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with a low sandy beach at each side, which Rivers.
Empties at r causes the cape to make like an island. The Mondaca
Mondaca. coast between it and Cape Ortegal has many Ybaychalval Bilbao. rocks near the shore. Cape St. Adrian, the ex Ason
Santona. tremity of Mount Boa, has off it Cisarga Island, Miera
Bay of St. Andero. and several shoals with channels between them ; Saja .
Suances. Cisarga Island is a mile and a half long and has Nansa
Barca. fresh water Cape Villano, or Belem, is a high Deva
St. Vincente de la Barquero, red mountain, the summit resembling a tower. Tina del Esta Cape Toriana, is three leagues south-west of Tina Mayor Between St. Vincent and Cape Villano, and two leagues further is Cape St. Yusti
Llanes. Finisterre (Nerium), the west point of Spain, La Balotta (not the west point of Europe, as it is stated in Llanes
Llanes. books of geography, this point being Cape Niembro Niembro. Roxent in Portugal). It is a steep uneven pro
Bedon. montory with low land to the north; off it is the Riba de Sella . Junco. little island Sentolo, with a passage between. Lastres . Lastres. Mount Laura is an insulated mountain of a round Linares
Villa Viciosa. form, and round which are several reefs and Pilas
near Gijon. shoals. Cape Corrobeda, the north point of the Abono
Abono. Rio de Roxo, is the last remarkable point on Aviles
Aviles. these coasts. The salient projection of Galicia, Pravia
Mures. being exposed to the constant action of the Canero
Canero. Atlantic, is more broken than the coasts of As- Receida
Luarca. turias or Biscay; it is also to be observed that Navia
Navia. from Cape Finisterre along these coasts a con Eo, or Miranda Ribadeo. stant current sets to the east, with the velocity of Masma half a mile to a mile per hour, according as the Fasouro.
Fasouro. winds are easterly or westerly. The tides on Junco
Ferrol. leagues, it is red downs. These coasis form a Mendeo.
Betanzos. deep curve, bounded by Cape St. Mary in Por- Mero
Bay of Corunna tugal on the west, and on the east by Cape Tra. Allones . Bay of Corme. falgar. This bend is sometimes called the Gulf Rio de la Puenta. Camarina Bay. of Cadiz, though this name is more generally Lezaro
Bay of Corcubion. confined to the Bay of Cadiz. Cape Trafalgar Tambre . Bay of Muros. (the promontory of Juno), the outer point of the Ulla . Strait of Gibraltar, is a little hill rising from a Arçobispo
Rio Roxo. long low point. It is famous for the great naval Umia victory gained by lord Nelson over the combined Vedra
Ponta Vedra. fleets of France and Spain, the 21st of October, Coldelas
Nigo Bay. 1805. On this point is a light house. Tariffa Romalosa Bay of Bayona. po nt is the south point of Spain. Between it Minho
Guarda. and Cape Trafalgar are several towers to defend Guadiana Ayamonte. little rivers from the landing of the pirates; and Piedra
Lepe. off the point is the island Tariffa, smail, round, Odiel
Huelva. and even, with a light tower on the north-east. Tinto
Palos. There is no passage between it and the point. Rio del Oro
The rivers of Spain, which empty themselves Guadalquivir St. Lucar. into the Atlantic, are in general insignificant, Ratonejo Bay of Cadiz. both as to length of course and volume, but most Guadaletti . Strait Maria. of them form small ports at their mouths for coasting vessels. The following list is supplied The Bidassoa, which separates France and by captain Tuckey:
Spain, must be considered as appertaining to the
latter; for, though the breadth of its entrance Rivers. Empties at
between the two shores is two-thirds of a mile, a Bidassoa Fontarabia.
ledge of rocks runs off from the French shore, Urumea St. Sebastian.
so as to leave but a very narrow channel for Orio. Orio.
vessels of 200 tons, close to the Spanish side. Urola Zumaya.
In the river nearly at the crossing place from Deva Deva.
