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If, till the expiration of your month,

since augmented by three deniers, and struck You will return and sojourn with my sister, with a puncheon of a fleur-de-lis, to make it Dismissing half your train, come then to me. current for fifteen deniers. Soon after the old

Shakspeare.

sols were coined over again, and both old and The princes, France and Burgundy,

new were indifferently made current for fifteen Long in our court have made their amorous sojourn.

deniers. In 1709 the value of the same sols

Id. The soldiers first assembled at Newcastle, and

was raised to eighteen deniers. Towards the end there sojourned three days.

Hayward

of the reign of Louis XIV. the sol of eighteen Here dwells he ; though he sojourn every where

deniers was again lowered to fifteen; and by In progress, yet his standing house is here. Donne.

Louis XVI. it was reduced to the original value

of twelve.
To sojourn in that land
He comes invited. Milton's Paradise Lost.

Sol, in Dutch currency. The Dutch have
Thee I revisit now,

two kinds of sols; the one of silver, called sols Escaped the Stygian pool, though long detained de gros, and likewise schelling; the other of In that obscure sojourn.

Id. copper, called also the stuyver.
Waves o'erthrew

SOL'ACE, v.0., v. N.,

&n.s. Old Fr. solacier; Busiris, and his Memphian chivalry,

Ital. solazzare ; Lat. solatiềm. To comfort; While with perfidious hatred they pursued cheer; amuse : to take comfort; be recreated : The sojourners of Goshen.

Id.

the comfort or amusement yielded. Not for a night, or quick revolving year;

Therein sat a lady fresh and fair,
Welcome an owner, not a sojourner. Dryden.
He who sojourns in a foreign country refers what Making sweet solace to herself alone ;

Sometimes she sung as loud as lark in air, he sees abroad to the state of things at home.

Sometimes she laughed, that nigh her breath was gone. Atterbury.

Spenser's Faerie Queene. SOISSONNOIS, a ci-devant province of If we have that which is meet and right, although France, bounded on the north by Laonnois, east they be glad, we are not to envy them this their solace: by Champagne, south by Brie, and west by we do not think it a duty of ours to be in every such Valois. It was inhabited by the ancient Sues- thing their tormentors.

Hooler. siones, a brave nation of Gaul, in the time of

We will with some strange pastime solace them. Cæsar. It is fertile, and abounds in corn, wood,

Shakspeare.

Were they to be ruled, and not to rule, and pasture. It now forms, along with the ci

This sickly land might solace as before. Id. devant province of Vermandois, the department

One poor and loving child, of Aisne.

But one thing to rejoice and soluce in, SOISSONS, an ancient and large town of And cruel death hath catched it from my sight. Id. France, in the department of Aisne, and late

The birds with song province of Soissonnois. In the time of Julius Solaced the woods.

Niton. Cæsar it was called Noviodunum, and was the

Though sight be lost, capital of the Suessiones ; whence the modern Life yet hath many solaces, enjoyed name. It was then the capital of a kingdom of Where other senses want not their delights, the same name, under the first race of the French At home in leisure and domestick ease, monarchs. It contains now about 7500 inhabi- Exempt from many a care and chance, to which

Id. tants, and is a bishop's see. The environs are Eye-sight exposes daily men abroad.

If I would delight my private hours charming, but the streets are narrow, and the

With musick or with poem, where so soon houses ill built. The fine cathedral has one of

As in our native language can I find the most considerable chapters in the kingdom. That solace?

id. Paradise Regained. St. Louis, 'Philip III., and Louis XIV., were Through waters and through flames I'll go, crowned in it. The castle, though ancient, is not Sufferer and solace of thy woe.

Prior. that in which the kings of the first race resided. Bad thoughts are as infectious as bad company; Soissons is seated in a very pleasant and fertile and good thoughts solace, instruct, and entertain the valley, on the Aisne, and has a good trade in mind, like good company.

Mason. corn, and its manufactures of coarse linen, ropes, SOLÆUS, or Soleus, in anatomy, one of the thread, leather, and stockings.

extensor muscles of the foot, rising from the upSOL, the sun, in astronomy, astrology, &c. per and hinder parts of the tibia and sibula. See ASTRONOMY, Index.

