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marriage, disentangled the emperor from the suburbs with the ground. At the same time he most troublesome stipulation in the treaty of filled the magazines with provisions and military Crespy; and the French monarch, being still stores, compelled all useless persons to leave the engaged in hostilities with England, was unable place, and laid waste the neighbouring country; to obtain any reparation for the loss which he yet such were his popular talents, as well as his suffered by this unforeseen event. These hosti- arts of acquiring an ascendant over the minds of lities, like those between Charles and Francis, men, that the citizens not only refrained from terminaied in nothing decisive. Equally tired murmuring, but seconded him with no less ardor of a struggle attended with no glory or advantage than the soldiers in all his operations-in the to either, the contending princes concluded, at ruin of their estates, and in the havoc of their Campe, near Ardies, a treaty of peace; in which public and private buildings. Meanwhile the it was stipulated that France should pay the ar- emperor continued his march towards Lorraine, rears due by former treaties to England. But at the head of 60,000 men. On his approach, these arrears did not exceed one-third of the Albert of Brandenburgh, whose army did not sums expended by Henry on his military opera- exceed 20,000, withdrew into that principality, tions; and, Francis being in no condition to dis as if he intended to join the French king; and charge them, Boulogne (a chargeable pledge) was Charles, notwithstanding the advanced season, it left in the hands of the English as a security for being towards the end of October, laid siege to the debt. In consequence of the emperor's reso- Metz, contrary to the advice of the most expelution to humble the Protestant princes, he con rienced officers. The attention of both the becluded a dishonorable peace with the Porte, siegers and the besieged was turned for some stipulating that his brother Ferdinand should pay time towards the motions of Albert, who still tribute for that part of Hungary which he still hovered in the neighbourhood, undetermined possessed; while the sultan enjoyed the imperial which side to take, though resolved to sell his and undisturbed possession of all the rest. At service. Charles at last came up to his price, the same time he entered into a league with pope and he joined the imperial army. The emperor Paul III. for the extirpation of heresy; but in now flattered himself that nothing could resist reality with a view to oppress the liberties of his force; but he found himself deceived. After Germany. Here, however, his ambition met a siege of almost sixty days, during which he with a severe check; for, though he was success- had attempted all that was thought possible for ful at first, he was obliged in 1555 to conclude a art or valor to effect, and had lost upwards of peace with the Protestants on their own terms. 30,000 men by the inclemency of the weather, See REFORMATION.

diseases, or the sword of the enemy, he was By the peace concluded on this occasion, the obliged to abandon the enterprise. When the emperor lost Metz, Toul, and Verdun, which French sallied out to attack ihe enemy's rear, had formed the barrier of the empire on that the imperial camp was filled with the sick and quarter; and therefore soon after put himself at wounded, with the dead and the dying. All the the head of an army, in order to recover these roads by which the army retired were strewed three bishoprics. In order to conceal the desti- with the same miserable objects; who, having nation of his army, he gave out that he intended made an effort beyond their strength to escape, 10 lead it into Hungary, to second Maurice in and not being able to proceed, were left to perish his operations against the Infidels; and, as that without assistance. Happily that, and all the pretext failed him, when he began to advance kind offices which their friends had not the power towards the Rhine, he propagated a report that to perform, they received from their enemies. he was marching first to chastise Albert of Bran- The duke of Guise ordered them all to be taken denburgh, who had refused to be included in care of, and supplied with every necessary; he the treaty of Passau, and whose cruel exactions appointed physicians to attend and direct what in that part of Germany called loudly for re- treatment was proper for the sick and wounded, dress. The French, however, were not deceived and what refreshments for the feeble; and such by these arts. Henry immediately guessed the as recovered he sent home, under an escort of true object of Charles's armament, and resolved soldiers, and with money to bear their charges. to defend his conquests with vigor. The de- By these acts of humanity, less common in that fence of Metz, against which it was foreseen the age, the duke of Guise completed that heroic whole weight of the war would be turned, was character which he had justly acquired by his committed to Francis of Lorraine, duke of Guise, brave and successful defence of Metz. The emwho possessed in an eminent degree all the qua- peror's misfortunes were not confined to Gerlities that render men great in military command. many. During his residence at Villach, he had He repaired with joy to the dangerous station; been obliged to borrow 200,000 crowns of Cosmo and many of the French nobility, and even princes de Medicis, and so low was his credit that he of the blood, eager to distinguish themselves was obliged to put Cosmo in possession of the under such a leader, entered Metz as volunteers. principality of Piombino as a security for that The city was of great extent ill, fortified, and the inconsiderable sum; by which means he lost the suburbs large. For all these defects the duke footing he had hitherto maintained in Tuscany. endeavoured to provide a remedy. He repaired Much about the same time he lost Sienna. The the old fortifications with all possible expedition, citizens, who had long enjoyed a republican golaboring with his own hands; the officers imi- vernment, rose against the Spanish garrison, tated his example; and the soldiers, thus en which they had admitted as a check upon the couraged, cheerfully submitted to the most severe tyranny of the nobility, but which they found toils; he erected new works, and he levelled the was meant to enslare them; forgetting their doo

