« ZurückWeiter »
rest in any way; be idle; inattentive; live
She waked her sleepy crew, thoughtlessly; be dead : the noun substantive And rising hasty, took a short adicu.
Id. and all the derivatives follow these senses.
Hermes o'er his head in air appeared,
His hat adorned with wings disclosed the god, If the man be poor, thou shalt not sleep with his And in his hand the sleep compelling rod. Id. pledge.
Deuteronomy. Night is indeed the province of his reign; If we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even Yet all his dark exploits no more contain so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring Than a spy taken, and a sleeper slain.
Id. with him.
Infants spend the gre est part of their time in Methought I heard a voice cry, Sleep no more !
sleep, and are seldom awake but when hunger calls Macbeth doth murder sleep ; the innocent sleep ;
for the teat, or some pain forces the mind to perceive Sleep, that knits up the ravelled sleeve of care; it.
Locke. The birth of each day's life, sore labour's bath, Those who at any time sleep without dreaming, can Balm of hurt minds, great nature's second course, never be convinced that their thoughts are for four Chief nourisher in life's feast.
hours busy without their knowing it.
Id. Shakspeare. Macbeth.
He must be no great eater, drinker, por sleeper, Steel, if thou turn thine edge, or cut not out the that will discipline his senses, and exert his mind; burley-boned clown in chines of beef ere thou sleep every worthy undertaking requires both. Grew. in thy sheath, I beseech Jove on my knees thou
A person is said to be dead to us, because we canmayest be turned into hobnails. Id. Henry VI. not raise from the grave; though he only sleeps unto
How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank! God, who can raise from the chamber of death. Here will we sit, and let the sounds of musick
Ayliffe's Parergon. Creep in our ears. Id. Merchant of Venice. We sleep over our happiness, and want to be Heaven will one day open
roused into a quick thankful sense of it. Atterbury. The king's eyes, that so long have slept upon
He would make us believe that Luther in these This noble bad man.
Id. Henry VIII. actions pretended to authority, forgetting what he had sleepily owned before.
Id. Have wished the sleeping of this business, never Watchfulness precedes too great sleepiness, and Desired it to be stirred.
Id. is the most ill-boding symptoms of a fever. Sound, musick; come, my queen, take hand with
While pensive poets painful vigils keep,
Silence; coeval with eternity,
Id. Macbeth, 'Twas one vast nothing all, and all slept fast in thee. Why did you bring these daggers from the place ?
Id. They must lie there. Go, carry them, and smear I sleeped about eight hours, and no wonder, for The sleepy grooms with blood.
Id. the physicians had mingled a sleepy potion in the I rather chuse to endure the wounds of those darts wine.
Gulliver. which envy casteth at novelty, than to go on safely SLEEP, in physiology, is that state of the body and sleepily in the easy ways of ancient mistakings. in which, though the vital functions continue, the
Raleigh. Cold calleth the spirits to succour, and therefore
senses are not affected by the ordinary impresthey cannot so well close and go together in the sions of external objects. See Dreams, MEDIhead, which is ever requisite to sleep. And, for the cine, Index, and PhysioLOGY. same cause, pain and noise hinder sleep ; and dark.
• General sleep,' says Bichat, is the assemness furthereth sleep.
Bacon. blage of particular sleeps. It is derived from Let penal laws, if they have been sleepers of long, that law of the animal life which causes in its or if grown unfit for the present time, be by wise functions a constant succession of periods of acjudges confined in the execution.
Id. tivity, and times of intermission; a law which That sleepe might sweetly seale
pointedly distinguishes it from the organic life. His restfull eyes, he entered, and in his bed Hence sleep influences the latter only in an indiIn silence took.
rect way, while it exerts its full operation on the Peace, good reader! do not weep; Peace, the lovers are asleep:
former.' There is something very just and ori
ginal, as it seems to us, in this notion, we thereThey, sweet turtles ! folded lie
fore continue our extract. In the last knot that love could tie. Let them sleep, let them sleep on,
• Numerous varieties may be remarked in this Till this stormy night be gone,
periodic state, to which all animals are exposed. And the eternal morrow dawn;
The most complete sleep is that in which the Then the curtains will be drawn,
whole external life, that is, the senses, percepAnd they waken with that light
tion, imagination, memory, judgment, locomoWhose day shall never sleep in night. Crashaw. tion, and the voice, are suspended; the least
Let such bethink them, if the sleepy drench perfect affects only a single organ. We see nuof that forgetful lake benumb not still. Milton.