SOLAN, a country of Central Africa, between Sol, in chemistry, is gold; thus called from Tombuctoo and Cassina. It was described to an opinion that this metal is in a particular man Horneman as one of those composing the extenner under the influence of the sun.

sive country of Haoussa or Houssa, on the north Sol, in heraldry, denotes Or, the golden color bank of the Niger; but few particulars are in the arms of sovereign princes.

known respecting it. Sol, in music, the fifth note of the gamut, ut, SOLANDER (Daniel Charles), M, D., an re, mi, fa, sol, la. See Gamut.

eminent Swedish naturalist, born in the provinct Sol, or Sou, in the French currency, a coin of Nordland, in Sweden, in 1736. He studied made up of copper mixed with a little silver, at Upsal, and was a pupil of the great Linnæus. and worth upwards of an English halfpenny, or He took his degree at Upsal, and in 1760 visited the twenty-third part of an English shilling. England, where he continued some years, and The sol, when first struck, was equal in value to was prevailed on by his friend Sir Joseph Banks, twelve deniers Tournois, whence it was also to accompany captain Cook in his first voyage called douzain, a name it still retains, though its of discovery round the world in 1768. In 1773 ancient value be changed; the sol having been he was appointed one of the librarians of the

main.

British Museum. He died of an apoplectic fit that the dulcamara partakes of the milder powers in 1782.

of the nightshade, joined to a resolvent and sapoSOLANDER'S ISLAND, an island in the South naceous quality; hence it promotes the secrePacific Ocean, on the south coast of New Zealand, tions of urine, sweat, the menses, and lochia. It discovered by captain Cook. It is nothing but a is recommended in a variety of disorders; but barren rock, about a mile in circuit, remarkably particularly in rheumatisms, obstructed menses, high, and lies full five leagues distant from the and lochia ;, also in some obstinate cutaneous

The shore of the main lies nearest east diseases. by south and west by north, and forms a large 2. S. longum. This plant is herbaceous, but open bay, in which there is no appearance of grows rank. The flowers are blue; and the any harbour, or shelter for shipping. The sur- fruit is six or eight inches long, and proportionally face of the country is broken into craggy hills, thick. It is boiled and eaten as the egg-plant. of a great height, on the summits of which are 3. S. lycopersicon, the love apple, or tomato, patches of snow. Wood was seen not only in cultivated in gardens in the warmer parts of Euthe valleys, but upon the highest ground, yet no rope and in all tropical countries. The stalk is appearance of its being inhabited. Long. 192o herbaceous, the leaves pinnated, oval, pointed, 49' W., lat. 46° 31' S.

and deeply divided. The flowers are on simple SOLANDRA, in botany, a genus of plants, racemi : they are small and yellow. The berry ranked by some botanists under the class mona is of the size of a plum: they are smooth, shining, delphia, and the order polyandria ; but by Mr. Lee, soft; and are either of a yellow or reddish color. of Hammersmith, it is arranged under the class The tomato is in daily use; being either boiled polygamia, and in the order monæcia. It is in soups or broths, or served up as garnishes to ranked in the natural system under the thirty- flesh meats. eighth order, tricocceæ. The calyx is simple ; 4. S. melongena, the egg plant, or vegetable the capsule oblong, wreathed, and five-celled; egg. This is also cultivated in gardens, parthe seeds are many, disposed in cells in a double ticularly in Jamaica. It seldom rises above a order. The valves, after maturity, are divaricated foot in height. The stalk is herbaceous and even to the base, and winged inwards by the smooth ; the leaves oval and downy; the flowers partition. The only species is S. lobata. This are large and blue; the fruit is as big as, and genus was first named Solandra, in honor of very like, the egg of a goose. It is often used Dr. Solander, by Murray, in the fourteenth edi- boiled as a vegetable along with animal food or tion of the Systema Vegetabilium.

