Introduction to Chemical Physics

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Chemistry is connected with many processes in the Arts
10
Chemistry explains Respiration
11
Chemistry explains the extraction of Metals
12
Importance of Chemistry
13
2G Chemistry depends upon the Balance
14
Apparatus required in Chemistry
15
Simple and Compound substances distinguished
16
The number of the Elements
17
Chemical Affinity defined
18
The active Agents of Chemistry l
19
The Chemical AgentsHeat Light Electricity why called
20
The study of Chemistry begins with the Chemical Agents
21
CHAPTER II
22
Heat present in all bodies
23
Heat and Cold relative terms S3 41 Heat the repulsive principle of Matter
24
Three modes in which Hent seeks an Equilibrium
25
First mode Conduction
26
Density favorable to Conduction 87
27
Porous bodies bad conductors
28
Illustrations of Conduction
30
Applications in the Arts
31
Animals and Plants protected by nonconducting coverings
32
Pa Pass 58 The second racxle of diffusionConvection
37
Convection in Gases
38
What makes heated Water and Air ascend
40
The ascension of heated Liquids and Gases illustrated
41
The third mode of diffusionRadiation
42
Radiant Heat follows the same laws as Radiant Light
43
Other circumstances affecting the rate of Radiation
45
Radiation takes place from points beneath the surface
46
The radiation of the Earth
47
The theory of Radiation
48
Concave Mirrors
49
Experiments with two Concave Mirrors SO 76 The different reflecting powers of different substances
52
The apparent radiation and reflection of Cold
53
Practical applications
54
The reflection of Heat by Fireplaces
55
The absorption of Radiant Heat
56
The absorption of Hsat affected by Color
57
Transmission of Heat depends upon the source from which it proceeds
58
Transmission of Heat from different sources of equal intensity different for the same substance
59
Transmission of Radiant Heat from the same source different for different substancesDiathermancy
61
Diathermancy not proportioned to Transparency
62
The diathermancy of Liquids
64
The diathermancy of Gases
65
Diathermancy explained on the supposition that there are differ ent kinds of Heat
66
The different kinds of Heat separated from each other
69
94 Different kinds of Heat emitted by different sources of Heat
70
Pi Paox 93 Unequal diathermancy of Heat from different sourccsdne to the different kinds of Heat emitted
72
The refrangibility of rays of heat may be altered by re radia tionCalorescence
74
The double refraction and polarization of Heat
75
The different processes through which Heat may pass in seeking an Equilibrium
76
Effects of HeatExpansion 100 Expansion produced by Heat
79
Expansion of Solids proved
80
The expansion of Metals
82
Illustrations of Expansion
83
Applications in the Arts
85
Injurious effects of Expansion
86
Fracture produced by sudden cooling
87
Metallic instruments injured by Expansion
88
Other Compensation Pendulums
89
The Compensation Balance
90
The expansion of Liquids
91
The expansion of the Liquids produced by the condensation of the Gases
92
The expansion of Air
93
Exception to the general law of expansion by heatWater at certain temperatures contracts from Heat and expands from Cold
95
Important effects of this exception 9f 123 This peculiar constitution of water proved by experiment 07
97
Water expands in freezing
98
Illustrations of lliis Force in Nature UJ 126 Other substances also expand in Solidifying
100
The Air Thermometer
102
The Mercurial Thermometer
103
Construction of the Thermometer
104
Fahrenheits Scale
105
Other Thermomctric Scales
106
Different forms of the Thermometer
108
Metallic Thermometers
109
Pyrometers
110
Effects of HeatLiquefaction 133 Heat of Composition
112
Liquefaction produced by Heatmelting point
113
The amount of Heat absorbed during the melting of Ice
114
The amount of Heat thus absorbed shown by experiment
115
Solids cannot be heated above their point of fusion until the whole of the solid is melted
116
