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knew at a great expense. During the interval the wind had became violent and the boatmen hesitated to push off. When at last they consented, she seated herself in the opposite extremity of the boat, without seeming to take the slightest notice of the fury of the waves; so great had been the conflict and such was the still remaining agitation of her feelings. I know not that I shall lose until my dying day, the expression of gratitude and joy in her countenance, chastened by the deep anxiety bordering despair from which she had just emerged. Through the goodness of Providence, her husband most unexpectedly recovered. One of his neighbors died not long after, as I was persuaded from excessive loss of blood, having called in the barber ten or twelve times.
I found many cases of extreme debility in consequence of perpetual resort to this remedy on every slight illness. The operation is almost invariably performed on the foot. The frequent use of the sweating bath, is another fruitful source of ill health. Besides acute diseases, rheumatic affections are common among the people. The small pox swept off many from the island of Chalke last year, but vaccination is extending itself through the benevolent efforts of gentlemen connected with the foreign embassies. It has even of late been introduced into the Seraglio, by the English and French physicians of Pera, who are frequent in their attendance there. Dr. Walsh, the late British chaplain, while residing in one of the monasteries of Chalke with the Rey. Mr. Leeves and family, besides administering very widely to the sick poor, vaccinated also great numbers of the people. Just as I was leaving Constantinople,
I instituted an inquiry, at his request through Mr. L., respecting the varioloid and kindred diseases which afterwards prevailed. I could not learn that any of those were among the victims on whom the vaccine matter had been pronounced to have taken effect. Many however had been attacked, but less violently than such as were not vaccinated. My own attempts at vaccination proved unsuccessful. After making sad work with the arms of a dozen Greek children, I found that the matter which Mr. Gridley had sent me from Smyrna was not genuine, and the only physicians at Constantinople who possessed the virus, were unwilling to sell it, lest it should fall into the hands of others.
In looking back upon the results of my medical labors, I can speak of some progress made in the languages of the people from the familiar and frequent conversation I was necessitated to hold, at first through an interpreter from the Italian, and afterwards in Greek. In this respect I now see that it would have been more profitable, had I at once laid aside the Turkish, and confined my attention to the latter language. I could not however have foreseen the extent to which my medical labors finally carried me. For a year or two a physician would not suffer much loss of time, by practising among the people whose language he wished to learn.
Another advantage derived from medical employa ments, has been an acquaintance with the in-door character, superstitions and usages of the people. Sometimes when I have been hastily summoned to visit the sick, I have found the priest chanting his prayer and sprinkling the holy water in order to cast out the
evil spirit which had entered, while the neighbors would hasten in with pictures of the saints and if possible a piece of the true cross. Around a sick bed too, I have found the people acting out their real character, and expressing their opinions and feelings on religious subjects with less reserve than on ordinary occasions.
By visiting as a physician, I have also formed acquaintances; disarmed prejudices, and secured the confidence and attachment of the people, to an extent, which might in any other way have taken years to accomplish. There is scarcely a family in the island, whether Catholic or Greek, in which I was not acquainted, and always received as a welcome visiter. Seldom did I go abroad without receiving the salutations of recovered patients, or of friends, equally grateful for my attentions. Imperfect too as was my knowledge of Greek, there were instances like the following, in which I had peculiarly favorable opportunities for speaking on the things of religion. A young female whose life bad been almost despaired of, after a long sickness, began at last to mend. On making my morning visit, she said to me on one occasion, “ I shall take no medicine to-day.” “ And why not take medicine to-day ?” “ Because I am going to partake of the sacrament,” was the reply. She was apprehensive, as she said, that in consequence of the remedies she was using, the consecrated bread might be rejected from her stomach, and thus an unpardonable sin be committed of suffering it to fall on the ground. The New Testament which they had obtained at my suggestion, was lying by her side, and I opened it and read, 6 Do this in remembrance of me.” Rarely have I bad more attentive hearers, than while thus explain
ing the nature of the Lord's supper, and I was not without hopes from this and subsequent conversations, that some useful impressions were made on the minds of the family.
I have been thus particular in speaking on this subject, as it may aid other missionaries in deciding how far the study and practice of physic may be a duty. In such a country as Turkey, it would expose one's self and associates to the plague. I was thought rash in going to the extent I did, in receiving strangers, who might have come from districts where it prevailed. Sometimes in suspicious cases, I followed the practice of the physicians in refusing to feel the pulse, and often deluged the patient with vinegar, as well as made free use of it myself. I felt reluctant however, to excite the suspicions of friends, and of the barber in case his lancet should be necessary. The latter always began his operations by crossing himself, and I have seen him become deadly pale, repeat his crossings, and turn to me with an enquiring look, when several efforts to obtain blood were unavailing. To set off against the danger in question, there would be this great advantage in the East. The medical profession invests one's person with peculiar sacredness, and whether travelling or stationary, such a security would thus be imparted, which others might in vain seek after. In every country there would be this inconvenience. From the numbers of sick, one's employment must constantly tend to become too exclusively secular, and the expense would necessarily be considerable. The medicines which I often purchased at a disadvantage, in addition to those sent me by Mr. Gridley, and including such as I have brought with me to Greece,
amount to about fifty dollars. It would be a good rule when it is in the power of the people, to require payment for them at cost. A physician too who should be as familiar with practice as my associate was, and as well furnished with medicines and surgical instruments, would accomplish the labor which I performed, in much less time. As it was, he found the crowd on his journey to Cesarea so great, as to cause considerable delay. In conclusion, I will take the liberty to quote the following remarks on this subject from Douglas' valuable " Hints on Missions."
6. If with scientific attainments they combined the profession of physic, it would be attended with many advantages; for there is something suspicious in a foreigner remaining long in a country without an openlydefined object. The character of a physician has always been highly honored in the East, and would give an easy and unsuspected admission to a familiar intercourse with all classes and creeds. The Koran being itself both law and divinity, and lawyers and divines being but the readers and expounders of the Sacred Text, physic is the only learned profession among the Moslem, where genius can have free space to spread its wings; and men of the greatest name, and of the brightest ages in Arabian history, have been of that profession. The pursuit of alchemy, joined with that of physic on the one hand, and the warm coloring of their tales, on the other, have blended the physicians of the Caliphate with the wonder-workers of the fab
56 Part of that magical lustre descends to their successors, and he who is a physician is pardoned for being a Christian ; religious and national prejudices disap