Fontarabia to Andaya on the French side, is a Andaro, Andaro.
small, barren, and uninhabited island, formerly Lequietio . Lequietio.
named the Isle of Pheasants ; but, being the Hea Hea.
place where the conference was held between
France and Spain, which produced the peace of The entrance of the port is defended by the the Pyrenees, it thence received the name of Isle castle of St. Isabel. de la Conference. The Riba de Sella is a great St. Sebastian, the chief town of Guipuscna, torrent, emptying itself between two mountains is situated on a point of land washed by the with such velocity during the freshes that it is little river Urumea (Meneseum) on the east, and impracticable. át other times small vessels by the sea, which forms a cove, on the west. On enter it with the flood. The Miranda, which Mount Agudo, the west point of the cove, is a separates the provinces of Asturias and Galicia, light-house. The river Urumea, wbich washes has twenty-four leagues course. The Minho, the walls of the town, receives vessels of fifty to which on the coast separates Spain and Portugal, sixty tons with the tide, and has a good salmon has its source in the mountains of Galicia, and fishery. In the cove to the west is a baren derives its name from the quantity of red lead formed by two moles, where twenty-five to thirty (minium) found on its banks. It is navigable vessels find space, but lie dry at low water. only twelve leagues, and can only be ascended Nearly in the middle of the entrance of the cove with the tide at food, the ebb running out with is the lofty island of St. Clara, with a hermitage such rapidity as to render it impracticable. Near dedicated to this Saint. The passage in is bethe south bank is the islet Irfoa, with a Portu- tween this island and the peninsula, on which is
the town, and which terminates on a lofty hill The Guadiana (Anas), which also separates named Mount Orgullo (Orgueil), on which is . Spain and Portugal, rises in the Sierra Morena the castle of La Mota. The town on the isthmus (Black Mountains); its entrance is crossed by a is surrounded by a rampart flanked by bastions bar, with eighteen feet at half tide and twenty- and half moons, and is commanded by La Mota, four feet at high water springs. This river dis- the ascent to which is by a spiral pathway. The appears near Aliczar de St. Juan in la Mancha, commerce of St. Sebastian is considerable, erand, after running under ground nearly eight porting iron, anchors, cables, leather, and wool. leagues, again emerges at some lakes called the Orio has a small tide haven for vessels of Eyes of the Guadiana. At the mouth of this twelve feet: vessels of considerable size are built river is Higuerota Island, with the little town of here, and the hulls sent to Passage to be Canels on its west side. The Tinto (Urium) equipped. Zarauz, a village, to the east of also rises in the Sierra Morena, and has its name which is a little islet and shoals. Descargo and from the color of its waters, which are quite Guetaria are fishing towns; the latter has 300 yellow. It has also the property of hardening inhabitants, and is on a cove, which, together sand in a singular manner; it withers all the with the lofty rock or islet of St. Antonio, joined plants on its banks, nor will any fish live in it; to the main by a pier 400 feet long, forms a little it is given to animals to kill worms, but no dry tide haven. Zumaya, on the river Urola, animal will drink of it voluntarily except goats. that admits only small craft over a bar, has conIt loses all these properties when it receives the siderable iron foundries, the iron from which is streams of other rivulets at Niebla, six leagues sent to St. Sebastian. Deva, on a river which from its mouth. The Guadalquivir (Bætis), one admits vessels of fifty to sixty tons at high water of the principal rivers of Spain, has its rise in over a bar. Motrico, a pier haven on a cove the Sierra Morena, and a course of 100 leagues, used by vessels of 100 tons. Andaro or OndarIts mouth is one mile wide, but a sand-bank roa, on a little river that receives vessels of fitty runs off from each shore, and there are also tons. Lequietio, also on a river, receives vessels some rocks which narrow the ship channel to a of 100 tons, which lie dry at low water. Before quarter of a mile. On the west point of the it is the island of St. Nicholas, left on the right entrance is the tower of San Jacintha, and on in entering. The town and river of Hea is only the east the castle of Espiritu Sancto Large frequented by fishing boats, it is two miles and vessels ascend to Seville, sixteen leagues from the a half east of Cape Ogono. Monfons is on a sea, below which it spreads into a small lake. river that receives vessels of 100 tons. Mondaca The system of canals in Spain is merely in em. River forms a dry tide haven within two piers. bryo; two or three leagues have been completed Bermeo, on the west shore of a large cove, has of one intended to join the Mançanares with the a pier tide haven, and before it is the isle of St. Tagus, to open a communication between Madrid Francisco. Placentia, west of Cape Machichaco, and the palace of Aranjuez. The canal of Cas- is on the Durango, whose bar is practicable for tile has been abandoned.
