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plishea, enterprising, and victorious of the Turkish the affections of the Milanese from France. They princes, and a constant and formidable rival to resolved to expel the troops of that nation, and the emperor, ascended the Ottoman throne. put themselves under the government of Fran

From the inauguration of Charles V. as em cis Sforza, brother to Maxiinilian their late peror to his death.—The first act of Charles's duke. In this resolution they were encouraged administration was to appoint a diet of the em- by the pope, who excommunicated Lautrec, and pire, to be held at Worms, to concert with the took into his pay a considerable body of Swiss. princes proper measures for checking the progress The papal army, commanded by Prosper Coof those new and dangerous opinions which lonna, an experienced general, was joined by supthreatened to disturb the peace of Germany, and plies from Germany and Naples ; while Lautrec, to overturn the religion of their ancestors.' The neglected by his court, and deserted by the Swiss opinions propagated by Luther and his followers in its pay, was unable to make head against the were here meant. But all his efforts for that enemy. The city of Milan was betrayed by the purpose were insufficient, as is related under the inhabitants to the confederates ; Parma and Plaarticles Luther and REFORMATION. In 1521 centia were united to the ecclesiastical state ; and the Spaniards, dissatisfied with the departure of of their conquests in Lombardy only the town their sovereign, whose election to the empire they of Cremona, the castle of Milan, and a few inforesaw would interfere with the administration considerable forts, remained in the hands of the of his own kingdom, and incensed at the avarice French. Leo X. received the accounts of his of the Flemings, to whom the direction of public rapid success with such transports of joy as are affairs had been committed since the death of said to have brought on a fever, which occasioned cardinal Ximenes, several grandees, to shake off his death. The spirit of the confederacy was this oppression, entered into an association, to broken, and its operations suspended by this which they gave the name of the sancta juncta ; event. The Swiss were recalled; some other and the sword was appealed to as the means of mercenaries disbanded for want of pay; and redress. This seemed to Francis a favorable junc- only the Spaniards, and a few Germans in the ture for reinstating the family of John d'Albret emperor's service, remained to defend the duchy in the kingdom of Navarre. Charles was at a of Milan. But Lautrec, who with the remnant distance from that part of his dominions, and of his army had taken shelter in the Venetian the troops usually stationed there had been called territories, destitute both of men and money, away to quell the commotions in Spain. A was unable to improve this favorable opportunity French army, under Andrew de Foix, speedily as he wished. All his efforts were rendered conquered Navarre; but that young and inexpe- ineffectual by the vigilance and ability of Corienced nobleman, pushed on by military ardor, Jonna and his associates. Meantime much disventured to enter Castile. The Spaniards, though cord prevailed in the conclave. Wolsey's name, divided among themselves, united against a fo- notwithstanding all the emperor's magnificent reign enemy, routed his forces, took him pri- promises, was scarcely mentioned there. Julio soner, and recovered Navarre in a shorter time de Medici, Leo's nephew, thought himself sure than he had spent in subduing it. Hostilities thus of the election ; when, by an unexpected turn of begun in one quarter, between the rival mo- fortune, cardinal Adrian of Utrecht, Charles's narchs, soon spread to another. The king of preceptor, who at that time governed Spain in France encouraged the duke of Bouillon to the emperor's name, was unanimously raised to make war against the emperor, and to invade the papacy, 10 the astonishment of all Europe, Luxemburgh. Charles, after humbling the and the greatest disgust of the Italians. Francis, duke, attempted to enter France ; but was re roused by the rising consequence of his rival. pelled and worsted before Mezieres by the fa- resolved to exert himself with fresh vigor, to mous chevalier Bayard, distinguished among his wrest from him his late conquests in Lombardy. contemporaries by the appellation of the knight Lautrec received a supply of money, and a reinwithout fear and without reproach ;' and who forcement of 10,000 Swiss. With this reinforceunited the talents of a great general to the punc- ment he was enabled once more to act offensively, tilious honor and romantic gallantry of the heroes and even to advance within a few miles of Mi. of chivalry. Francis broke into the Low Coun- lan; when money again failing him, and the tries, where, by an excess of caution, an error Swiss growing mutinous, he was obliged to not natural to him, he lost an opportunity of attack the imperialists in their camp at Bicocca, cutting off the whole of the imperial army; and, where he was repulsed with great slaughter, what was of still more consequence, he disgusted having lost his bravest officers and best troops. the constable Bourbon, by giving the command Such of the Swiss as survived set out immediately of the van to the duke of Alençon. During for their own country; and Lautrec, despairing of these operations in the field an unsuccessful being able to keep the field, retired into France. congress was held at Calais, under the mediation Genoa; which still remained subject to Francis of Henry VIII. It served only to exasperate and made it easy to execute any scheme for the the parties whom it was iutended to reconcile. recovery of Milan, was soon after taken by CoA league was soon after concluded by the in- lonna; the authority of the emperor and his factrigues of Wolsey, between the pope, Henry, tion was every where established in Italy. The and Charles, against France. Leo had already citadel of Cremona was the sole fortress which entered into a separate league with the emperor, remained in the hands of the French. The and the French were fast losing ground in Italy. affliction of Francis for such a succession The insolence and exactions of marshal de Lau of misfortunes was augmented by the unextrec, governor of Milan, had totally alienated pected arrival of an English herald, who in the