merous gradations between these two extremes ; The field
sometimes the senses, perception, locomotion, To labour calls us, now with sweat imposed,
and the voice, are suspended; imagination, meThough after sleepless night. Id. Paradise Lost.
mory, and judgment remaining active; someThe giddy ship, betwixt the winds and tides Forced back and forwards, in a circle rides,
times locomotion and the voice are added to the Stunned with the different blows; then shoots latter. Such is the sleep which is agitated by amain,
dreams. A portion of the animal life still conTill counterbuffed she stops, and sleeps again. tinues active, having escaped the torpidity in
Dryden. which the rest is plunged. "Three or four senses
only may have passed into the state of repose, through the mind, as in the waking state. We and ceased to be influenced by external objects; are conscious of the same kind of transactions as then that kind of somnambulism occurs in which occupy our waking hours; we see, hear, walk, to the action of the brain, the muscles, and the talk, and perform all the customary offices of life. larynx, are added those of hearing and touch, The mind reasons, judges, performs volition, and often in a very distinct form.
experiences the various affections, as love, ha• Let us then no longer regard sleep as a con- tred, indignation, anxiety, fear, joy, even in a stant state, invariable in its phenomena. Scarcely much more lively degree, than when they are do we sleep twice together in the same way; a excited by their real causes. In dreaming, as multitude of causes modifies this condition of in the soundest sleep, the action of the external our being, by applying to a greater or smaller senses is suspended; but the internal faculties portion of the animal life the general law of are active in greater or less number. Volition intermittent action. The various modifications takes place, but the muscles do not obey the must be characterised by the functions, which will. That dreaming is a less sound species of are affected in different instances. The prin- sleep appears from the familiar fact, which has ciple is the same throughout, from the simple probably been observed by every individual ; relaxation, which follows the contraction of a viz. that the first sleep is much freer from it than voluntary muscle, to the entire suspension of the the second. We retire to rest, fatigued by the animal life. Sleep is in all cases a consequence exertions of the day, and sleep soundly for five of that general law of intermission which ex or six hours; we wake, and then fall asleep again clusively characterises this life, but the applica- towards the morning, and dream the whole time tion of which to the various external functions of this second sleep. Haller, who mentions that varies infinitely. This explanation of sleep is he had attended much to his dreams, observes, undoubtedly very different from those narrow that in perfect health he remembered only the systems which place its cause in the brain, the sensation of flying through the air, conceiving heart, the large vessels, the stomach, &c., and himself suspended above the earth and carried thus present an insulated phenomenon, often il- to a distance. lusory, as the basis of one of the great modifica The order of the images and reflections, which tions of life.
pass through our minds in sleep, and the laws of Why do light and darkness, in the natural their succession and connexions, are the saine as order of things, correspond respectively to the when we are awake. We must observe, howactivity and repose of the external functions ? ever, that these internal processes now go on by Because, during the day, the animal is sur- themselves, and are not corrected by that referrounded with a multitude of exciting causes; a ence to external objects, and that exercise of the thousand things exhaust the powers of the sen- external senses, which takes place in the waking tient and locomotive organs, fatigue them, and state. Thus we see a friend long dead, without thus prepare a relaxation, which is favored at being aware that he is not alive; and gross innight by the absence of all stimuli. Thus, in the consistencies and absurdities take place without modern way of life, in which this order is partly being remarked. The great activity of the imainverted, we assemble round us, during the gination and judgment, in the act of dreaming, is night, various stimuli, which prolong the state evident from the nature of many dreams. of watchfulness, and make the intermission of ten,' says Haller, ‘in my dreams, I seem to read the animal life coincide with the first hours of books, printed poems, histories of travels, &c.; the dawn, favoring it by removing all circum- and I even see the plants of distant regions, stances that might produce sensations. By mul- suited to their climates.' Others solve problems, tiplying around them causes of excitation, we write, make verses, &c. The reasonings which can, for a certain time, prevent the organs of the are carried on in sleep, the speeches which are animal life from obeying the law of intermission; made, &c., are often more quickly and easily but they yield at last, and nothing, after a cer- performed than when we are awake. See tain time, can suspend its influence. Exhausted, Dreams. by continued exertion, the soldier sleeps at the Some horses sleep standing; and the lowe, side of the cannon, and the criminal even amid jaw is maintained elevated in us during sleep. the tortures of the question.
