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Shews how the art of cobling bears A near refemblance to the Spheres. A scrap of parchment hung by geometry (A great refinement in barometry) Can, like the stars, foretell the weather ; And what is parchment elfe but leather, Which an astrologer might use, Either for Almanacks or /boes ? Thus Partridge, by his wit and parts, At once did practice both these arts : And as the boading Owl (or rather The Bat, because her wings are leather,) Steals from her private cell by night, And flies about at candle-light ; So learned Partridge could as well Creep in the dark from leathern cell, And, in his fancy, fly as far To peep upon a twinkling star. Befides, he could confound the Spheres, And fet the Planets by the ears ; To shew his skill, he Mars could join To Venus in a/þećł malign; Then call in Mercury for aid, And cure the wounds, that Venus made. Great scholars have in Lucian read, When Philip king of Greece was dead, His foul and spirit did divide, And each part took a diff'rent fide ; One rose a star, the other fell Beneath, and mended fhoes in Hell. Thus Partridge still fhines in each art, The cobling and star-gazing part; And is install'd as good aftar As any of the Caesars are, Triumphant star ! some pity shew On Coblers militant below, Whom roguish boys in stormy nights Torment, by piffing out their lights ; Or thro’ a chink convey their smoak Înclos’d Artificers to choak ! Thou, high exalted in thy sphere, May'st follow still thy calling there.

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Pastor, a Shepherd; the fubject of it being fome

thing in the Pastoral or rural life; and the persons, or interlocutors, introduced in it, either shepherds or other:

rusticks. - |These poems are frequently called Eclogues, which fignifies feleé? or choice pieces ; tho' fome account for this name.

after a different manner. They are also called Bucolicks from.

Baxox@., a Herdsman. “ The original of poetry, fays Mr. Pope, is ascribed to: “ that age which succeeded the creation of the world : “ and as the keeping of flocks seems to have been the first “ employment of mankind, the most ancient fort of poe“ try was probably Pastoral. It is natural to imagine, “ that the leifure of those ancient fhepherds admitting and “ inviting some diversion, none was fo proper to that foli“ tary and fedentary life as finging ; and that in their “ fongs they took occasion to celebrate their own felicity.

*“ From hence a poem was invented, and afterwards im

“ proved to a perfećt image of that happy time ; which “ by giving us an esteem for the virtues of a former age,

* Tibia brachia contrahet ingens Scorpius, &c,

* might recommend them to the present. And fince the “ life of shepherds was attended with more tranquility “ than any other rural employment, the poets chofe to “ introduce their persons, from whom it received the name “ of Pastoral.” Scaliger, and Fontenelle are of Mr. Pope’s opinion, and fuppose that Pastorals were the first poems ; but this conclusion seems not to be drawn from nature and reafon. As man in the infant state of the world, was undoubtedly struck with an awful idea of God, arifing from a confideration of his works of creation, fo must he be very early led to supplicate and adore that divine Being on whom he perceived his existence depended ; it is more natural, and more rational, therefore, to suppofe that the first poems where hymns or odes made in praise of the Deity. Ws may allow shepherds indeed to have been the first poets, but we cannot suppose that Pastorals were the first poems ; fince it is more reafonable to conclude that the ancients would prefer the praife of the Creator to that of his creatures. But controverfies of this fort are befide our purpose. This kind of poem, when happily executed, gives great delight ; nor is it a wonder, fince innocence and fimplicity generally please : To which let me add, that the scenes of Pastorals are always laid in the country, where both

poet and painter have abundant matter for the exercife of

genius, fuch as inchanting prospećts, purling streams, fhady groves, enamelled meads, flowery lawns, rural amusements, the bleating of flocks, and the mufick of birds ; which is of all melody the most sweet and pleasing, and calls to my mind the wisdom and taste of Alexander, who on being importuned to-hear a man that imitated the notes of the Nightingale, and was thought a great curiosity, replied, that he had had the happinest of hearing the Nightingale herself. The charaćter of the Pastoral confists in fimplicity, brevity, and delicacy; the two first render an eclogue natural, and the last delightful. With respećt to nature, indeed, we are to confider, that as a pastoral is an image of the ancient times of innocence and undefigning plainness, we are not to describe shepherds as they really are at this day, but as they may be conceiv'd then to have been, when the best of men, and even princes, followed the employment. For this reafon an air of piety should run through the whole poem, which is visible in the writings of antiquity.