vessels of fitty tons with the flowing tide. PorFontarabia, the first port town of Spain, in tugalette, a smal town on the left ba of the the bay of Biscay, is on the left bank of the Bi- Ybaychalval, half a mile above the bar, which dassoa, half a league from its mouth; it is almost crosses the river, leaving only a narrow strongly fortified. Passages, five miles west of and shifting channel practicable with the flowing the Bidassoa, is the best harbour on the bay for tide towards the west shore. large ships, being an extensive basin, three or Bilboa, the chief town of Biscay, is on the four leagues in circuit, surrounded by mountains, right bank of the river, two miles above Portuand with an entrance only ninety-two fathoms galette; it is celebrated for its fine climate and wide, between two great rocky points, so that agreeable situation. Its trade is considerable in the vessels are in contrary winds obliged to warp or export of wool, iron, chestnuts, and oil. The Engbe lowed in. A considerable portion of the lish chiefly take of the wool 50,000 bags, valued at basin dries at low water, but there is space for a 5,000,000 of piastres; the iron is sent to Corun. large fleet in six to eight fathoms. The town na, Ferrol, and Cadiz, for the use of the naval on the west shore consists only of a single street. arsenals; the chestnuts to England and the north.
Here is a royal administration of marine, a on a river that admits vessels of ten feet. Four school of coasting pilotage, and several building miles west of it is the island Ronanilla de la yards. To Bilboa succeed the small towns of Vega, before the harbour of Vega, to which sucSomorostro, Onton, Castro-Urdiales, and Orinon; ceeds the tide haven of Navia, where is some the two first are on creeks, which only admit trade. Via Veles, Porcia, a little tide-haven small craft at high water. Castro is on the west seldom visited. Castropol, on the right bank of point of an open bay, the bottom of which is the Miranda. Ribadeo, on the left bank of the foul, except near the shore, where three or four Miranda, is built on an eminence ; vessels of vessels may find clear ground. At the head of seventeen feet enter the river, and make fast with the bay is a pier dry tide haven for coasters. The a cable to the shore : the castle of St. Damien, harbour of Santona is one of the best of the on the west shore, defends the port. Santa north coast of Spain for middling sized vessels, Marta and Carin are in the bay between Point but is little frequented. On the east shore of the de la Estaca and Cape Ortegal. The river of the entrance is the town of Laredo, with a pier haven former receives vessels of ten feet; the latter is for small craft; the village of Santona is on the practicable for larger vessels with the tide. Ceopposite side, a mile up a small river. The en- deira, south of cape Ortegal, has a good, though trance is defended by several batteries.
small port, for vessels of burden. Corunna, or St. Andero is one of the most considerable the Groyue, is a celebrated port formed by a setowns in population and commerce of the north micircular basin, two miles wide at the entrance, provinces of Spain. It is on a bay, bounded on and two leagues deep; but has only a confined ihe east oy the island of St. Marino; and between space of deep water, sheltered from the north this island and the head of the bay, where is the and north-west winds. North of the town one town, are the islands Moro and Letorre, and the mile is the tower of Hercules, an elevated buildgreat perforated rock Orodada; besides the outer ing on a hill, which serves as a light-house, and harbour there is a pier haven at the town, where may be seen twenty leagues. Ai each point of small vessels lie at a quay. The channels in it are the harbour 'is a castle, St. Martin and St. Clara. defended by two castles and several batteries. The town, containing 4000 inhabitants, is built The town is built on an eminence. Before the on the south point of the entrance, and is comwar il had forty-two national and eighteen posed of the old and new quarters ; the latter, on French and English commercial houses, and it the declivity of a hill, is surrounded by a wall was the residence of the foreign agents, charged and has a citadel. The haven, which has a with the commercial relations of the ports of Bis- handsome quay, alongside of which vessels lie, cay in general. Its exports are wool to England is commanded, as well as a part of the road, by and France, iron, flour, and colonial produce, the forts of St. Antonio and St. Amaro; the forhaving the privilege of trading directly to the mer, on a steep rock, serves as a state prison. colonies, for which in 1803 forty-five vessels Opposite the town is an island with a castle. cleared out, and whence, in the same year, Here is a royal tribunal of commerce, fifty-eight thirty-seven entered. St. Martin, four leagues commercial houses, and most of the trading nawest of St. Andero, is a small tide haven for tions have consuls here. The first of every fishing-boats. St. Vincente de la Barquero has month a packet sails for the Canaries, Porto a haven for vessels of twelve feet, with two chan- Rio, Cuba, and Vera Cruz; and the fifteenth of nels in, formed by the little island Callo. every second month one sails for the river De la
Llanes a small dry tide-haven. Riba de Sella, Plata. Port Santa Cruz is only fit for fishing already noticed, is only a tide-haven. Lastres craft; it is under the mountain of Pennaboa, one River admits only vessels of forty tons. Villa mile and a half from Hercules's tower. The harViciosa, on a point between two little rivers, and hour of Cumilla is also only used by fishing three miles from the sea : the entrance is crossed barks : it is on the north side of cape Villano. by a bar, admitting only vessels of twelve feet Camarina Bay, on the south side of cape Villano, with the flood. Sanson, a liule tide haven on has good anchorage. The town of Camarina is the west side of the long point of Tassones, on on the north shore, and that of Mugia, or Monsia, which is a castle. On the east side of the point on the south : the former has a fishing pier-haven, is an islet with anchorage under it.