The Heat absorbed in Liquefaction is given out in solidification
117
Liquefaction always produces a reduction of Temperature
118
Freezing Mixtures
119
Salts and Acids dissolved in Water lower the freezing point
120
Two substances mixed often melt at a lower temperature than either separatelyFluxes
121
Facility of Liquefaction proportioned to the quantity of Latent Heat required
122
The beneficial effects of this Constitution
124
Vaporization
126
The physical properties of Vapors
127
Absorption of Heat in Ebullition
128
1G0 The heat absorbed in Vaporization given out again in Condensa tion
129
The amount of Heat absorbed not the same for all Vapors
130
The Boiling point variableinfluenced by atmospheric pressure
131
Wollastons Hypsometer
133
Solids dissolved in a Liquid elevate its boiling point
134
Elevation of tie boiling point indicates increase of pressure
135
The culinary paradoxWater made to boil by the application of Cold
137
The amount of expansion of Liquids in Vaporization especially Water in producing Steam
138
The Condensation of Steam by decrease of Temperature
139
Wollastons Steam Bulb
140
The two forms of the Steam Engine
142
The Steam Engine in its most complete form
143
Latent Heat of the Condensing Engine
145
The Boiler
146
The Boiler is an apparatus for forming and compressing Steam
147
Law of the propagation of pressure through Fluids
149
Mode in which pressure is transmitted from the Boiler to the Cylinder
150
Explosion of Boilers
151
The Boilers of Locomotives
152
The alternating movement of the Piston how produced The Valves
153
Steam may be used expansively
155
No economy in using Liquids which boil at a lower Temperature than Water 158
158
Papius Digester
159
The Spheroidal state
160
Uses of Distillation 100
166
experiments effects of heatehullition107 108 109
167
Evaporation 109
169
The amount of Vapor formed and its elasticity proportioned to Temperature
170
These truths illustrated by Experiment
171
The rapidity of Evaporation varies with the pressure In a vacuum it is instantaneous
172
The amount of Evaporation of different Liquids in a vacuum at the same Temperature is unequal
173
The clastic force of Vapor in a confined space does not vary with pressure but with Temperature
174
The elastic force of Vapor in two connecting vessels cannot rise above the clastic force proper to the colder vessel
177
The rate of Evaporation of different Liquids in Air is unequal
179
The presence of Vapor in Air affects its bulk and density
180
The circumstances which influence Evaporation
181
Removal of Atmospheric Pressure hastens Evaporation and in creases Cold
183
Cause of the Cold produced by Evaporation
184
The Pulse Glass
186
Effect of Evaporation on Animal life
187
The amcnnt of watery Vapor contained in the Air
188
Effect of reducing the temperature of the Air upon the amount of watery Vapor contained in it
191
Constitution of Gasesdifference between Vapors and Gases
194
The amount of pressure varies with the Gas
195
Thiloriers process for solidifying Carbonic acid
196
Solid Carbonic acid 226 Solidification of other gases 198
198
226 Natterers process for liquefying gases improved by Ritchie
200
227 Evaporation of liquefied gases applied to the manufacture of ice
202
228 Carrds Ice Machine
204
The pressure exerted by liquefied gases
207
The constitution of the Globe dependent upon temperature
208
experiments effects of heatevaporation209
209
Speclfio HeatCapacity for Heat 229 The amount of Heat in different bodies of the same Tempera ture unequal Specific Heat
210
Proof that different bodies of equal weight contain unequal amounts of Heat Method of mixture
211
Specific Heat determined by the time required to heat equal weights of different bodies equally
212
Specific Heat determined by rate of cooling
213
Specific Heat determined by the amount of Ice melted
214
Specific Heat determined by the rise of Temperature produced in equal weights of Water
215
The Specific Heat of Water
216
The SjKcific Heat of Gnses
217