The hand is often raised when any stimulus is • Let us, however, distinguish natural sleep, applied to the body, although it may not be the consequence of fatigue of the organs, from strong enough to interrupt sleep. The fact of that which is caused by affections of the brain, children expelling their urine, when the pot is as apoplexy, or concussion. In the latter case brought to them, has been already noticed. the senses are awake, they receive impressions, Many persons laugh, weep, sigh, and talk in and are affected by them as usual; but these im- their sleep: the words are indeed generally inpressions cannot be perceived by the disordered distinctly pronounced, and the sentences incombrain, and we, consequently, are not conscious plete. of them. In sleep, on the contrary, the inter Somnambulism differs from these only in demission of action affects the senses as much, and gree. The sleep-walker executes the voluntary even more than the brain.'— Recherches Physiol. motions, which arise out of the mental processes sur la Vie et la Mort, p. 34–37.
carried on in sleep. It would be endless to Sound sleep is much less common than that recount the particular cases belonging to this which is interrupted by dreams, in which a series subject. It is sufficient to mention that indiof sensations, perceptions, and reflections, passes viduals rise from bed asleep, and with their eyes
closed, and not only walk about the room or persons rest soundly in the most noisy situations. house, going up or down stairs, finding their way The proprietor of some vast iron-works, who readily, and avoiding obstacles, but pass safely slept close to them, through the incessant din of through very dangerous places, as windows, or hammers, forges, and blast-furnaces, would awake on the roofs of houses. They execute, too, still if there was any interruption during the night: more difficult feats. They dress themselves, go and a miller, being very ill and unable to sleep, out of doors, light a fire, undress and bathe, when his mill was stopped on this account, rested saddle and bridle a horse, ride, write, make well and recovered quickly when the mill was set verses, and execute all the actions of life cor a going again. rectly, and even sometimes acutely. During Hunger will prevent sleep; and cold affecting this time they are asleep; the eyes are shut, or a part of the body has the same effect. These do not see if open; the iris is not irritable. causes operated on the unfortunate women who When awakened, which is sometimes not easily lived thirty-four days in a small room overeffected, they do not remember what they have whelmed by snow, and with the slightest sustedone.
nance: they hardly slept the whole time. (Somis The proportion of time passed in sleep differs Ragionamento sopra un fatto avvenuto in Berin different individuals, and at different ages. gemoletto, &c., p. 74.) Indigestion also, and From six to nine hours may be reckoned about various bodily affections, produce sleeplessness. the average proportion. Men of active minds, One of the latest theories that has appeared whose attention is engaged in a series of interest- upon this subject has been offered to the world ing employments, sleep much less than the list- by the late Dr. Mason Good in a note appended less and indolent; and the same individual will to his translation of Lucretius, b. iv. v. 936, and spend fewer hours in this way, when strongly on this occasion, as well as on account of what interested in any pursuit, than when the stream we believe to be its perfectly satisfactory result, of life is gentle and undisturbed. The great we are glad in having an opportunity of presentFrederic of Prussia, and John Hunter, who de- ing it to our readers: the more especially as it voted every moment of their time to the most undertakes to unfold the very obscure and hitherto active employments of body and mind, generally perplexing doctrine of dreaming. It is offered took only four or five hours sleep. A rich and to us for the sake of conciseness under the follazy citizen, whose life is merely a chronicle of lowing lemmata :breakfasts, dinners, suppers, and sleep, will • I. All the fibrils of the nervous system beslumber away ten or twelve hours daily. When come fatigued, exhausted, and torpid, in proporany subject strongly occupies us, it keeps us tion to the length and violence of their exertion, awake in spite of ourselves. These phenomena and recover their power alone by rest. The are consistent with what we have already said; weariness and debility of the muscles of the the animal organs, when the period of their inter- arms and legs, after extreme exercise, or exercise mission and repose has arrived, are kept in ac to which they have not been accustomed, may be tivity by new and unusual causes of excitation, adduced as a sufficient proof of this position. and thus the ordinary period of sleep may be The nervous fibrils of the external organs of passed over, and its ordinary quantity much di- sense are necessarily subject to the same effect; minished. When a person, who has thus been we peither hear, nor see, nor taste, nor feel, with kept long awake by the occupation of his mind the same accuracy, after any or all these variwith important and urgent subjects, at last falls ous organs have been long upon the full stretch asleep, the slightest irritation calls up in the of action, with which we do on their first exerfancy all the trains of thought which have just tion in the morning. Increase or prolongate their occupied us, and sets at work again all the in- action, and their power will be still farther obternal machinery which has hardly yet become tunded, till at length, like an over-wearied limb, quiet; the sleep, under such circumstances, is they become perfectly lethargic, and give no acimperfect, and much disturbed by dreaming. count of whatever is occurring around us; and