which dries at low water; the bay is defended Gijon, a trading town of about 3000 inhabi- by a fortress on a point. tants and fourteen commercial houses, has a good The fishing town and pier-haven of Finisterre road and a dry tide haven within a pier, at the is half a league north-east of the cape. The town mouth of a river, for vessels of twelve feet. it of Corcubion on a bay farther east, and that of is protected by a castle. The exports are chest- Cé on the same bay, are small places; but the nuts, filberts, and walnuts, to England and the bay is fit for the largest ships, with the wind from north ; mill-stones from some neighbouring the north, southerly winds throwing a great sea quarries, and cyder to the Spanish colonies. in and rendering it dangerous. Muros Bay has Torres, a fishing village, a league west of Gijon. good anchorage. On the north shore is the town Candas and Luanco, are on small coves, where of Muros; and at the head of the bay, Noya on the fishing-hoats lie dry at low water. Aviles, the Tambre. . Between Muros bay and the Rio three leagues S. S. W. of Cape de las Penas, is de Roxa are the islands Besones. Rio de Roxa, on a point of land formed by the curve of a river; or Arosa, is a deep inlet, two leagues wide at the it has 3,000 inhabitants, chiefly fishermen, and entrance, but filled with rocks. The islands a dry tide haven for their barks. It is defended Presciras and Salvora lie before it; the latter by Fort St. Juan. The river Pravia danger- rises to a high hill. There are several fishing ous, and only visited by small coasters Luarca, villages on this inlet, but no town.
Ponte Vedra Bay is separated from the Rio de the north extremity of the isle of Leon. On the Roxa by a peninsula, and before its entrance is west and south it is defended by nature, the the island 'Ons, three miles long, north and shore being so steep, lined with rocks, and furisouth, with a channel on either side
for the largest ously beaten by the waves, as to render a landing ships; it is uninhabited, but has two springs of impossible. Towards the road, on the north, the good water, and the people on the main send depth of water is not sufficient to allow its being some horses to graze on it. On the south shore attacked by heavy shipping, and on these sides of the bay is port St. Marino, and at the head is it is surrounded by a wall flanked with bastions. Ponte Vedra, an agreeable town of 2000 inha- Its only vulnerable point is, therefore, at the bitants, on a hillock, washed by the litile river isthinus on the east, and this is crossed by reguVedra. It has a considerable fishery of sprats. lar fortifications, in which there is but one gate,
Vigo Bay is separated from Ponte Vedra hy a and four towards the water. Cadiz is the chief tongue of land : it is iwo miles wide at the en- place of one of the maritime divisions. The trance, across which lie the two isles of Bayona,, naval arsenal, called the Carracca, is situated on sometimes called Seyas de Bayona and Estellas the south shore of the inner road six miles from (Insulæ Dies). The northernmost and largest is the city. It has three large docks and twelve three leagues long north and south; the southern building places, and employs 5000 workmen. two miles. They have fresh water, and pasture Previous to the latter wars with England, Cadiz some cattle : the channel between them is filled had lately 720 mercantile houses, of which 100 with rocks. The town of Vigo is on the south were foreign, viz., English, Dutch, French, and shore of the bay, built on a rock, surrounded by German. In 1791 1010 vessels entered as fola wall Hanked by four bastions and commanded lows :by a castle. Its population is 2500; but though Spaniards.