same manner.

mestic animosities, they recalled the exiled the guardian, before the time appointed for his nobles; they demolished the citadel, and put execution, was murdered by his incensed accomthemselves under the protection of France. To plices, whom he had seduced; and six of the these unfortunate events one still more fatal had youngest were pardoned. While war thus raged almost succeeded. The severe administration of in Italy, and the Low Countries, Germany enthe viceroy of Naples had filled that kingdom joyed such profound tranquillity as afforded the with murmuring and dissatisfaction. The prince diet full leisure to confirm and perfect the plan, of Salerno, the head of the malcontents, fled to of religious pacification agreed upon at Passau, the court of France. The French monarch, and referred to the consideration of the next after the example of his father, applied to the meeting of the Germanic body. grand signior; and Soliman, at that time highly During the negociation of this treaty an eredt incensed against the house of Austria, on account happened which astonished all Europe and conof the proceedings in Hungary, sent a powerful founded the reasonings of the wisest politicians. fleet into the Mediterranean, under the command The emperor Charles V., though no more than of the corsair Dragut, an officer trained up under fifty-six, an age when objects of ambition opeBarbarossa, and scarcely inferior to his master in rate with full force on the mind, and are genecourage, talents, or in good fortune. Dragut rally pursued with the greatest ardor, had for appeared on the coast of Calabria at the time some time formed the resolution of resigning his appointed; but not being joined by the French hereditary dominions to his son Philip. He now feet, according to concert, he returned to Con- determined to put it in execution. Various have stantinople, after plundering and burning seve- been the opinions of historians concerning a reral places, and filling Naples with consternation. solution so singular and unexpected; but the Highly mortified by so many disasters, Charles most probable seem to be the disappointments retired into the Low Countries, breathing ven- which Charles had met with in his ambitious geance against France: and here the war was hopes, and the daily decline of his health. He carried on with considerable vigor. Impatient had early in life been attacked with the gout; and to efface the stain which his military reputation the fits were now become so frequent and severe, had received before Metz, Charles laid siege to that not only the vigor of his constitution was Terouane; and, the fortifications being in disre- broken, but the faculties of his mind were sensipair, that important place was carried by assault. bly impaired. He therefore judged it more deHesdin also was invested, and carried in the cent to conceal his infirmities in some solitude,