name of his sovereign declared war against to a truce for three years, that the imperial, the France. The courage of this excellent prince, French, and the English ambassadors at Rome, however, did not forsake him ; though this trea were empowered to treat of that matter ; but, sury was exhausted by expensive pleasures, while they wasted their time in fruitless negociano less than by hostile enterprises, he assem- tions, their masters were continuing their prepabled a considerable army, and put his king- rations for war; and negociations of another dom in a state of defence for resisting this new kind soon took place. The confederacy against enemy, without abandoning any of the schemes France became more formidable than ever. The which he was forming against the emperor. He Venetians, who had hitherto adhered to the was surprised, but not alarmed, at such a de- French interest, formed engagements with the nunciation. Meanwhile Charles, willing to draw emperor for securing Francis Sforza in the pose as much advantage as possible from so powerful session of the duchy of Milan; and the pope, an ally, paid a second visit to the court of Eng- from a persuasion that the ambition of the French land in his way to Spain, where his presence monarch was the only obstacle to peace, acceded was become necessary. His success exceeded to the same alliance. The Florentines, the dukes his most sanguine expectations. He not only of Ferrara and Mantua, and all the Italian gained the entire friendship of Henry, who pub- powers, followed this example. Francis was licly ratified the treaty of Burges; but disarmed left without a single ally, to resist the efforts of a the resentment of Wolsey, by assuring him of multitude of enemies, whose armies every where the pa pacy on Adrian's death ; an event seem- threatened, and whose territories encompassed ingly not distant, by reason of his age and in- bis dominions. The emperor in

person menaced firmities. In consequence of these negociations France with an invasion on the side of Guiente; an English army invaded France, under the earl the forces of England and the Netherlands hoverof Surrey ; who, at the end of the campaign, ed over Picardy, and a numerous body of Gerwas obliged to retire, with his forces greatly re mans was preparing to ravage Burgundy. The duced, without being able to make himself mas dread of so many and such powerful adversaries, ter of one place within the French frontier. it was thought, would have obliged Francis to Charles was more fortunate in Spain; be soon keep wholly on the defensive, or at least have quelled the tumults which had arisen there in his prevented him from entertaining any thoughts of absence. While the Christian princes were thus marching into Italy. But, before his enemies wasting each other's strength, Solyman entered were able to strike a blow, Francis bad assenHungary, and made himself master of Belgrade, bled a great army, with which he hoped to disreckoned the chief barrier of that kingdom against concert all the emperor's schemes, by marching the Turkish power. Encouraged by this suc it in person into Italy; and this bold measure, cess, he turned his victorious arms against the the more formidable because unexpected, could island of Rhodes, at that time the seat of the scarcely have failed of the desired effect, had it knights of St. John of Jerusalem; and, though been immediately carried into execution. But every prince in that age. acknowledged Rhodes the discovery of a domestic conspiracy, which to be the great bulwark of Christendom in the threatened the destruction of his kingdom, obliged east, so violent was their animosity against each Francis to stop short at Lyons. Charles duke of other, that they suffered Soliman without dis- Bourbon, lord high constable of France, was a turbance to carry on his operations against that prince of the most shining merit; his great ta. city and island. Lisle Adam, the grand master, lents equally fitted him for the council or the made a gallant defence; but after incredible ef- field, while his eminent services to the crown enforts of courage, patience, and military conduct, titled him to its first favor. But unhappily, during a siege of six months, he was obliged to Louisa, duchess of Augouleme, the king's Diosurrender the place, having obtained an honor. ther, had contracted a violent aversion against the able capitulation from the sultan, who admired house of Bourbon, and had taught her son, over and respected his heroic qualities. See Rhodes whom she had acquired an absolute ascendant, and Malta. Charles and Francis were equally to view all the constable's actions with a jealous ashamed of having occasioned such a loss to eye. After repeated affronts he retired from Christendom by their contests; and the em court, and began to listen to the advances of the peror, by way of reparation, granted to the emperor's ministers. Mean time the duchess of knights of St. John the island of Malta, where Bourbon died; and, as the constable was no less they fixed their residence, and continued long to amiable than accomplished, the duchess of Anretain their ancient spirit, though much dimi- gouleme, still susceptible of the tender passions, nished in power and splendor. Adrian VI. formed the scheme of marrying him.