Regnaults determination of the Specific Heat of Gases
219
The Specific Heat of a body may be changed by altering its density
220
The Specific Heat of a body changed by altering its physical state
221
The dark lines of the Solar Spectrum exactly coincident with
271
289 The Solar Specturm sometimes crossed by bright lines
273
290 Spectra of the Moon and Planets 291 Of the Stars
275
292 Spectra of the Nebulae 293 Spectra of Comets
276
Effects of Light on Vegetation 291 Summary of these 277
277
The effects of Solar Light on Chemical compounds
279
The Daguerreotype process 294 The Photograph 280
280
The Photographic Camera
283
Photographs are produced solely by the Chemical rays
284
Practical importance of distinguishing between the Illuminating and Chemical rays of Light
285
All surfaces are affected by the Suns light
286
The relations of the rays of Heat Light and Chemical effect in the Solar Spectrum
287
CHAPTER IV
289
The nature of Electricity
290
The sources of Electricity
292
Two bodies similarly electrified repel each other
293
Conductors and NonconductorsInsulation
294
Vitreous electricity cannot be produced without a corresponding amount of Resinous electricity and vice versa
295
Induction of Electricity
296
The intervention of solid matter no obstacle to Induction
297
Pa Viat 312 The theory of Induction
298
Electricity confined to the external surface of bodies
299
Theories of Electricity
300
Development of large quantitiesThe Electrical Machine
301
The Lcyden Jar
302
Mode of charging the Lcyden Jar
304
The HydroElectric Machine
306
The effects of Electricity
307
EXPERIMENTS ON STATICAL ELECTRICITY296
311
Discovery of Galvanic Electricity
312
Correction of Galvanis theory by Volta
313
The Voltaic Tile
314
True theory of the Pile
315
Proof that Chemical decomposition is the source of Galvanic Electricity 317
317
The decomposing plate is the point of departure of the Electrical current
318
Mode of transfer of the Hydrogen
319
The part played by the Copper plate
320
The polarization and transfer of the elements of the Liquid and the polarization of the Solid particles of the circint necessary for the electric force to c...
321
Proof that a state of electrical Tension exists in the plates before the actual passage of the current
323
The energy of the current proportionate to the Chemical activity
324
The direction of the current dependent upon the direction of the Chemical action
325
Direct metallic connection between the generating and condur ing plate not necessary
326
The ias Battery
327
The Galvanic Battery
329
Pas e 341 Batteries of Intensity and Batteries of Quantity
330
Improved Batteries
331
The Sulphate of Copper Batterv
333
Groves Battery
335
Bunsens Battery 336
336
Sraecs Battery
337
Pc Lucs Pilethe dry Pile
339
Proof of the similarity of the electricity of the Battery and that of the Electrical Machine
340
The difference between Galvanic and Statical Electricity
341
Heating effects of the Galvanic current
343
Luminous effects
344
Duboscqs Electric Lamp
345
Discovery of the Electric Light
346
The properties and intensity of the Electric Light
347
Heating effects are best produced by batteries of Quantity
348
The decomposition Of Water by the Battery
349
The decomposition of Water is effected by the polarization and transfer of its component elements
350
The decomposition of other compound Liquids
352
The decomposition of Metallic Salts in solution
353
The Glass Cup with porous diaphragm
354
Secondary decomposition
355
The experiment of three cups connected by Syphons
357
Sir H Davys experiment in which the Acids and Alkalies under the in6uence of the current seem to lose their ordinary affinity
358
The successive action of the same current on different vessels of Water
359
PAr Pa1JI 376 The successive action of the same current on vessels containing different compound LiquiiU
360
ElectroNegative bodies
361
The amount of Zinc dissolved from the generating plate is pro portioned to the amount of Chemical decomposition produced and rice rem 3G2 381 ...