The ordinary period of sleep may be pro- it is this uniform lethargy, torpidity, or inaction tracted by unusual excitation ; but the effect is of all the external senses, which we denominate lost after a certain time, and sleep comes on sleep. By the exercise of the will, or any other under circumstances which appear at first most strong stimulus, this sleep, or sensorial torpidity, unfavorable to it. An eye-witness reports, that may be postponed : and vice verså, by the consome boys, completely exhausted by exertion, sent of the will, it may be expedited. fell asleep amid all the tumult of the battle of the • II. The vital organs are far less subject to the Nile; and other instances are known of soldiers influence of stimulants of every kind than the sleeping amid discharges of artillery, and all the organs of external sense : their actions are hence tumult of war. Couriers are known to sleep on far more equable and permanent; they are selhorseback, and coachmen on their coaches. A dom wearied or exhausted, and, of course, selgentleman, who saw the fact, reported to the dom sleep or become torpid. From the applicawriter of this article that many soldiers, in the tion of very strong stimulants, however, whether retreat of Sir John Moore, fell asleep on the external as those of severe pain or labor, or inmarch, and continued walking on. Even stripes ternal, as those of disease or excessive grief, such and tortures cannot keep off sleep beyond a cer- fatigue or exhaustion actually takes place; and tain time; but it then indicates the greatest ex when the exhaustion is complete, they also, like haustion, and consequently affords an unfavorable the organs of ex ernal sense, sleep or become prognosis. Noises at first prevent us from torpid: in other words, death ensues, and the sleeping, but their influence soon ceases, and spirit separates from the body. The resemblance Vol. XX.
between death and sleep, therefore, is not less instance. If such torpidity take place before the correct, upon the principles of physiology, than vital organs are totally exhausted, it is confined it is beautiful among the images of poetry. to the external organs of sense alone, which Sleep is the death or torpidity of the organs of hereby progressively recover their accustomed external sense, while the vital functions continue activity and vigor: if the vital organs be themtheir accustomed actions : death is the sleep or selves altogether exhausted before the torpidity torpidity of the whole.
ensues, it is propagated to themselves, and the * III. Every organ of the animal frame re- consequent sleep is the sleep of death. Violent covers from its fatigue or torpidity by rest, pro- and long continued labor, as an external stimuvided the principle of life, that is to say, the lus, violent and long continued study, violent and action of the vital organs, continues. Hence the continued fevers, violent and continued grief, a organs of external sense, in a definite period of very inordinate debauch, as internal stimuli, are time, and a period generally proportioned to the equally liable to produce effects bere specified: degree of their exhaustion, re-acquire their accus- and the one or the other will take place in protomed vigor, are alive to the influence of their portion to their excess and extremity. appropriate stimulants, and the smallest excite • VIII. If the stimulus affecting the external ment applied to any one of them, throws the organs of sense, at which end soever it be apwhole once more into action : in other words the plied, be intolerably pungent or forcible, the man awakes from sleep, he rouses himself from sensorial power is exhausted immediately, and the temporary death of the organs of external the organ directly affected beomes instantly torpid. sense. Were it possible for life to continue dur. Hence sounds, insufferably loud, make us deaf; ing a total rest or torpidity of the vital organs, excessive light makes us blind; acrimonious as it does during that of the organs of external smells, or savors, render us incapable of smelling sense, there is no doubt that these also would, or tasting; and hence an abrupt shock of joy or in time, recover from their exhaustion, and that grief, a sudden and intense paroxysm of fever, the man would, in like manner, awake from the large quantities of wine or spirits, as internal total torpidity, the sleep or death of the entire causes, produce coma, palsy, apoplexy, which frame : but this is impossible; the soul has now are only so many modifications of the sleep or deserted the body: a change in every organ en- torpidity of the nervous tubules of the external sues, and the whole system, instead of reviving, organs of sense. If the same abrupt and violent becomes a prey to corruption and ruin. cause be sufficiently powerful to act upon the