339* Swedes vessels of the largest size may lie secure in any English 180 Ragusans 24 part of the bay up to Redondela, a league above French . 116 Genoese
6 Vigo, it has little trade, exporting only some Portuguese 104 Venetians
2 cured sprats and tunny-fish. The bay of Bayona,
American 90 Hamburgers south of Vigo Bay, is nearly crossed by a bank, Dutch
80 Imperials 1 on which are two islets; and off cape Fasalis, Danes
1 the south point of the bay, is Lobos (wolves) reef. Bayona is a fortified town and castle at The town of the isle of Leon, two leagues east the foot of a high mountain. South of the bay of Cadiz, has 40,000 inhabitants; and nearly adis the fortified monastery of Oya, intended io joining it has been laid the foundation of the afford protection to vessels chased by the Bar- town of St. Carlos, the plan of which is perfectly bary pirates. Guarda, on the Spanish bank of regular, and it is intended to contain the maride the Minho, two miles within its mouth, is a for- hospital, barracks for the workmen, academy, tified town, with a pier-haven for small vessels. &c. The Isle of Leon (thought to be Tarshish Gayon is three leagues above Guarda, and two and Tartessus) is separated from the main by the leagues higher is Tuy (Tyde), a strong town channel of St. Pedro, three leagues in length, within cannon-shot of the Portuguese fort of Va- with twenty-four feet water, and crossed by a lença.
bridge. Puerto de Santa Maria, on the guadaNow we arrive at the western coast of Portugal; lette, four miles and a half from Cadiz, is a welland do not resume the Spanish coast and ports built town of 12,000 inhabitants. Vessels of until we come to Ayamonte, on the Spanish nine feet enter the river at low water. Cadiz, bank of the Guadiana, a considerable fishing having no good water, is supplied from hence by town. Lepe, on the right bank of the Piedra, vessels constructed on purpose, and the annual receives small vessels, but the access is difficult. expense of which is said to be nearly 100,000 Taran, Port St. Michael (Menestheus), Huelva piastres. Puerto Real, on the north shore of the (Onoba) on the Odiel, and Palos on the Tinto, inner road of Cadiz, has 10,000 inhabitants. are of little note, except the latter, which derives Near it are extensive salt-works, which attord an historical celebrity from being the place of 21,300,000 quintals of salt annually. Conil, a departure of Columbuis on his first voyage, which fishing village two leagues north-west of Cape produced the discovery of America. St. Lucar Trafalgar, has anchorage before it in ten to twelve de Barromeda, on the left bank of the Gua- fathom. dalquivir, two or three miles from its mouth, is The Spanish coast of the Mediterranean, from a small town and the port of Seville. Ships of Gibraltar to Malaga, presents a chain of lofty fifteen feet lie afloat before it at all times. “Se- mountains, Sierra de Vermeja, &c., but has few ville (Hispalis et Julia Romula), sixteen leagues points of note. Cape Sacratif, east of Motril, above St. Lucar, is built on a plain, surrounded is a high point. The gulf of Almeria is limited by a high wall Hanked with 166 towers, all built on the west by point Elena, on which is a castle, of a cement which has acquired the hardness of and on the east by Cape de Gatte (Charidemur stone. The streets are narrow and crooked, but a high steep rocky promontory, with a lightthe houses in general well built. Though its house. These points are seven leagues asunder. commerce has been reduced, by the transfer of The bay of Carthagena (Virgitanus) is between the colonial trade to Cadiz, it still exports to the Cape Tinosa on the west, on which is port Trivalue of 60,000,000 reals.
Cadiz (Gades, founded by the Phænicians) is * Of which 177 were from the colonies. In 1801 considered the first commercial city of Spain, the number entered from the colonies was onland is situated at the end of a peninsula, forming twenty.
nidad and a light-house, and off it two large the Dehesa, is covered with pines and willows, rocks, called the Osmigas and Cape Palos and abounds with rabbits. The lake has depth (Schombraria) on the north. From this latter for small boats, is full of fish, and the resort of cape a narrow neck of land runs nearly due great numbers of sea-birds; the catching and north, which, though now joined to the cape, is shooting of which is one of the winter's amusecalled Isle Grossa, and within which the coast ments of the inhabitants of Valencia. This lake forms a bend, making a kind of lagoon, named is the property of the crown, and is farmed for Mar Menor, (little sea), twelve miles long, and 12,000 piastres per annum. five wide, with several islands, but so shoal as The Ebro has formed at its mouth two peninonly to admit boats. Between Cape Palos and sulas, and several banks and islands. The southern Alicant the land is high, and the water deep peninsula bends round and encloses the port of close to the shore. On this part of the coast is Alfaques, whose entrance is from the south, and the lagoon of Mata, separated from the sea by a which has a depth of five to seven fathoms. As high narrow bank, and towards the land the stream of the Ebro, during a great part of the bounded immediately by high mountains. A year, runs out with a velocity that precludes the great quantity of salt is formed in the lagoon by ascent of any kind of vessel, it has been proposed natural evaporation, 100,000 tons of which have to enlarge the canal, from the port of Alfaques, been, in some years, exported to Holland, the at Saint Carlos, to Emposta, on the Ebro, so as to Baltic, and England.