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that in fuch a manner, as if it was done by chance rather
than by design ; left by too much pains to seem natural that
fimplicity be destroyed from whence arises the delight; for
what is fo engaging in this kind of poesy proceeds not fo
much from the idea of a country life itself, as in expofing
only the best part of a fhepherd’s life, and concealing the
misfortunes and miferies which fometimes attend it. Be-
fides, the subjećt must contain fome particular beauty in
itself, and each eclogue present a scene or prospect to our
view enriched with variety : which variety is in a great
measure obtained by frequent comparifons drawn from the
most agreeable objećts of the country ; by interrogations
to things inanimate ; by short and beautiful digreffions ;
and by elegant turns on the words, which render the num-
bers more sweet and pleafing. To this let me add, that the
connećtions must be negligent, the narrations and deferip-
tions short, and the periods concife.
Riddles, parables, proverbs, antique phrases, and super-
ftitious fables are fit materials to be intermixed with this
kind of poem. They are here, when properly applied,
very ornamental; and the more fo, as they give our

modern compositions the air of the ancient manner of


The style of the Pastoral ought to be humble, yet pure ; neat, but not florid ; eafy, and yet lively: and the numbers fhould be fmooth and flowing.

This poem in general should be short, and ought never much to exceed an hundred lines ; for we are to consider that the ancients made these fort of compositions their amusement, and not their bufiness : but however short they are, every eclogue must cọntain a plot or fable, which must be fimple and one; but yet fo managed as to admit of short digrestions. Virgil has always observed this I fhall give you the plot or argument of his first Pastoral as an example.

Meliboeus, an unfortunate /hepherd, is introduced with Tityrus, one in more fortunate circumstances; the former addreffes the complaint of his sufferings and bani/bment to the latter, who enjoys his fíocks andfolds in the midst of the public calamity, and therefore expreses bis gratitude ta the benefa Tor

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from whom this favour flow’d: but Meliboeus accuses fortune,
civil wars, and bids adieu to bis native country. This is there-
fore a dialogue. -
But we are to observe, that the poet is not always obliged
to make his eclogue allegorical, and to have real perfons re-
presented by the fi&titious charaếters introduced ; but is in
this respect entirely at his own liberty. -
Nor does the nature of the poem require it to be always
carried on by way of dialogue ; for a fhepherd may with
propriety fing the praises of his love, complain of her in-
constancy, lament her absence, her death, Sfc. and address
himself to groves, hills, rivers, and fuch like rural objećts,
even when alone.
We shall now give examples from each of those authors
who have eminently distinguish'd themselves by this manner
of writing, and introduce them in the order of time in
which they were written. -
Theocritus, who was the father or inventor of this kind of
poetry, has been deservedly esteemed by the best critics ;
and by fome, whose judgement we cannot dispute, prefer’d
to all other Pastoral writers. We shall infert his third Idyl-
lium, not because it is the best, but because it is within our
compass, and we are favoured with an elegant verfion of it
by Mr. FAwkes , who will foon oblige the public with an
entire translation of this favourite author.

AMARY LLIs : Or the third Idyllium of TH E o cR. IT U s.

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Say, am I now, the objećt of your hate ?
Say is my form displeafing to your fight ?
This cruel love will furely kill me quite.
Lo ! ten large apples, tempting to the view, -
Pluck'd fromyour favouritetree, wherelatetheygrew.15

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