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As the precipitate of muriate of silver is very ceases to increase, and washed several times perceptible, the nitric solution of silver is used with small quantities of water. as a test of the presence of muriatic acid in wa If a very acid solution of silver previously ters; for a drop of this solution poured into such made be employed, it must be heated gently, waters will cause a very evident cloudiness. The and the alcohol then added. The heat excited solution of silver is also used by assayers to by the mixture, which is to be made gradually, purify the nitric acid from any admixture of soon occasions a considerable ebullition, and the muriatic acid. In this state they call it precipi- powder immediately precipitates. It would be tated aquafortis. M. Chenevix found that a superfluous to reinind the chemist that the chlorate of silver may be formed by passing a mixture of alcohol with hot nitric acid is liable current of chlorine through water in which oxide to occasion accidents, and that it is consequently of silver is suspended ; or by digesting phos- prudent to operate on small quantities. This phate of silver with hyperoxymuriate of alumina. powder has the following properties :—It is white It requires only two parts of hot water for its and crystalline; but the size and lustre of the solution, and this affords, on cooling, small crystals are variable. Light alters it a little. white, opaque, rhomboidal crystals. It is like- Heat, a blow, or long continued friction, causes wise somewhat soluble in alcohol. Half a grain, it to inflame with a brisk detonation. Pressure mixed with half as much sulphur, and struck or alone, if it be not very powerful, has no effect on rubbed, detonates with a loud report and a vivid it. It likewise detonates by the electric spark. flash,

It is slightly soluble in water. It has a very Compounds of silver with other acids are best strong metallic taste. Concentrated sulphuric formed by precipitation from its solution in ni- acid occasions it to take fire, and is thrown by it tric acid; either by the acid itself, or by its alka- to a considerable distance. Dilute sulphuric line salts. Phosphate of silver is a dense white acid appears to decompose it slowly. precipitate, insoluble in water, but soluble in an Process for separating silver from copper by excess of its acid. By heat it fuses into a green- Mr. Keir.—Put the pieces of plated metal into ish opaque glass. Carbonate of silver is a white an earthen glazed pan; pour upon them some insoluble powder, which is blackened by light. acid liquor, which inay be in the proportion of The fluate and borate are equally soluble. Dis- eight or ten pounds of sulphuric acid to one tilled vinegar readily dissolves the oxide of silver, pound of nitre; stir them about, that the surfaces and the solution affords long white needles, easily may be frequently exposed to fresh liquor, and crystallised. See Salts.

assist the action by a gentle heat from 100° to The precipitates of silver, which are formed 200° of Fahrenheit's scale. When the liquor is by the addition of alkalis or earths, are all re- nearly saturated, the silver is to be precipitated ducible by mere heat, without the addition of from it by common salt, which forms a muriate any combustible substance. A detonating pow- of silver, easily reducible by melting it in a cruder has been sold lately at Paris as an object of cible with a sufficient quantity of potash; and, amusement. It is enclosed between the folds of lastly, by refining the melted silver, if necessary, a card cut in two lengthwise, the powder being with a little nitre thrown upon it. In this manplaced at one end, and the other being notched, ner the silver will be obtained sufficiently pure, that it may be distinguished. If it be taken by and the copper will remain unchanged. Otherthe notched end, and the other be held over the wise, the silver may be precipitated in its metallic flatne of a candle, it soon detonates, with a sharp state, by adding to the solution of silver a few of sound, and violent flame. The card is torn, and the pieces of copper, and a sufficient quantity changed brown; and the part in contact with of water to enable the liquor to act upon the the composition is covered with a slight metallic copper. coating of a grayish-white color.