But though the creature of the emperor, and devoted Bourbon, who might have expected every thing to his interest, endeavoured to assume the im- to which an ambitious mind can aspire, from the partiality which became the common father of doating fondness of a woman who governed her Christendom, and labored to reconcile the con son and the kingdom, incapable of imitating tending princes, that they might unite in a league Louisa in her sudden transition from hate to against Soliman, whose conquest of Rhodes love, or of meanly counterfeiting a passion for rendered him more formidable than ever to Eu one who had so long pursued him with unprorope. The Italian states were no less desirous voked malice, rejected the match with disdain, of peace than the pope; and so much regard and turned the proposal into ridicule. At once was paid by the hostile powers to the exhorta- despised and insulted, by the man whom lore tions of his holiness, and to a bull which he is- only could have made her cease to persecute, sued, requiring all Christian princes to consent Louisa was filled with all the rage of disap

pointed woman; she resolved to ruin, since she tunate as to pursue them, they must have abanshould not marry, Bourbon. For this purpose doned that post, and been totally dispersed; but she commenced an iniquitous suit against him; his evil genius led him to hesiege Pavia, a town and, by the chicanery of chancellor du Prat, the of considerable strength, well garrisoned, and constable was stripped of his whole family es- defended by Antonio de Leyva, one of the tate. Driven to despair by so many injuries, he bravest officers in the Spanish service; before entered into a secret correspondence with the which place he was defeated and taken prisoner emperor and the king of England; and he pro on the 24th of February 1524. posed, as soon as Francis should have crossed the The captivity of Francis filled all Europe with Aips, to raise an insurrection among his numer alarm. Almost the whole French army was cut ous vassals, and introduce foreign enemies into off; Milan was immediately abandoned ; and the heart of France. Happily Francis got inti- in a few weeks not a Frenchman was left in mation of this conspiracy before he left the king- Italy. The power of the emperor, and still more dom; but, not being sufficiently convinced of the his ambition, became an object of universal terconstable's guilt, he suffered so dangerous a foe ror; and resolutions were every where taken to to escape; and, Bourbon entering into the empe- set bounds to it. Meanwhile Francis, deeply ror's service, employed all the force of his enter- impressed with a sense of his misfortunes, wrote prising genius, and his great talents for war, to to his mother Louisa, whom he had left regent the prejudice of his prince and his native coun- of the kingdom, the following short but exprestry. In consequence of the discovery of this sive letter :—- All, madam, is lost but honor.' plot, and the escape of the powerful conspirator, The same courier that carried this letter, carried Francis relinquished his intention of leading his also despatches to Charles ; who received the army in person into Italy. He was ignorant news of the signal and unexpected success which how far the infection had spread among his sub- had crowned his arms with the most hypocritical jects, and afraid that his absence might encou moderation. He would not suffer any public rage them to make some desperate attempt in rejoicings to be made on account of it; and said, favor of a man so much beloved. He did not, he only valued it as it would prove the occasion however, abandon his design on the Milanese, of restoring peace to Christendom. Louisa, but sent forward an army of 30,000 men, under however, did not trust to these appearances; if the command of admiral Bonnivet. Colonna, she could not preserve what was yet left, she who was entrusted with the defence of that duchy, determined at least that nothing should be lost was in no condition to resist such a force; and through her negligence or weakness. Instead of the city of Milan, on which the whole territory giving herself up to such lamentations as were depends, must have fallen into the hands of the natural to a woman so remarkable for maternal French, had not Bonnivet, who possessed none tenderness, she discovered all the foresight, and of the talents of a general, wasted his time in exerted all the activity of a consummate politifrivolous enterprises, till the inhabitants recover She took every possible measure for puted from their consternation. The imperial army ting the kingdom in a posture of defence, while was reinforced. Colonna died; and Lannny, she employed all her address to appease the reviceroy of Naples, succeeded him in the com sentment and to gain the friendship of England; mand; but the chief direction of military opera- and a ray of comfort from that quarter soon tions was committed to Bourbon and the mar broke in upon the French affairs. Though Henry quis de Pescara, the greatest generals of their VIII. had not entered into the war against age. Bonnivet, destitute of troops to