butter, and supposed to be aphrodisiac, and to SOLANUM, in botany, a genus of the mono cure sterility. gynia order, belonging to the pentandria class of 5. S. nigrum, nightshade, common in many plants; natural order twenty-eighth, luridæ: places in Britain about dunghills and waste CAL. inferior: cor. rotate, and generally mono- places. It rises to about two feet in height. The phyllous : the fruit a berry, bilocular, and con stalk herbaceous; the leaves alternate, irregularly taining many small and flat seeds. Of this genus oval, indented, and clothed with soft hairs. The there are sixty-six species, most of them natives flowers are white; the berries black and shining. of the East and West Indies. The most re It appears to possess the deleterious qualities of markable are the following :-1. S. dulcamara, the other nightshades in a very high degree; and a native of Britain and of Africa, is a slender even the smell of the plant is said to cause sleep. climbing plant, rising to six or more feet in The berries are equally poisonous with the leaves; height. The leaves are generally oval, pointed, causing cardialgia, and delirium, and violent disand of a deep green color; the flowers hang in tortions of the limbs in children. Mr. Gataker loose clusters, of a purple color, and divided into in 1757 recommended its internal use in old five pointed segments. The calyx is purple, per- sores, in scrofulous and cancerous ulcers, cutanesistent, and divided into five. The five filaments ous eruptions, and in dropsies. He says that are short, black, and inserted into the tube of the one grain infused in an ounce of water somecorolla. The antheræ yellow, erect, and united times produced a considerable effect; that in the in a point as usual in this genus. The style is dose of two or three grains it seldom failed to long, and terminates in an obtuse stigma. The evacuate the first passages, to increase very senberry, when ripe, is red, and contains many flat sibly the discharges by the skin and kidneys, yellowish seeds. It grows in hedges well supplied and sometimes to occasion headach, drowsiness, with water, and flowers about the end of June. giddiness, and dimness of sight. Mr. Broomfield On chewing the roots we first feel a bitter, then a says, that in cases in which he tried this solanum, sweet taste; hence the name. The berries are they were much aggravated by it; and that in poisonous, and may easily be mistaken by chil- one case, in the dose of one grain, it proved more dren for currants. The stipites or younger tal to one of his patients; therefore he thinks its branches are directed for use, and may be em use is prejudicial. It is now never given interployed either fresh or dried : they should be nally. It was anciently employed externally gathered in the autumn. They are given in de as a discutient and anodyne in some cutaneous coction or infusion. Razou directs the follow- affections, tumefactions of the glands, ulcers, ing :- Take dried dulcamara twigs half a drain, and disorders of the eyes. and pour upon it sixteen ounces of spring water, 6. S. nigrum rubrum, a native of the West which must be boiled down to eight ounces; Indies, is called guma by the negroes. It is so then strain it: three or four tea-spoonfuls to be far from having any deleterious quality, that it is taken every four hours, diluted with milk to daily served up at table as greens spinnage. prevent its exciting a nausea. Several authors say It has an agreeable bitter taste.

SOʻLAR, adj. } Being of the 'sun; belonging

7. S. tuberosum, the common potato. See Goldsmiths say, the coarsest stuff

ld. Potato, and Rural Economy.

Will serve for solder well enough. Fr. solaire ; Lat. solaris. One's hip he slashed, and split the other's shoulder SO'LARY.

And drove them with their brutal yells to seek to, born under the influence of, or measured by

If there might be chirurgeons who could solder the sun.

The wounds they richly merited, and shriek

Their baffled rage and pain ; while waxing colder They denominate some herbs solar, and some lunar.

As he turned o’er each pale and gory cheek, Bacon.

Don Juan raised his little captive from Scripture hath been punctual in other respects, concerning solury miracles.

The heap a moment more had made her tomb. Browne's Vulgar Errours.

Byrge. The corpuscles that make up the beams of light

Solder, SODDER, or Soner, a metallic or be solary effluviums, or minute particles of some ethereal substance, thrusting on one another from the together other metals

. Solders are made of gold,

mineral composition used in soldering or joining lucid body.

The rule to find the moon's age, or any day of any silver, copper, tin, bismuth, and lead. In the solar month, cannot show precisely an exact account. composition there must always be some of the of the moon.

Holder on Time,

metal that is to be soldered mixed with some The cock was pleased to hear him speak so fair, higher and finer metals. Goldsmiths formerly And proud beside, as solar people are. Dryden.

made four kinds of solder, viz. solder of eight, Instead of golden fruits,

where to seven parts of silver there is one of By genial showers and solar heat supplied,

brass or copper; solder of six, where only a Unsufferable winter had defaced

sixth part is copper; solder of four, and soider Earth's blooming charms, and made a barren waste. of three: but one kind, or two at most, is now

Blackmore.

used. As mixtures of gold with a little copper SOLD, n. s. Old Fr. souldée. Military pay. melt with less heat than pure gold itself, these Obsolete.

mixtures serve as solders for gold: two pieces of But were your will her sold to entertain,

fine gold are soldered by gold that has a small And numbered be amongst knights of maidenhead, Great guerdon, well I wot, should you remain,

admixture of copper; and gold alloyed with And in her favour high be reckoned. Faerie Queene.

copper is soldered by such as is alloyed with SOL'DAN, n. s. Corrupted from sultan. The more copper. A mixture of gold and copper is emperor of the Turks.