Mr. Andrew Thomson, of Banchory, has reThis compound, which M. Descotils calls commended the following method of purifying detonating silver, to distinguish it from the ful. silver, which he observes is equally applicable minating silver of M. Berthollet, may be made to gold. The impure silver is to be faited out by dissolving silver in pure nitric acid, and to the thịnness of a shilling, coiled up spirally, pouring into the solution, while it is going on, and put into a crucible, the bottom of which is a sufficient quantity of rectified alcohol ; or by covered with black oxide of manganese. More adding alcohol to a nitric solution of silver with of this oxide is then to be added, till the silver considerable excess of acid. In the first case, is completely covered, and all the spaces between the nitric acid into which the silver is put must the coils filled. A cover is then to be luted on, be heated gently, till the solution commences, with a small hole for the escape of the gas; and that is, till the first bubbles begin to appear. after it has been exposed to a heat sufficient to It is then to be removed from ihe fire, and a melt silver, for about a quarter of an hour, the sufficient quantity of alcohol to be added imme- whole of the alloy will be oxidised. The condiately, to prevent the evolution of any nitrous tents of this crucible are then to be poured into a vapours. The mixture of the two liquors occa- larger, into which about three times as much sions an extrication of heat; the effervescence powdered green glass has been previously .put; quickly recommences, without any nitrous gas a cover luted on as before, to prevent the access being disengaged; and it gradually increases, of any inflammable matter; and the crucible exemitting at the same time a strong smell of nitric posed to a heat sufficiently strong to melt the ether. In a short time the liquor becomes tur- glass very fluid. On cooling and breaking the bid, and a very heavy, white, crystalline powder crucible, the silver will be found reduced at the falls down, which must be separated when it bottom, and perfectly pure.

Sulphur combines very easily with silver, if Silver very readily combines with mercury. thin plates, imbedded in it, be exposed to a heat A very sensible degree of heat is produced when sufficient to melt the sulphur. The sulphuret is silver leaf and mercury are kneaded together in of a deep violet color, approaching to black, the palm of the hand. With lead it forms a soft with a degree of metallic lustre, opaque, brittle, mass, less sonorous than pure silver. With and soft. It is more fusible than silver, and copper it becomes harder and more sonorous, this in proportion to the quantity of sulphur at the same time that it remains sufficiently duccombined with it. A strong heat expels part of tile: this mixture is used in the British coinage. the sulphur. Sulphureted hydrogen soon tar- Twelve parts and one-third of silver, alloyed nishes the surface of polished silver, and forms with one of copper, form the compound called on it a thin layer of sulphuret.

standard silver. The mixture of silver and iron The alkaline sulphurets combine with it by has been little examined. With tin it forms a heat, and form a compound soluble in water. compound, which, like that of gold with the same Acids precipitate sulphuret of silver from this metal, has been said to be brittle, however small solution.

the proportion; though there is probably as little Phosphorus lest in a nitric solution of silver foundation for the assertion in the one case as in becomes covered with the metal in a dentritic the other. With bismuth, arsenic, zinc, and anform. By boiling, this becomes first white, then timony, it forms brittle compounds. It does not a light black mass, and is ultimately converted unite with nickel. The compound of silver and into a light brown phosphuret. The best method tungsten, in the proportion of two of the former of forming a phosphuret of silver is Pelletier's, to one of the latter, was extended under the which consists in mixing phosphoric acid and hạmmer during a few strokes; but afterwards charcoal with the metal, and exposing the mix- split in pieces. See Iron. ture to heat.

"The uses of silver are well known: it is chiefly Most metallic substances precipitate silver in applied to the forming of various utensils for dothe metallic state from its solution. The assayers mestic use, and as the medium of exchange in make use of copper to separate the silver from money. · Its disposition to assume a black color the nitric acid used in the process of parting. by tarnishing, and its softness, appear to be the

The precipitation of silver by mercury is very chief objection to its use in the construction of slow, and produces a peculiar symmetrical ar- graduated instruments for astronomical and other rangement, called the tree of Diana. In this, as purposes, in which a good white metal would be in all precipitations, the peculiar form may be à desirable acquisition. The nitrate of silver, affected by a variety of concomitant circum- besides its great use as a caustic, has been emstances; for which reason one process usually ployed as a medicine, it is said with good success, succeeds better than another. Make an amalgam, in epileptic cases, in the dose of one-twentieth of without heat, of four drachms of leaf silver with a grain, gradually increased to one-eighth, three two drachms of mercury. Dissolve the amalgam times a-day. Dr. Cappe gave it in a dose of in four ounces or a sufficient quantity of pure one-fourth of a grain three times a day, and nitric acid of a moderate strength; dilute this afterwards four times, in what he supposed to solution in about a pound and a half of distilled be a case of angina pectoris, in a stout man of water; agitate the mixture, and preserve it for sixty, whom he cured. He took it for two or use in a glass bottle with a ground stopper. three months. Dr. Cappe imagines that it has When this preparation is to be used, the quan- the effect of increasing the nervous power, by tity of one ounce is put into a phial, and the size which muscular action is excited. of a pea of amalgam of gold, or silver, as soft as The frequent employment in chemical rebutter, is to be added; after which the vessel searches of nitrate of silver as a re-agent for must be left at rest. Soon afterwards, small combined chlorine, occasions the production of filaments appear to issue out of the ball of amal- a considerable quantity of the chiloride (muriate) gam, wbich quickly increase, and shoot out of silver, which is usually reconverted into metal branches in the form of shrubs.