362
Electroplating and gilding
363
Electrotyping
364
The protection of the Copper sheathing of ships
366
Magnetic effects of the current 357
367
What is a Magnet I
369
The mutual actions of the Poles 389 The directive action of the Earth upon the Magnet
370
The Astatic Needle
371
The induction of Magnetism
372
The diamagnc ijm of Gases
373
Oxj gen a magnetic substance
374
Magnetic and Diamagnetic bodies
375
The Galvanic current produces magnetismElectromagnets
376
Molecular movements during the magnetization of bars
378
The Astatic Galvanometer
379
The Laws of Electromagnetism
381
The magnetic effect of the wire carrying the current accounted for by Amperes theory
383
The most powerful form of Electromagnetsthe Horse Shoe Magnet
386
The Magnetic Telegraph
387
Morses Electromagnetic Indicator
390
Fib Page 408 The Telegraphic manipulator and Morses alphabet 891
391
The Relay 409 Messages sent by breaking the circuit 393
393
The transmission of messages
395
Telegraphic Batteries
396
Caillauds Battery
397
The Sand Battery
398
The velocity of the telegraphic current
401
The Atlantic Telegraph Cable
403
Thomsons Reflecting Galvanometer
405
The actual arrangement of the Cable
406
The Rate of transmission
408
Application of Electromagnetism to the production of Motion
409
The Electromotor of M Froment
410
The Electromotor of M Jacoby
412
Stewarts Electromotor
414
Electromagnetic Clocks
416
The Electric Firealarm
417
Electric Gaslighting
420
Progress of discovery in Electromagnetism
421
Qalvanlo Induced Electricity
423
Vbltacleetric Induction 403
425
The inductive effect of the Primary current often takes place through a considerable distance
427
Induction of a momentary Secondary current by the approach and removal of the primary current
429
The conditions of Induction and properties of induced currents
431
Induction of a Secondary current in the primary wire itself
433
Induced Tertiary currents Henrys Coils
436
History of the discovery of Voltaclectric Induction
438
MagnetoElectricity 442 Magnetoelectric Induction
439
Electricity induced by induced magnetism
440
Par Page 444 History of the discover of Magnetoelectricity
442
VoltaMagnctoelectric Induction
443
History of tho discovery of the Induction of Electricity by Elec tromagnetism
444
Aragos Rotations
447
The niaguetismof the Earth induces secondary currents of Elec tricity in metallic bodies in motion
448
Magnetoelectric Induction confirms Amperes Theory
449
Pages Separable helices
450
The Circuitbreaker
452
Rumnkorffs Coil for inducing secondary electrical currents
454
453 The Condenser 454 Ruhmkorffs Coil complete 456
456
Ritclues improved Ruhmkorffs Coil i
459
The management of Ruhmkorffs Coil
462
The mechanical effects of Ruhmkorffs Coil
464
The Luminous effects
466
The Light intermittent and affected by the Magnet
470
Application of Geisslers Tubes to medical purposes and to the illumination of Mines
472
Application of Ruhmkorffs Coil to Spectrum Analysis
473
Chemical effects
474
Conversion of Carbon into the Diamond by the long continued action of tho Coil
477
Saxtons Magnetoelectric Machine
480
Pages Magnetoelectric Machine
483
Magneto electricity used in the Arts in place of Voltaic electric ity especially for the illumination of Lighthouses
485
Holmes Magnetoelectric Machine for illuminating Light houses
488
Wildes Magnetoelectric Machine 469 Improvements of 439
496
471 Ladds first Machine 472 Ladds second Machine 497
497
Difference between the electricity of the machine and battery
500
Points of resemblance between the electricity of the Machine and the secondary electrical currents induced by the primary current and by Magnets
502
Heat produces Electricity 610
510
Farmers Thermoelectric Battery
516
Various sources of Electricity and its relations to the other
522
The convertibility and equivalency of Forces true of all
528
EXPERIMENTS ON GALVANIC ELECTRICITT ELECTROMAGNETISM
543
Liquids poor conductors
547
The Gases poor conductors 34
34
The conducting power of different Gases different 36
36

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