• IV. When the organs of external sense have vital organs as well as those of external sensation, recruited themselves by repose, the stimulus that the torpidity becomes universal, and the sleep rouses the one, rouses, at the same time, the rest, induced is once more the sleep of death. from the habit of association. From the same * IX. As violent stimulants produce sudden habit the torpidity produced by exhaustion, in and irrecoverable torpidity, either general or lo any single organ, is propagated through every cal, according to the mode and place of applicaother, and the sleep becomes common to the whole: tion, stimulants less violent induce a tendency to although it is also unquestionable that the whole the same effect. Hence the nostrils, nut accusare also fatigued, or partially exhausted, from the tomed to snuff, are more forcibly agitated by its fact that the general stock of sensorial power has application than those that are so; the eyes of been borrowed, in a considerable degree, from persons accustomed to sleep in the glare of the the rest, and expended at a single outlet. sun find no inconvenience from exposure to the
• V. The nervous fibrils, or rather tubules light of the morning ; while those who always of the external organs of sense, are equally af- sleep in total darkness are awoke by the return fected, and of course become equally exhausted, of day-light. And so of the rest. whether the stimulus be applied at either end; • X. On this account a very small portion of to wit, the end terminating externally, or that light, of sound, or of exercise, even the breath of connected with the brain; and hence, internal the air alone, are each of them powerful stimuexcitements, as those of severe study, intense lants upon infants, because unaccustomed to grief, undue eating and drinking, or febrile dis- them : hence they sleep much and soundly; so eases, produce the same effect as causes operat- soundly, indeed, that no common stimulus is able, ing from without.
for a long time, to arouse them from their tor. *VI. In either case the sleep or torpidity pro- pidity. In other words, it requires a period of duced is sound or healthy, under a certain de- many hours for the external organs to recover gree of exhaustion alone: hence mankind sleep from their exhaustion. The smallest undulatory most refreshingly after moderate or accustomed motion in the uterus, and the very action of the fatigue, moderate or accustomed study, moderate vital organs themselves, are, perhaps, sufficient or accustomed meals.
to wear out, from time to time, the sensorial • VII. If the stimulus be a little increased be power of the fætus on its first formation : and yond this medium, the vital organs themselves hence the fætus sleeps, with few intermissions, become affected, an undue and morbid proportion through the whole period of parturition. of sensorial power is secreted, which postpones
• XI. For the same reason persons in an adthe torpidity or sleep for the present, but at the vanced age are far less impressed by common expense of the general strength of the whole sys- stimulants than in any former period of their tem, which, in consequence, becomes gradually lives : from a long series of exposure to their more exhausted and debilitated : whence a far operation their organs are become more torpid, deeper torpidity, or sleep, must necessarily ensue and hence they require less sleep, and, at the at length, than would have occurred in the first same time, less food. The vital organs, as well
as those of external sense, partake of the same pidity or sleep, not only at all times when awake, disposition. They are, in consequence, less lia- but almost at all times during sleep, and is the ble to all violent or infiammatory disorders : but, immediate and necessary cause of our dreaming. the general torpidity increasing, the heart is sti • III. Thought can only be exercised upon mulated with great difficulty ; a smaller portion objects introduced into the brain, or general of sensorial power is secreted from the gases of sensorium, by the organs of external sensation; the atmosphere; a smaller portion of food is and hence the bent or chief direction of our thrown into the system from the stomach; the thoughts, whether sleeping or waking, must be pulse, and every other power, gradually declines, derived from those objects which principally imtill, at length, if ever man were to die of old age press us, be the causes of such impression what alone, he would die from a total torpidity, or they may. The train of thoughts, then, which paralysis of the heart. But debilitated or torpi- recurs from habit alone, as in sleep or total refied as every organ is become, long before such tirement from the world, must generally be of a period can arrive, the frame at large is incapa- this description; in the former case, however, by ble of resisting the smallest of those trivial shocks no means correctly or perfectly, because there to which man is daily exposed, either internal or are others, also, which have a tendency to recur, external; or, in other words, there is no accu- and neither the will nor the senses are in action mulation of sensorial power to supply the tem to repress them ; whence proceeds a combination porary demand, and the man dies from sudden of thoughts or ideas, sometimes in a small deexhaustion rather than from progressive paralysis. gree incongruous, and at other times most wild
Upon this theory I might easily and obviously and heterogeneous; occasionally, indeed, so fearsolve a variety of problems which have hitherto ful and extravagant as to stimulate the senses eluded all satisfactory explanation. I shall only themselves into a sudden renewal of their funcadd to this outline of the theory of sleep a few tions; and, consequently, to break off abruptly observations upon that of dreaming, which is so the sleep into which they were thrown. intimately connected with it, as well in nature as IV. If the action of the nervous tubules of in the poem before us.