by fusion with potash in a crucible. But, as Silver unites with gold by fusion, and forms a much of the silver is lost in this way, it is better pale alloy, as has been already mentioned in to expose the following mixture to the requisite treating of that metal. With platina it forms a heat:hard mixture, rather yellower than silver itself, and of difficult fusion. The two metals do not

Chloride of silver

100

19.8 unite well. Silver melted with one-tenth part

Dry quicklime
Powdered charcoal

4.2 of crude platina, from which the ferruginous particles had been separated by a strong magnet,

An easier method, however, is to put the could not be rendered clear of scabrous parts, metallic chloride into a pot of clean iron or zinc, though it was repeatedly fused, poured out, and to cover it with a small quantity of water, and laminated between rollers. It was then fused, to add a little sulphuric or muriatic acid. The and suffered to cool in the crucible, but with no reduction of the chloride of silver by the zinc or better success. After it had been formed, by iron is an operation which it is curious to obrolling and hammering, into a spoon for blow- serve, especially with the chloride in mass (lunapipe experiments, it was exposed to a low red cornea). It begins first at the points of contact, heat, and became rough and blistered over its and speedily extends, in the form of ramifications, whole surface. The quantities were 100 grains over its whole surface, and into its interior. of silver, and ten grains of platina. Nitre was. Hence, in less than an hour, considerable pieces added during the fusions.

of horn-silver are entirely reduced. If the mass

operated on be considerable, the temperature chair by Theodatus king of the Goths, A. D: rises, and accelerates the revivification. On the 536; but this appointment was not considered small scale, artificial heat may be applied.- as canonical. He was afterwards, however, duly Ann. de Chimie, July 1820.

elected. But the empress Theodora persecuted SILVERING. There are various methods of him violently, till she got him banished into Lygiving a covering of silver or silvery aspect to cia. He died in the isle of Palmaria, in 538, the surfaces of bodies. The application of silver according to Dr. Watkins, or 540, as Marcell leaf is made in the same way as that of gold, for says; and was sainted for his sufferings. which see GILDING.

SILVESTER I. pope of Rome, succeeded Copper may be silvered over by rubbing it pope Miltiades, A. D. 314. He sent deputies to with the following powder: two drachms of the councils of Aries and of Nice. He died A. D. tartar, the same quantity of common salt, and 335. half a drachm of alum, are mixed with fifteen or SilvesTER II. rose by his merit from obscurity twenty grains of silver precipitated from nitric to the highest dignities in the church.

He was acid by copper. The surface of the copper be one of the most learned men of his age, being comes white when rubbed with this powder, well versed in the mathematics and other which may afterwards be brushed off and po- sciences. In 992 he was made archbishop of lished with leather.

Rheims; and on the death of Gregory V., in Saddlers and harness-makers cover their wares 999, was raised to the triple crown. lle died in with tin for ordinary uses, but a cheap silvering 1003. is used for this purpose as follows: half an SILVIUM, in ancient geography: 1. A town ounce of silver that has been precipitated from of Istria; 2. A town of Apulia, now called Goraquafortis by the addition of copper, common goglione.—Plin. iii. c. 11. salt and muriate of ammonia of each two ounces, SILVIUS, or Sylvius (Æneas). See Pius II. and one drachm of corrosive muriate of mercury, SILURES, an ancient nation of South Britain, are triturated together, and made into a paste who inhabited South Wales. with water; with this, copper utensils of every Silures, an ancient name of the Scilly Islands. kind, that have been previously boiled with tar- See Scilly. tar and alum, are rubbed, after which they are SILURIS, in ichthyology, a genus belonging made red-hot, and then polished. The intention to the order of pisces abdominales. The head is of this process appears to be little more than to naked; the mouth set round with hairy filaments; apply the silver in state of minute division to the bronchiæ have from four to fourteen rays; the clean surface of the copper, and afterwards to the ray of the pectoral fins, or the first dorsal fix it there by fusion; and accordingly this sil- one, is prickly, and dentated backwards. There vering may be effected by using the argentine are twenty-one species, most of them natives of precipitate here mentioned, with borax or mer- the Indian and American seas. 1. S. clarias of cury, and causing it to adhere by fusion. Linnæus, called scheilan by the Arabians, is