also a solder for fine copper as well as for fine They at the soldan's chair defied the best. gold. Gold, being particularly disposed to unite

Milton. with iron, proves an excellent solder for the finer SOLDANEL, SOLDANELLA, or rindweed, in kinds of iron and steel instruments. The solder botany, a genus of plants belonging to the class used by plumbers is made of two pounds of of pentandria, and order of monogynia ; natural lead to one of block-tin. Its goodness is tried order twenty-first, preciæ : cor. campanulated; hy melting it, and pouring the bigness of a the border being very finely cut into a great crown-piece on a table; for, if good, there will many segments : Caps. unilocular, and its apex arise little bright shining stars therein. The polydentate.

solder for copper is made like that of the SOL'DER, v.a.& n. s. Fr. souder; Ital. plumbers; only with copper and tin; and for soldare, of Lat. solidare. See Soder. To unite very nice works, instead of tin, they sometimes or fasten with any kind of metallic cement: the use a quantity of silver. Solder for tin is made cement used.

of two-thirds of tin and one of lead, or of equal It booteth them not thus to solder up a broken parts of each ; but, where the work is any thing cause, whereof their first and last discourses will fall delicate, as in organ-pipes, where the juncture is asunder.

Hooker. scarcely discernible, it is made of one part of Wars 'twixt you twain would be

bismuth and three parts of pewter. The pewAs if the world should cleave, and that slain men terers use a kind of solder made with two parts should solder up the rift.

of tin and one of bismuth; this composition Shaksj.eare. Antony and Cleopatra. Thou visible god,

melts with the least heat of any solder. Silver That solderest close impossibilities,

solder is that which is made of two parts of silAnd mak'st them kiss!

Id. Timon.

ver and one of brass, and used in soldering those Learned he was in medicinal lore;

metals. Spelter solder is made of one part of For by his side a pouch he wore

brass and two of spelter or zinc, and is used by Replete with strange hermetick powder,

the braziers and coppersmiths for soldering brass, That wounds nine miles point-blank would solder. copper, and iron. Though spelter solder be

Hudibras. much cheaper than silver solder, yet workmen in The naked cynick's jar ne'er flames; if broken, many cases prefer the latter. Mr Boyle found 'Tis quickly soldered, or a new bespoken.

it to run with so moderate a heat as not to en

Dryden's Juvenal. A concave sphere of gold, filled with water, and work to be soldered; and, if well made, this

danger the melting of the delicate parts of the soldered up, has, upon pressing the sphere with great silver solder will lie even upon the ordinary force, let the water squeeze through it, and stand all kind itself; and so fill up those little cavities over its outside in multitudes of small drops like dew, without bursting or cracking the body of the that may chance to be left in the first operation. gold.

Newton's Opticks.

As to iron, it is sufficient that it be heated to a At the restoration the presbyterians, and other white heat, and the two extremities, in this state, sects, did all unite and solder up their several hes, be hammered together ; by which means they to join against the church.

Swift. become incorporated one with the other.

Solders consist merely of simple or mixed upon the solder, letting it dry; then cover it with metals, by which alone metallic bodies can be live coals, and blow, and it will run immediatefirmly united with each other. In this respectly; take it presently out of the fire, and it is it is a general rule that the solder should always done. If any thing is to be soldered in two be easier of fusion than the metal intended to be places, which cannot well be done at one time, soldered by it; next to this care must also be you must first solder with the harder'solder, and taken that the solder be as far as is possible of then with the soft; for, if it be first done with the same color with the metal that is to be sol- the soft, it will unsolder again before the other dered. For the simple solders, each of the me is fastened. To prevent the solder from running tals inay be used, according to the nature of that about the piece that is to be soldered, rub such which is to be soldered. For fine steel, copper, places over with chalk.-In the soldering either and brass work, gold and silver may be employed. of gold, silver, copper, or either of the metals In the large way, however, iron is soldered with above mentioned, there is generally used borax copper, and copper and brass with tin.