The king of France was too late than to expose them any longer to the public in assembling his forces to afford relief to either eye; and as he was unwilling to forfeit the fame, of these places; and the emperor afterwards cau or lose the acquisitions of his better years, by tiously avoided an engagement. The imperial attempting to guide the reins of government when arms were less successful in Italy. The viceroy he was no longer able to hold them with steadi of Naples failed in an attempt to recover Sienna; ness, he determined to seek, in the tranquillity of and the French not only established themselves retirement, that happiness which he had in vain more firmly in Tuscany, but conquered part of pursued amidst the tumults of war and the inthe island of Corsica. Nor did the affairs of the trigues of state. In consequence of this resoluhouse of Austria go on better in Hungary during tion Charles, who had already ceded to his son the course of this year. Isabella and her son Philip the kingdom of Naples and the duchy of appeared once more in Transylvania, at a time Milan, assembled the states of the Low Counwhen the people were ready for revolt, in order tries at Brussels; and, seating himself for the to revenge the death of Martinuzzi, whose loss last time in the chair of state, he explained to his they had severely felt. Some noblemen of emi- subjects the reasons of his resignation, and sonence declared in favor of the young king; and lemnly devolved his authority upon Philip. He the bashaw of Belgrade, by Soliman's order, recounted with dignity, but without ostentation, espousing his cause, in opposition to Ferdinand, all the great things which he had undertaken and Castaldo, the Austrian general, was obliged to performed since the commencement of his admiabandon Transylvania to Isabella and the Turks. nistration. A few weeks after he resigned to To counterbalance these and other losses, the Philip the sovereignty of Spain and America; emperor, in 1554, concerted a marriage between reserving nothing to himself out of all these vast his son Philip and Mary of England, in hopes of possessions but an annual pension of 100,000 adding that kingdom to his other dominions. crowns. Charles was now impatient to embark Meanwhile the war between Henry and Charles for Spain, where he had fixed on a place of rewas carried on with various success in the Low treat; but by the advice of his physicians he put Countries, and in Italy much to the disadvantage off his voyage for some months on account of the of France. The French, under the cominand of severity of the season ; and, by yielding to their Strozzi, were defeated in the battle of Merciano; judgment, he had the satisfaction, before he left Sienna was reduced by Medicino, the Floren- the Low Countries, of taking a considerable step tine general, after a siege of ten months; and towards a peace with France. This he ardently the gallant Sienese were subjected to the Spa- longed for; not only on his son's account, whose nish yoke. Much about the same time a plot administration he wished to commence in quietwas formed by the Franciscans, but happily dis- ness, but that he might have the glory, when covered before it could be carried into execution, quitting the world, of restoring to Europe that to betray Metz to the imperialists. The father, tranquillity which his ambition had banished out guardian, and twenty other monks, received sen of it almost from the time that he assumed the ience of death on account of this conspiracy, but reins of government. The great bar to such a

pacification, on the part of France, was the treaty forty days. Mean time the duke of Guise arrivwhich Henry had concluded with the pope; and ing with a supply of 20,000 French troops Paul the emperor's claims were too numerous to hope became more arrogant than ever, and banished for adjusting them suddenly.

all thoughts from his mind but those of war and A truce of five years was therefore proposed revenge. The duke of Guise, however, who had by Charles ; during which term, without dis- precipitated his country into this war chiefly from cussing their respective pretensions, each should a desire of gaining a field where he might disretain what was in his possession; and Henry, play his own talents, was able to perform nothing through the persuasion of the constable Mont in Italy worthy of his former fame. lle was morency, who represented the imprudence of obliged to abandon the siege of Civitella ; he sacrificing the true interests of his kingdom to could not bring the duke of Alva to a general the rash engagements that he had come under engagement; his army perished by diseases; and with Paul, authorised his ambassadors to sign at the pope neglected to furnish the necessary reinVaucelles a treaty which would ensure to him, for forcements. He begged to be recalled; and so considerable a period, the important conquest France stood in need of his talents. Philip, which he had made on the German frontier, to- though willing to have avoided a rupture, was gether with the greater part of the duke of Savoy's no sooner informed that Henry had violated the dominions. The pope', when informed of this truce of Vaucelles than he determined to act transaction, was no less filled with terror and with such vigor as should convince Europe that astonishment than rage and indignation. But he his father had not erred in resigning to him the took equal care to conceal his fear and his anger. reins of government. He immediately assembled He affected to approve highly of the truce; and in the Low Countries a body of 50,000 men, and he offered his mediation, as the common father obtained a supply of 10,000 from England, whom of Christendom, in order to bring about a defi- he had engaged in his quarrel; and as he was nitive treaty of peace. Under this pretext he not ambitious of military fame he gave the comappointed cardinal Rebibo his nuncio to the mand of his army to Emanuel Philibert, duke of court of Brussels, and his nephew, cardinal Ca- Savoy, one of the greatest generals of tnat warraffa, to that of Paris. The public instructions like age. The duke of Savoy kept the enemy for of both were the same; but Caraffa, besides some time in suspense with regard to his destithese, received a private commission to spare nation; at last he seemed to threaten Chamneither entreaties, promises, nor bribes, to induce pagne, towards which the French drew all their the French monarch to renounce the truce and troops; then turning suddenly to the right he renew his engagements with the holy see. He advanced by rapid marches into Picardy and flattered Henry with the conquest of Naples; he laid siege to St. Quintin. It was deeined in gained by his address the Guises, the queen, and those times a town of considerable strength; but even the famous Diana of Poictiers, duchess of the fortifications had been much neglected, and Valentinois, the king's mistress; and they easily the garrison did not amount to a fifth part of the swayed the king himself who already leaned to number requisite for its defence; it must therethat side. All Montmorency's prudent remon fore have surrendered in a few days if admiral strances were disregarded; the nuncio (by powers Coligny had not taken the gallant resolution of from Rome) absolved Henry from his oath of throwing himself into it with such a body of men truce; and that weak prince signed a new treaty as could be collected on a sudden.. This he with the pope; which re-kindled with fresh vio- effected in spite of the enemy, breaking through lence the names of war both in Italy and the their main body. The place, however, was Low Countries. No sooner was Paul made ac- closely invested; and the constabie Montmoquainted with the success of this negociation than rency, anxious to extricate his nephew out of he proceeded to the most indecent extremities that perilous situation in which his zeal for the against Philip. He ordered the Spanish ambassador public had engaged him, as well as to save a to be imprisoned; he excommunicated the Colon town of such importance, rashly advanced to its nas because of their attachment to the imperial relief with forces one-half inferior to those of the house; and he considered Philip as guilty of enemy. His army was cut in pieces, and he high treason, and to have forfeited his right to himself made prisoner. The cautious temper of the kingdom of Naples, which he was supposed Philip on this occasion saved France from deto hold of the holy see, for afterward affording vastation, if not ruin. The duke of Savoy prothem a retreat in his dominions. Alarmed at a posed to overlook all inferior objects and march quarrel with the pope, whom he had been taught speedily to Paris, which, in its consternation at to regard with the most superstitious veneration, that moment, he could not have failed to make Philip tried every gentle method before he made himself master of; but Philip, afraid of the conuse of force. He even consulted some Spanish sequences of such a bold enterprise, desired him divines on the lawfulness of taking arms against to continue the siege of St. Quintin, to secure a a person so sacred. They decided in his favor; safe retreat in case of any disaster. The town, and, Paul continuing inexorable, the duke of long and gallantly defended by Coligny, was at Alva, to whom the negociations as well as the last taken by storm, but not till France was war had been commitied, entered the ecclesias- in a state of defence. Philip was now sensible tical state at the head of 10,000 veterans, and that he had lost an opportunity which could carried terror to the gates of Rome. The haughty never be recalled of distressing his enemy, and pontiff, though still inflexible and undaunted in contented himself with reducing Horn and Catehimself, was forced to give way to the fears let; which petty towns, together with St. Quinthe cardinals, and a truce was concluded for tin, were the sole fruits of one of the most deci