The dial-plates of clocks, the scales of baro- mentioned by Hasselquist. If it pricks one with meters, and other similar articles, are silvered by the bone of the breast fin, it is dangerous ; and rubbing upon them a mixture of muriate of silver, our author saw the cook of a Swedish merchant sea salt, and tartar, and afterward carefully wash- ship die of the poison communicated by the ing off the saline matter with water. In this priek of one of these fish. 2. S. electricus is a operation, the silver is precipitated from the most extraordinary species, described under the muriatic acid, which unites with part of the article ELECTRICITY. coppery surface. It is not durable, but may be SI’MAR, n. s. Fr. simarre. A woman's robe. improved by heating the article, and repeating The ladies dressed in rich simars were seen, the operation till the covering seems sufficiently Of Florence sattin, flowered with white and green. thick. The silvering of pins is effected by boil

Dryden. ing them with tin filings and tartar.

SIMBIRSK, a town and government of EuroHollow mirrors or globes are silvered by an pean Russia, on the borders of Asia. It lies amalgam, consisting of one part by weight of along both sides of the Wolga, between 52° and bismuth, half a part of lead, the same quantity 57° of N. lat., having the government of Kasan of pure tin, and two parts mercury. The solid on the north, and that of Saratov on the south. metals are to be firsi fused together, and the Its superficial extent is calculated at 30,000 mercury added when the mixture is almost cold. square miles ; its population at 850,000. The A very gentle heat is sufficient to fuse this rivers are the Wolga and Sura, and the lakes are amalgam. In this state it is poured into a clean numerous. The majority profess the religion of glass globe intended to be silvered, by means of the Greek church, but a number are Mahometans a paper funnel, which reaches to the bottom. and Arminians. At a certain temperature, it will stick to the SIMBRIVIUS, or SIMBRUVIUS, in ancient glass, which by a proper motion may thus be geography, a lake of Italy, in Latium, formed by silvered completely, and the superfluous amal- the Anio. Tac. 14, An. 22. gam poured out. The appearance of these toys SIMENA, a town of Lycia, near Chimæra. is varied by using glass of different colors, such SIMEON, Heb. rynv, i. e. Hearing, the seas yellow, blue, or green.

cond son of Jacob, by Leah, and the most SILVERUS (St.), pope of Rome, was the son wicked of all the twelve patriarchs. Besides his of pope Hormisdos, who had been married be- bloody combination with Levi, in the massacre fore he entered into orders. On the death of of the Shechemites (see Levi and Shechem) he pope Agapetus I. he was placed in the pontifical is said by the rabbies to have been the person

who proposed to murder Joseph; and this seems of Sicily, near a river so nained; where Virgil the more probable from Joseph's singling him says the gods Palici were born. See Palici. out, binding him, and detaining him as a pri- Virg. Æn. ix. v. 584. soner and hostage, till the rest should return with SÍMI, or Symi, an island in the MediterraneBenjamin : Gen. xlii. 24. He had six sons, one an, between Rhodes and the continent of Asia, of whom, Ohad, seems to have died without six miles north of Rhodes. Long. 45° 19' E. of issue.