oppose France from any concerted political views, he this new army, and still more of the talents had always retained some imperfect idea of that which could render him a match for its leaders. balance of power which it was necessary to after various movements and encounters, was maintain between Charles and Francis; and the reduced to the necessity of attempting a retreat preservation of which he boasted to be his pecuinto France. He was followed by the imperial liar office. By this alliance with the emperor he generals, and routed at Biagrassa, where the fa- hoped to recover some part of those territories on mous chevalier Bayard was killed. The emperor the continent which had belonged to his ancestors; and his allies were less successful in their at- and therefore willingly contributed to give him tempts upon France. They were baffled in every the ascendoncy above his rival ; but having nequarter; and Francis, though stripped of his ver dreamt of any event so decisive and fatal as Italian dominions, might still have enjoyed in the victory of Pavia, which seemed not only to safety the glory of having defended his native have broken, but to have annihilated the power kingdom against one half of Europe, and have of Francis, he now became sensible of his own bid defiance to all his enemies : but understand- danger, as well as that of all Europe, from the ing that the king of England, discouraged by his loss of a proper counterpoise to the power of former fruitless enterprises, and disgusted with Charles. Instead of taking advantage of the the emperor, was making no preparations for an distressed condition at France, Henry therefore attempi on Picardy, his ancient ardor seized him determined to assist her in her present calami. for the conquest of Milan, and he determined, ties. Some disgusts had also taken place between notwithstanding the advanced season, to march him and Charles, and still more between Charles into Italy. The French army no sooner appear- and Wolsey. The elevation of the cardinal of ed in Piedmont, than the whole Milanese was Medicis to St. Peter's chair, on the death of thrown into consternation. The capital opened Adrian, under the name of Clement VII., had its gates. The forces of the emperor and Sforza made the English minister sensible of the insinretired to Lodi; and, had Francis been so for- cerity of the emperor's promises, while it extin


guished all his hopes of the papacy; and he re- duke of Milan, entered into an alliance, to which solved on revenge. Charles, too, had so ill they gave the name of the Holy League, because supported the appearance of moderation which his holiness was at the head of it, in order to he assumed, that he had already changed his oblige the emperor to deliver up Francis's two usual style to Henry; and, instead of writing to sons on the payment of a reasonable ransom, an] him with his own hand, he dictated his letters to to re-establish Sforsa in the quiet possession of a secretary, and simply subscribed 'Charles.' the Milanese. In consequence of this league the Influenced by all these motives, together with confederate army took the field, and Italy once the glory of raising a fallen enemy, Henry list- more became the scene of war. But Francis, ened to the Aattering submissions of Louisa ; en- who it was thought would have infused spirit tered into a defensive alliance with her as regent and vigor into the whole body, had gone through of France, and engaged to use his best offices to such a scene of distress that he was become difprocure the deliverance of her son from captivity. dent of himself, distrustful of his fortune, and Meanwhile Francis was rigorously confined ; desirous of tranquillity. He flattered himself that and severe conditions being proposed to him as the dread alone of such a confederacy would the price of his liberty, he drew his dagger, and, induce Charles to listen to what was equitable, pointing it at his breast, cried, “'Twere better and therefore neglected to send due reinforceihat a king should die thus! His hand was ments to his allies in Italy. Meantime the dule withheld; and flattering himself, when he grew of Bourbon, who commanded the imperialists, cool, that such propositions could not come di. had made himself master of the whole Milanese, rectly from Charles, he desired that he might be of which the emperor bad promised him the inremoved to Spain, where the emperor then re- vestiture; and his troops beginning to mutiny, sided. His request was complied with; but he for want of pay, he led them to Rome, and prolanguished long before he obtained a sight of his mised to enrich them with the spoils of that city, conqueror. At last he was favored with a visit; He was as good as his word; for, though he himand the emperor, dreading a general combination self was slain in planting a scaling ladder against against him, or that Francis, as he threatened, the walls, bis soldiers, rather enraged than dismight in obstinacy resign his crown to the dau- couraged by his death, mounted to the assault phin, agreed to abate somewhat of his former with the utmost ardor, animated by the greatness