sive victories gaineu in the sixteenth century. cited by new objects, stained other regions of The Catholic king, however, continued in high Europe with blood, and made other states feel exultation on account of his success; and, as all in their turn, the miseries of war. The duke of his passions were tinged with superstition, he Guise, who left Rome the same day that his advowed to build a church, a monastery, and a versary the duke of Alva made his humiliating palace, in honor of St. Laurence, on the day submission to the pope, was received in France sacred to whose memory the battle of St. Quin- as the guardian angel of the kingdom. He was tin had been fought. He accordingly laid the appointed lieutenant-general in chief, with a foundation of an edifice in which all these were jurisdiction almost unlimited; and, eager to included, and which he continued to forward at justify the extraordinary confidence which the vast expense for twenty-two years. The same king had reposed in him, as well as to perform principle which dictated the vow directed the something suitable to the high expectations of building. It was so formed as to resemble a his countrymen, he undertook in winter the siege gridiron-on which culinary instrument, accord- of Calais. Having taken that place, he next ining to the legendary tale, St. Laurence had suf- vested Thionville in the duchy of Luxembourg, fered martyrdom. Such is the origin of the one of the strongest towns on the frontiers of famous Escurial near Madrid, the royal resi- the Netherlands; and forced it to capitulate dence of the kings of Spain.

after a siege of three weeks. But the advantages The first account of that fatal blow which on this quarter were more than balanced by an France had received at St. Quintin was carried event which happened in another part of the to Rome by the courier whom Henry had sent Netherlands. The mareschal de Termes, goverto recal the duke of Guise. Paul remonstrated nor of Calais, who had penetrated into Flanders warmly against the departure of the French and taken Dunkirk, was totally routed near army; but Guise's orders were peremptory. Gravelines, and taken prisoner by count Egmont. The arrogant pontiff therefore found it necessary This disaster obliged the duke of Guise to reto accommodate his conduct to the exigency of linquish all his other schemes, and hasten towards his affairs, and to employ the mediation of the the frontiers of Picardy, that he might there Venetians, and of Cosmo de Medici, to obtain oppose the progress of the enemy. The eyes of peace.