the brain, thus continued from habit, and pro'I. A certain but a very small degree of sti- ducing our dreams, be less powerful during mulus applied, perhaps, to any nerve whatever sleep than is sufficient to rouse the senses geneof the human body, instead of exhausting it seems rally, it may, nevertheless, at times be powerful to afford it pleasure; or, at least, the nerve is enough to excite into their accustomed exercise able to endure it without becoming torpid, or, the muscles of those organs or members which which is the same thing, requiring sleep or rest. are more immediately connected with the train The orbicular motion of the lips, to an infant ac of our dreams, or incoherent thoughts, while, customed to suck, is a source of so much com- nevertheless, every other organ or member still fort, and attended with so little exhaustion, that, remains torpid. Hence some persons talk, and whether sleeping or waking, it will generally be others walk in their sleep, without being apprised, found mimicking the act of sucking, when at a on their waking, of any such occurrence. distance from its nurse, and perhaps not thinking • V. Whatever be the set of nerves that have of such action itself. A person who, from habit, chiefly become exhausted from labor or stimulus has acquired a particular motion of any one of of the day, the rest, as I have already noticed, his limbs, a twirl of the fingers, or a swinging partake of the same torpidity from long habit of one leg over the other, perseveres in such motion association; exhausted in some degree, also, from habit alone, and feels no torpidity or ex themselves by the portion of sensorial power haustion in the nerves that are excited, although which, as from a common stock, they have conit might be intolerably fatiguing to another who tributed towards the support of the debilitated has never acquired the same custom.
organ. But it sometimes happens, either from II. It is probable that both thought and the disease or peculiarity of constitution, that all the action of the vital organs are stimulants of this external organs of sense do not associate in their precise character, if not in their commencement, actions, or yield alike to the general torpidity of at least very shortly afterwards : that nearly, if the frame; and that the auditory, the optical, or not altogether, from the first they are equally some other set of nerves, are in vigor, while all pleasing and gentle in their degree of action; the other nerves of the external senses remain and that hence they equally, also, continue with- torpid; as it may do also, that an entire organ out exhausting us, except when unduly roused; of external sense, like the muscles of an indiviand form a habit too pertinacious and invincible dual member, as observed in the last paragraph, to be broken through by any exertions whatever. may be awoke or restimulated into action by the
. Thought is, then, to the brain, that which the peculiar force and bent of the dream, while alı inuscular habits I have just spoken of are to the the rest continue lethargic. muscles which are the subjects of them. Both • VI. If the organ of external sense thus afcontinue alike, whether we be reflecting upon the fected be that of hearing, a phenomenon will action, or whether we be not: but the habit of occur, which is specifically noted by our poet in thinking is so much older, and, consequently, so book V., v. 1182, but which, I believe, has never much deeper rooted than that of any kind of ges- hitherto been satisfactorily explained; the ticulation, that, as I have just observed, it is im- dreamer must necessarily hear a bye-stander possible for us to break through it by the utmost who speaks to him ; and if, from the cause speefforts of the will: whence it accompanies us, cified above, he should happen to have talked excepting when the brain is totally exhausted, in his sleep, so as to give the bye-stander some and consequently thrown into a profound tor clue into the train of thoughts of which his