admit large vessels through the port of Alfaques to The bay of Alicant (Illicitanus) is limited on Tortosa. The northern peninsula, formed by the the south by Cape Santa Pola, and on the north mud of the Ebro, encloses the port of Fangal. Beby Cape de la Huertas. South-east of the for- tween Tarragona and Barcelona, the coast rises in mer two miles is the little island Plana (low), peaks, named the hills of Graff; and, farther or new Tabarca, which latter name it received north, the lofty, and solitary mountain of Montin consequence of Charles III. having assigned serrat presents its sharp points, and is seen even it as an asylum for a number of Spanish galley from Magarca and Minorca, a distance of fifty slaves, whom he ransomed from the Alge- leagues. rines, at the island of Tabarca, on the coast The Bay or Gulf of Roses is sheltered from all of Barbary, with the intention of forming winds but south-east. Cape Creus, the last rea port within the Plana island; but it being markable promontory of Spain, is a terminating a barren sand, destitute not only of wood and point of the Pyrennees, whence its ancient name water, but even of earth or stone, the project of Pyrennæum; it was also called Aphrodisium, fell to the ground. The channel between the from a temple of Venus, of which there remains island and the main has depth for the largest no vestige. It is a high cape with a light. Nine ships; but in it is a dangerous rock, and others miles farther north-west is Cape Cervera, the off the island to the south-west and south. The last point of Spain. ancient castle of the duke of Arcos is a little On the coasts of Spain, both within and without south of Cape Santa Pola. The island of Be- the Strait of Gibraltar, are a great number of nidorme lies off a mountain cape of the same towers (torre) and little fortresses (castella), to name, the southern limit of Altea Bay. West of protect the coast against the depredations of the the village of Altea is a hill, with a remarkable Barbary pirates. The towers have circular fronts large gap, called Chuchillado de Roldan. The towards the sea, with low parapets to work the gulf of Valencia is limited on the south by a guns (en barbet), with a curtain, and two flankgreat projection of the coast opposite the island ing bastions in the rear; the only entrance is by of Ivica, of which Cape Martin is the northern- a door, near half way from the top, and through most and most conspicuous point. It is the an- which the rope ladder that serves to ascend is cient Artemisium, Tenebrium, and Ferraria, the drawn up. first of which names it received from a large The vicinity of the mountains to the Meditertown near it, on the site of which Denia now ranean coast of Spain cause most of the rivers to stands; and the two latter from the iron mines partake of the nature of torrents, which are much in the vicinity. The name of Artemisium is still swollen in the winter and spring, and very low in preserved in Artemus, given to the cape by the the summer. They are in succession—Guadiaro natives. That of Cape Martin has been given (Barbasula), which empties itself east of Gibralit by the French; but it is generally known to tar. Guadalnarza and Rio Verte, between EsEnglish seamen by that of Emperor's Point. It tapona and Marbella, off the Rio Verte, are is a high steep headland, with three lights or fire- two small islands, ith good anchorage within beacons on it; and a high island, Pityusa, Isle of them. Gordo and Real Guadaisa, between MarPines, close to it. Between it and Cape de la bella and Malaga. Guadal-Medina, at Malaga. Nao, on the south, is a deep bay, whose shores Frio empties itself east of Velez Malaga. Adra, are composed of huge cliffs of limestone and at Adra. Aquas at Mujacar. Guadel-macer or alabaster, and where is seen a vast cavern, the Almanzora, whose entrance is defended by the retreat of innumerable wild pigeons. These castle of Montroy. Rio Segura, at Guardamar, capes terminate a sierra, one of whose summits, Alcoy, at Gundia. Xucar, at Cullera. Guanamed Manger, rises to a very elevated peak. del-aviar, clear water (ancient Turia), at Valencia. The Albufeira of Valencia is a lake of fresh wa- Palancia, at Murviedro. Servol, at Vinaros. ter, four leagues long and two broad, separated The Cenia separates Valencia and Catalonia. from the sea by a narrow sand-bank, through Ebro (Iberus), the greatest river of Spain, havwhich a channel has been cut to let off the occa- ing a course 380 miles, rises in the mountains sional superabundant waters. This bank, named of Asturias. Francoli, at Tarragona ; its waters Vol. XX