The first overtures of this nature were all France were now turned towards the duke of eagerly listened to by the Catholic king, who Guise, as the only general on whose arms victory still doubted the justice of his cause, and con- always attended, and in whose conduct as well sidered it as his greatest misfortune to be obliged as good fortune they could confide in every

danto contend with the pope. Paul agreed to re- ger. His strength was nearly equal to the duke nounce his league with France; and Philip of Savoy's, each commanding about 40,000 men. stipulated on his part that the duke of Alva They encamped at a distance of a few leagues should repair in person to Rome, and after ask- from one another; and, the French and Spanish ing pardon of the holy father in his own nama monarchs having joined their respective armies, and in that of his master, for having invaded the it was expected that, after the vicissitudes of patrimony of the church, should receive abso- war, a decisive battle would at last determine lution from that crime. Thus Paul, through the which of the rivals should take the ascendant for superstitious timidity of Philip, not only finished the future in the affairs of Europe. But both an unpropitious war without any detriment to monarchs, as if by agreement, stood on the de the apostolic see,

but saw his conqueror humb- fensive; neither of thein discovering any incliled at his feet; and so excessive was the vene- nation, though each had it in his power, to test ration of the Spaniards in that age for the papal the decision of a point of such importance on character, that the duke of Alva, the proudest the issue of a single battle. During this state man perhaps of his time, and accustomed from of inaction, peace began to be mentioned in each his infancy to converse with princes, acknow- camp, and both Ilenry and Philip discovered an ledged that

, when he approached Paul, he was equal disposition to listen to any overture that so much overawed that his voice failed, and his tended to re-establish it. The private inclinations presence of mind forsook him. But though this of both kings concurred with their political inwar, which at its commencement threatened terests and the wishes of their people. Philip mighty revolutions, was terminated without oc- languished to return to Spain, the place of his casioning any alteration in those states which nativity; and peace only could enable hina, were its immediate object, it produced effects of either with decency or safety, to quit the Nether, considerable consequence in other parts of Italy. lands. Henry was now desirous of being freed In order to detach Octavia Farnese, duke of from the avocations of war, that he might hare Parma, from the French interest, Philip restored leisure to turn the whole force of his government to him the city of Placentia and its territory, towards suppressing the opinions of the reformwhich had been seized by Charles V., and he ers, which were spreading with such rapidity in granted to Cosmo de Medicis the investiture of Paris and the other great towns, that they began Sienna, as an equivalent for the sums due to to grow formidable to the established church. him. By these treaties, the balance of power Court intrigues conspired with these public and among the Italian states was poised with more avowed motives to 'hasten the negociation, and equality, and rendered less variable than it had the abbey of Cercamp was fixed on as the place beon since it received the first violent shock from of congress. While Philip and Henry were the invasion of Charles VIII., and Italy hence- making these advances towards a treaty which forth ceased to be the theatre on which the mon- restored tranquillity to Europe, Charles V., whose archs of Spain, France, and Germany, contended ambition had so long disturbed it, but who had for fame and dominion. Their hostilities, ex- been for some time dead to the world, ended


his days in the monastery of St Justus in Estre History of Spain, during the remainder of the madura, which he had chosen as the place of his sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.- Philip IV. retreat.

