one of the Bishops not to understand the artifices of the priests, accounted in one of two ways for what appeared to be a well authenticated statement; either the priests throw a quantity of glauber salts into the fountain on the day of the pretended miracle, or it was a mineral water, which would produce the like effect on every other day.
After leaving Panteichion, we passed three ruined monasteries, on an island and two long promontories. One of these which had been the scene of an engagement with a body of pirates, was converted by the Turks into a store house. In another, though uproofed, the paintings of the chapel are suffered to remain, and it is still occasionally visited for devotional purposes, from the neighboring village of Tousla. No monastery or church is suffered to be built, or even repaired by the laying up of a single stone that has fallen down, without a firman from the Sultan. As this cannot be obtained without a greater sum of money than the straitened circumstances of the people and those. of the devotees are able to furnish, the consequence is that monasticism in the vicinity of Constantinople is almost at an end.
We swung our hammocks during the heat of the day, under some mastick trees. These are pretty frequent along the coast, though no gum is collected
from them, as in Scio. Towards evening we went forward to Tousla, which is not quite two hours from Panteichion. Tous, is the Turkish word for salt, from the manufacture of which the place derives its name. Several other places in Turkey are called by. the same name, and indeed wherever the Greek names do not prevail, there is much confusion from the like frequent repetition.
The number of houses in Tousla is about two hundred and fifty, of which only thirty belong to the Turks. Like all the other villages between this and Constantinople, it has a most wretched appearance. The oldest buildings both here and elsewhere, exhibit a style far more ornamental and expensive than the present. On my first arrival, while passing along the principal street, a woman of pallid countenance called to me from the window, and asked if I understood the fever and ague. As might be expected from its low and marshy situation, the place is very unhealthy, and there were now many cases of bilious and intermittent fevers. I visited several of the sick, and administered to them of my little stock of medicines. In some instances, the obstinate refusal of superstitious friends, prevented the use of remedies which seemed most manifestly needful. After a supper of bread, olives and yaourt, I left my company at the coffee house, to spend the night at the house of a respectable Greek, in order to watch the effect of medicine upon a sick child. I was gratified to find in his possession a modern Greek Testament, which he had purchased at the depository of the Bible Society at Constantinople. The Greeks around the capital generally know where these New Testaments are to be procured.