in powder, and sometimes resin. As to iron, it The most usual solders, says Dr. Ure, are the is sufficient that it be heated red-hot, and the compound, which are distinguished into two two extremities thus hammered together, by which principal classes, viz, hard and soft solders. The means they will become incorporated with each hard solders are ductile, will bear hammering, other. For the finer kinds of iron and steel inand are commonly prepared of the same metal struments, however, gold proves an excellent with that which is to be soldered, with the addi- solder. This metal will dissolve twice or thrice tion of some other, by which a greater degree of its weight of iron in a degree of heat very far fusibility is obtained, though the addition is not less than that in which iron itself melts; hence always required to be itself easier of fusion. if a small plate of gold is wrapped round the Under this head comes the hard solder for gold, parts to be joined, and afterwards melted by a which is prepared from gold and silver, or gold blow pipe, it strongly unites the pieces together and copper, or gold, silver, and copper. The without any injury to the instrument, however hard solder for silver is prepared from equal delicate. parts of silver and brass, but made easier of fu SOL'DIER, n. s. Fr. soldat, soldie, from sion by the admixture of a sixteenth part of zinc. SOL'DIERLIKE, adj. low Lat. solidarius, of The hard solder for brass is obtained from brass SOL'DIERLY, adv. solidus a piece of money, mixed with a sixth, or an eighth, or even one-half SOL'DIERSHIP, n. s.

the
pay

of a soldier. A of zinc, which may also be used for the hard sol SOL'DIERY.

fighting man; a warder of copper. It is sold in the shops in a gra- rior. All the derivatives correspond. Originally nulated form, under the name of spelter-solder. one who served for pay. Delaney in his valuable

The soft solders mell easily, but are partly and learned life of king David, vol. i. p. 97, obbrittle, and therefore cannot be hammered. Of serves, · Cæsar tells us that a usage anciently this kind are the following mixtures :—Tin and obtained among the Gauls, for those that were lead in equal parts; of still easier fusion is that in debt, oppressed by tributes, or the tyranny of consisting of bismuth, tin, and lead, equal parts; the great, to betake themselves to the service of one or two parts of bismuth of tin and lead, each some eminent man for protection ; by him they one part.

were maintained, and to him they devoted themIn the operation of soldering the surfaces of selves, under a solemn obligation to live and die the metal intended to be joined must be made with him. These were called in the Gallic lanvery clean, and applied to each other. It is usual guage, soldurii; which must be owned to be a to secure them by a ligature of iron wire, or very honorable original of the word soldier.' other similar contrivance. The solder is laid

Although at the first they had fought with beastly upon the joint, together with sal ammoniac or fury, rather than any soldierly discipline, practice had borax, or common glass, according to the degree now made them comparable to the best. Sidney. of heat intended. These additions defend the

Offering him, if he would exercise his courage in metal from oxidation. Glaziers use resin; and soldiery, he would commit some charge unto him pitch is sometimes employed. Tin-foil applied under his lieutenant Philanax. between the joints of fine brass work, first wetted

A soldier, with a strong solution of sal ammoniac, makes an Full of strange caths, and bearded like a pard, excellent juncture, care being taken to avoid too Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel, much heat.

Seeking the bubble reputation

Even in the cannon's mouth. SOLDERING, the joining and fastening to

Shakspeare.

I will maintain the word with my sword to be a gether of two pieces of the same metal, or of two different metals, by the fusion and application soldierlike word, and a word of good command.

Id. Henry IV of some metallic composition on the extremities

Thy father and myself in friendship of the metals to be joined. To solder upon sil- First tried our soldiership: he did look far ver, brass, or iron : take silver, five pennyweights; Into the service of the time, and was brass, four pennyweights; melt them together Discipled of the bravest. for soft solder, which runs soonest. Take silver

Id. All's IVell that Ends Wc!l. five pennyweights; copper, three pennyweights;

They, according to a soldierly custom, in cases o melt them together for hard solder. Beat the extremity, by interchange of a kiss by every of them solder thin, and lay it on the place to be solder- upon the swords of others, sealed a resolution to ed, which must be first fitted and bound together maintain the place.

Hayuurd. with wire as occasion requires; then take borax A hateful service, that dissolved the knees in powder, and temper it like pap, and lay it of many a soldier.

Chapman.

Id.

list;

Enemies, as well as friends, confessed that it was issue to proceed within this land according to as soldierly an action as had been performed on either martial law. After the restoration king Charles side.

Clarendon.

II. kept up about 5000 regular troops, by his I have not yet forgot I am a king :

own authority, for guards and garrisons; which If I have wronged thee charge me face to face ;

king James II. having by degrees increased to I have not yet forgot I am a soldier. Dryden's Don Sebastian.

no less than 30,000, all paid from his own cirii The Memphian soliliery,

it was made one of the articles of the Bill That swelled the Erythrean wave, when walled

of Rights that the raising or keeping a standing The unfroze waters marvellously stood. Philips. army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless

I charge not the soldiery with ignorance and con it be with consent of parliament, is against law. tempt of learning, without allowing exceptions.