demands. A treaty was accordingly concluded of the prize, and, entering the city sword in at Madrid; in consequence of which Francis hand, plundered it for several days. Never did obtained his liberty. The chief article was, that Rome in any age suffer so many calamities, not Burgundy should be restored to Charles as the even from the Barbarians, by whom she was rightful inheritance of his ancestors, and that often subdued, the Huns, Vandals, or Goths, as Francis's two eldest sons should be immediately now from the subjects of a Christian and Catholic delivered up as hostages for the performance of monarch. Whatever was respectable in modesty, the conditions stipulated. The exchange of the or sacred in religion, seemed only the more to captive monarch for his children was made on provoke the rage of the soldiery. Virgins sufthe borders between France and Spain. The fered violation in the arms of their parents, and inoment that Francis entered his own dominions, upon those altars to which they had fled for he mounted a Turkish horse, and, putting it to its safety! Venerable prelates, after enduring every speed, waved his hand and cried aloud several indignity and every torture, were thrown into times, 'I am yet a king! I am yet a king ! dungeons, and menaced with the most cruel

Francis never meant to execute the treaty of death, to make them reveal their secret treasures. Madrid : he bad even left a protest in the hands Clement himself, who had neglected to make his of notaries before he signed it, that his consent escape in time, was taken prisoner, and found should be considered as an involuntary deed, that the sacredness of his character could neither and be deemed null and void. Accordingly, as procure him liberty nor respect. He was consoon as he arrived in France, he assembled the fined till he should pay an enormous ransom itustates of Burgundy, who protested against the posed by the victorious army, and surrender to article relative to their province; and Francis the emperor all the places of strength belonging coldly replied to the imperial ambassadors, who to the church. Charles received the news of urged the immediate execution of the treaty, that this extraordinary event with equal surprise and he would religiously perform the articles relative pleasure ; but to conceal his joy from his Spanish to himself, but, in those affecting the French mo- subjects, who were filled with horror at the insult narchy, he must be directed by the sense of the offered to the sovereign pontiff, and to lessen the nation. He made the highest acknowledgments indignation of the rest of Europe, he expressed to the king of England for his friendly interpo- the most profound sorrow for the success of his sition, and offered to be entirely guided by his arms. He put himself and his court into mourncounsels. Charles and his ministers saw that ing; stopped the rejoicings for the birth of his they were over-reached in those very arts of ne son Philip, and ordered prayers to be put up in gociation in which they so much excelled, while all the churches of Spain for the recovery of the the Italian states observed with pleasure that pope's liberty, which he could immediately have Francis was resolved not to execute a treaty given him by a letter to his generals. which they considered as dangerous to the liber The concern expressed by Henry and Francis ties of Europe. Clement absolved him from the for the calamity of their ally was more sincere. oath which he had taken at Madrid; and the Alarmed at the progress of the imperial arms, kings of France and England, the pope, the they had, even before the taking of Rome, enSwiss, the Venetians, the Florentines, and the tered into a closer alliance, and agreed to invadle

the low countries with a powerful army; but no peror's transactions with the Protestants, is sooner did they hear of the pope's captivity than given under the article Reformation. Charles, they changed, by a new treaty, the scene of the having exerted himself as much as he could projected war from the Netherlands to Italy, and against the reformers, undertook his first expediresolved to take the most vigorous measures for tion against the piratical states of Africa. Barrestoring him to liberty. Henry, however, con- bary, or that part of the African continent lying tributed only money. A French army entered along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, was Italy under the command of marshal Lautrec; then nearly in the same condition which it is at Clement obtained his freedom; and war was for present. Morocco, Algiers, and Tunis, were its a time carried on by the confederates with suc- principal states; and the last two were nests of cess; but the death of Lautrec, and the revolt of pirates. Barbarossa, a famous Corsair, had sucAndrew Doria, a famous Genoese admiral in the ceeded his brother in the kingdom of Algiers, service of France, entirely changed the face of which he had formerly assisted him to usurp. affairs. The French army was utterly ruined; He regulated with much prudence the interior and Francis, discouraged and almost exhausted police of bis