died in 1665, and was succeeded by his sou History of Spuin, unto the revolt of Portugal. Charles II.; for the emperor Charles V., was the --After the death of Charles, the kingdom of first of the name in Spain. Charles II. was, at Spain soon lost great part of its consequence. his accession, an infant in every sense of the Though Charles had used all his interest to get word, being only four years of age. He was his son Philip elected emperor of Germany, he twice married, but died, without issue, in Nohad been totally disappointed ; and thus the vember 1700, aged thirty-nine. By his first grandeur of Philip II. never equalled that of his will, in 1698, he had named for his successor father. His dominions were also considerably the prince of Bavaria, nephew of his second abridged by his tyrannical behaviour in the Ne- queen ; but by another will, in 1700, he appointtherlands. In consequence of this, the united ed prince Philip of France, duke of Anjou, his provinces revolted ; and, after a long and bloody heir, which, after his death, occasioned a new war, obtained their liberty. In this quarrel Eli- war, wherein the British court took an active zabeth of England took part against Philip, part. Queen Anne had but newly commenced which brought on a war with Spain. The great her reign when this resolution was taken ; and a losses he sustained in these wars exhausted the British army was sent into Spain to support kingdom both of men and money, notwithstand- prince Charles of Austria, in opposition to Phiing the great sums imported from America. lip of Anjou, second son of Louis duke of Indeed, the discovery and conquest of that Anjou, and grandson of Louis XIV. The uncountry has rather impoverished than enriched successful issue of that attempt is related amongst Spain; for the inhabitants have thus been ren a mass of other glorious successes, under the dered lazy and averse from every kind of manu. article ENGLAND; and thus the crown of Spain facture or traffic. The ruin of the kingdom in fell to a branch of the house of Bourbon. Phithis respect, however, was completed by his suc- lip V. was confirmed king of Spain by the treaty

The rest of the transactions of Philip of Utrecht, in 1713. In 1734 he invaded NaII.'s reign, with his general character, cruelties, ples, and wrested that kingdom from the house and monstrous bigotry, are related under the ar- of Austria, in favor of his second son prince ticle PHILIP JI. He died September 13th, Charles. Philip V. married Mary Louisa, 1598, and was succeeded by his son Philip III., daughter of Victor Amadeus duke of Savoy, by of whose general character and transactions we whom he had prince Louis (whom he assohave also given a summary account under the ciated in the throne with him, but who died article Philip III. This monarch, at the insti- before him), and prince Ferdinand. His queen gation of the inquisition, and by the advice of dying, in 1713, he married in September 1714 his prime minister the duke of Lerma, expelled princess Elizabeth Farnese, heiress of Parma, from the kingdom all the Morescoes or Moors, by whom he had prince Charles, Philip duke of descendants of the ancient conquerors of Spain. Parma, Louis, cardinal of Bourbon, Mary VicThirty days only were allowed them to prepare toria, queen of Portngal, and Mary Antonietta, for their departure, and it was death to remain duchess of Savoy. He died July 9th, 1746, beyond that time. The reason pretended for and was succeeded by his eldest son, Ferdinand this barbarous decree was, that these people VI., who married the infanta of Portugal, daughwere still Mahometans in their hearts, thoughter of John V., but died without issue, 10th of they conformed externally to the rites of Chris- August 1759, and was succeeded by his half tianity, and thus might corrupt the true faith. brother Charles III. In consequence of the The Morescoes, however, chose themselves a accession of the house of Bourbon to the Spaking, and attempted to oppose the royal man- nish throne, the courts of France and Spain gedate; but, being almost entirely unprovided with nerally acted in the closest concert, till the revoarms, they were soon obliged to submit, and all Jution, which, equally in its origin and issue still banished the kingdom. By this violent and astonishes all Europe, put an end to monarchy impolitic measure, Spain lost almost a million for a time in the former country. The wars of of industrious inhabitants; and, as the kingdom these two courts with Britain are related under was already depopulated by bloody wars, by ENGLAND and AMERICA; and these, with an repeated emigrations to America, and enervated unsuccessful attempt on Algiers, and the threatby luxury, it now sunk into a state of languor ened war respecting Nootka Sound, constitute from which it has never recovered. In conse- the most important part of the Spanish history quence of this languor, and the maladminis- till the deposition and murder of Louis XVI. of tration of the Spanish governors, Portugal, which France. On that event Spain joined her forces had been reduced by Philip II., revolted (see to those of the empire, Britain, and Prussia, to PORTUGAL): but this revolution did not happen chastise the convention, and prevent those demotill the reign of Philip IV., who succeeded his cratical principles which had ruined France father Philip III., in 1621 ; and having rashly from being spread through the other nations of engaged in two unsuccessful wars, first with the Europe. But her exertions added nothing to Dutch, and afterwards with the French, the Por- the strength of the alliance; and, being unable tuguese, whose oppressions and grievances had to defend herself against the furious inroads of the increased after the death of Philip II., were en- republican troops, she was glad to make a separate couraged to throw off the Spanish yoke in 1640, peace with the conv ion. Shortly after (Feb. 14, and elect John duke of Braganza their king, 1797) took place the glorious victory obtained by whose posterity still enjoy that throne.

the British feet under admiral Jervis, now lord

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