Stat. 1 W. & M. stat. 2, c. 2.

Swift. But, as standing armies have of late years univerI've served my king and country lang— sally prevailed in Europe, it has been annually Take pity on a sodger.

Burns.

judged necessary by our legislature to maintain, Soldiers, in English law. The laws and even in time of peace, a standing body of troops; constitution of these kingdoms know no such who are, however, ipso facto disbanded at the erstate as that of a perpetual standing soldier, bred piration of every year, unless continued by parup to no other profession than that of war: it was liament. On an occasion within our memory the not till the reign of Henry VII. that the kings of Annual Bill did not receive the royal assent in England had so much as a guard about their due time, on a given Saturday night; and the persons. In the time of our Saxon ancestors, as whole army was virtually disbanded, or held appears from Edward the Confessor's laws, the illegally together until the Monday morning. military force of the kingdom was in the hands To keep this body of troops in order an act of of the dukes or heretochs, who were constituted parliament passes to punish mutiny and deserthrough every province and county in the king. tion, and for the better payment of the army and dom; being taken out of the principal nobility, their quarters.' This regulates the manner in and such as were most remarkable for being which they are to be dispersed among the several • sapientes, fideles, et animosi.' Their duty was innkeepers and victuallers throughout the kingto lead and regulate the English armies, and be- dom; and establishes a law martial for their gocause of this great power they were elected by vernment. By this, among other things, it is the people in their full assembly, or folkmote, in enacted, that if any officer or soldier shall excite the same manner as the sheriffs.

or join any mutiny, or, knowing of it, shall not Upon the Norman conquest the feudal law, give notice to the commanding officer; or shall the whole of which is built on military tenures, desert, or list in any other regiment, or sleep upon was introduced in all its rigor. It is not neces. his post, or leave it before he is relieved, or hold sary here to enter into the particulars of that correspondence with a rebel or enemy, or strike constitution; it is sufficient to observe that, in or use violence to his superior officer, or shall consequence, all the lands in the kingdom were disobey his lawful commands: such offender divided into what were called knight's fees, in shall suffer such punishment as a court-martial number above 60,000; and, for every knight's shall inflict, though it extend to death itself. fee, a knight or soldier (miles) was bound to at By our statute laws (still remaining in force tend the king in his wars for forty days in a though not attended to), desertion in time of war year; in which space of time, before war was re is made felony, without benefit of clergy, and the duced to a science, the campaign was generally offence is triable by a jury, and before justices finished, and the kingdom either conquered or at the common law; yet, by our militia laws, a victorious. By this means the king had, without much lighter punishment is inflicted for deserany expense, an army of 60,000 men always tion in time of peace. But our mutiny act makes ready at his command. This personal service, no such distinction: for any of the faults above however, as early as the reign of Henry II., de- mentioned are equally at all times punishable generated into pecuniary commutations or aids; with death itself, if a court-martial shall think and at length all military tenures were entirely proper. This discretionary power of the courtabolished by stat. 12 Car. II. c. 24, and other martial is indeed to be guided by the directions measures were pursued for the internal defence of the crown; which, with regard to military ofof the kingdom; which terminated in the estab- fences, has almost an absolute legislative power. lishment of the militia.

. His majesty,' says the act, “ may form articles But frequently wars rendered more veteran of war, and constitute courts-martial, with power troops and more regular discipline necessary. to try any crime by such articles, and inflict peTherefore at such times more rigorous methods nalties by sentence or judgment of the same.' were put in use for the raising of armies, and the But as soldiers, by this annual act, are in some due regulation and discipline of the soldiery; respects put in a worse condition than any other which are to be looked upon only as temporary subjects; so, by the humanity of our standing excrescences arising out of the distemper of the laws, they are in other cases put in a much betstate, and not as any part of the permanent and ter. By stat. 43 Eliz. c. 3, a weekly allowance perpetual laws. Martial law has been said to is to be raised in every county, for the relief of be, in truth and reality, no law, but something soldiers that are sick, hurt, and maimed ; and indulged rather than allowed as a law. The pe- the royal hospital at Chelsea is established for tition of right, 3 Car. I., enacted that no sols such as are worn out in their duty. Officers and dier shall be quartered on the subject without soldiers that have been in the king's service are, his own consent; and that no commission should by several statutes enacted at the close, or during

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