kingdom, carried on his piracies by so many unsuccessful enterprises, began to with great vigor, and extended his conquests on think of peace, and of obtaining the release of the continent of Africa ; but perceiving that the his sons by concessions, not by the terror of his natives submitted to his government with impaarms. At the same time Charles, notwithstanding tience, and fearing that his continual depredathe advantages he had gained, had many reasons tions would one day draw upon him a general to wish for an accommodation. Sultan Soliman, combination of the Christian powers, he put his having over-run Hungary, was ready to break dominions under the protection of the grand in upon the Austrian territories with the whole signior. Soliman, flattered by such an act of force of the east; and the progress of the Re- submission, and charmed with the boldness of formation in Germany threatened the tranquillity the man, offered him the command of the Turkish of the empire. In consequence of this situation fleet. Proud of this distinction, Barbarossa reof affairs, though pride made both parties con- paired to Constantinople, and made use of his ceal or dissemble their real sentiments, two influence with the sulian to extend his own doladies were permitted to restore peace to Europe. minion. Partly by force, partly by treachery, Margaret of Austria, Charles's aunt, and Louisa, he usurped the kingdom of Tunis; and, being Francis's mother, met in 1529 at Cambray, and now possessed of greater power, he carried on settled the terms of accommodation between the his depredations against the Christian states with French king and the emperor. Francis agreed more destructive violence than ever. Daily comto pay 2,000,000 crowns as the ransom of his plaints of the piracies and ravages committed by two sons, to resign the sovereignty of Flanders the galleys of Barbarossa were brought to the and Artois, and to forego all his Italian claims; emperor by his subjects, both in Spain and Italy; and Charles ceased to demand the restitution of and all Christendom seemed to look up to him, Burgundy. All the steps of this negociation had as its greatest and most fortunate prince, for been communicated to the king of Englanl; and relief from this new and odious species of opHenry was, on that occasion, so generous to his pression. At the same time Muley Hassen, the friend and ally Francis that he sent him an ac- exiled king of Tunis, finding none of the African quittal of nearly 600,000 crowns in order to en- princes able or willing to support him in recoable him to fulfil his agreement with Charles. vering his throne, applied to Charles for assistBut Francis's Italian confederates were less ance against the usurper. Equally desirous of satisfied with the treaty of Cambray. They were delivering his dominions from the dangerous almost wholly abandoned to the will of the em- neighbourhood of Barbarossa, of appearing as the peror; and seemed to have no other means of protector of an unfortunate prince, and of acsecurity left but his equity and moderation. Of quiring the glory annexed in that age to every these, from his past conduct, they had not formed expedition against the Mahometans, the emperor the most advantageous idea. But Charles's cir- readily concluded a treaty with Muley Hassen, cumstances, especially in regard to the Turks, and set sail for Tunis with a formidable armaobliged him to behave with a generosity incon- ment. The Goletta, a sea-port town fortified sistent with his character. The Florentines alone, with 300 pieces of cannon, was taken, together whom he reduced under the dominion of the with all Barbarossa's fleet: he was defeated in a family of Medicis, had reason to complain of his pitched battle ; and, 10,000 Christian slaves severity. Sforza obtained the investiture of Mi- having knocked off their fetters and made themlan and his pardon; and every other power ex- selves masters of the citadel, Tunis was preparing perienced the lenity of the conqueror. After to surrender. But, while Charles was deliberating having received the imperial crown, from the on the conditions, his troops, fearing that they hands of the pope at Bologna, Charles proceeded would be deprived of the booty which they har! on his journey to Germany, where his presence expected, broke suddenly into the town, and was become highly necessary; for although the pillaged and massacred without distinction : conduct and valor of his brother Ferdinand, on 30,000 persons perished by the sword, and whom he had conferred the hereditary dominions 10,000 were made prisoners. The sceptre was of the house of Austria, and who had been elect- restored to Muley Hassen, on condition that he ed king of Hungary, had obliged Soliman to re- should acknowledge himself a vassal of the crown tire with infamy and loss, his return was to be of Spain, put into the emperor's hands all the feared, and the disorders of religion were daily fortified sea-ports in the kingdom of Tunis, and increasing;

an account of which, and of the em- pay annually 12,000 crowns for the subsistence

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