Ferro, lat. 36° 36' N. SIMEon, or the SIMEONITES, the descendants SIMIA, the monkey, a genus of quadrupeds, of the above patriarch, one of the twelve tribes belonging to the class of mammalia, and order of Israel. When they came out of Egypt, they of primates, in the Linnæan system, but by Mr. amounted to 59,300 men fit to bear arms, under Pennant arranged under the digitated quadruShelumiel, their chief ; but they never made any peds. According to the Linnæan system, the distinguished figure, either during the republic or characteristics of this genus are these: There are under the monarchy. They appear in general to four close set fore-teeth in each jaw; single tusks have been as deeply guilty, in the criminal affair on each side in both jaws, which are longer than of Peor, as Zimri their prince; and the 25,000 the rest, and somewhat remote from them. The cut off in that affair had been mostly of this grinders are obtuse, and the feet are formed like tribe ; for at the enumeration, immediately after, hands. Mr. Pennant gives the following generic their number was decreased to 22,000. See Num. description of the simia: There are four cutting xxv, and xxvi. 14, 15. This their recent wicked- teeth in each jaw, and two canine. Each of the ness appears to have been the reason why Moses feet is formed like a hand, generally with flat omitted them in the farewell blessing which he nails, and, except in one instance, has four finpronounced upon all the other tribes: Deut. xxxiii. gers and a thumb. There are eyebrows both It is said that the parrow limits of their inherit- above and below. They are a numerous race; ance compelled them to become scribes, and but almost all confined to the torrid zone. Mr. disperse themselves among the other tribes, ac- Kerr enumerates sixty-five species, and twenty cording to the curse denounced upon their father varieties. They fill the woods of Africa from by Jacob.

Senegal to the Cape, and thence to Ethiopia. Simeon, a respectable old man of Jerusalem, They are found in all parts of India and its who waited for the fulfilment of the prophecies islands; in Cochin-China, in the south of China, respecting the coming of the Messiah, whom he and in Japan; one species is met with in Arabia; had a divine intimation that he should live to and they swarm in the forests of South America, see, and who bore public testimony to our Sa- from the isthmus of Darien as far as Paraguay. viour in the temple in his infancy: Luke ii. 25— They are lively, agile, full of frolic, chatter and 35. From his speech, or address of thanks to grimace. From the structure of their members, God, on that occasion, and particularly from his they have many actions in common with the huprophetic address to the mother of Jesus, he ap- man kind. Most of them are fierce and untamepears to have had much clearer views of the na- able; some are of a milder nature, and will show iure of the Messiah's kingdom than the most of a degree of attachment; but in general they are his countrymen of that age. But these too, endowed with mischievous propensities; and are perhaps, he had by immediate revelation. Tra- filthy, obscene, lascivious, and thieving. They dition says that Simeon was the son of the fa- inhabit the woods, and live on trees; feeding on mous Hillel, president of the Jewish Sanhedrim, fruits, leaves, and insects. In general they are and that he taught the celebrated Gamaliel. See gregarious, going in vast companies: but the Hillel.

different species never mix with each other, Simeon of Durham, an English historian, the always keeping apart, and in different quarters. contemporary of William of Malmesbury, who They leap with vast activity from tree to tree, took great pains in collecting the monuments of even when loaded with their young, which cling the history of England, especially in the north, to them. They are the prey of leopards and after they had been scattered by the Danes. others of the fèline race; and of serpents, which From these he composed a history of the kings of pursue them to the summits of the trees, and England, from A. D. 616 to 1130; with some swallow them entire. They are not carnivorous, smaller historical pieces. Simeon both studied but for mischief's sake will rob the nests of birds and taught the sciences, and particularly the ma of the eggs and young.

In the countries where thematics, at Oxford; and became precentor of they most abound, the sagacity of the feathered the church at Durham, where he died. His his- tribe is marvellously shown in their contrivances tory was continued by John, prior of Hexham, to to fix the nest beyond the reach of these invaders. A. D. 1156.

The simia being more numerous in their species Simeon STILITES, or Stylites, a native of than any other animals, and differing greatly in Syria, an anchoret, the founder of a sect, and the their appearances, it seemed necessary to methoinventor of a ridiculous discipline, practised by dise and subdivide the genus. Accordingly Mr. him and his followers, called Stilites, or Pillar Ray first distributed them into three classes. 1. Saints, in the fifth century; Simeon passed Simiæ, apes, such as want tails. 2. Cercopitheci, thirty-seven years of bis useless life on the top monkeys, such as have tails. 3. Papiones, baof these pillars; the first of which was six cubits boons, those with short tails; to distinguish them high; the second twelve; the third twenty-two; from the common monkeys, which have very long the fourth thirty-six; and the last forty cubits ones. The principal marks by which the species high.

of this genus are distinguishable from each other SIMETHUS, or SYMTHUS, an ancient town are derived, 1st, from the tail, which is either

rica.

long, short, or altogether wanting; or is straight 4. S. cercop. cynocephalus, the dog-headed or prehensile; 2dly, from the buttocks, which monkey, has no beard, and is of a yellow color; are naked, and furnished with callosities, or are the muzzle is long; the tail long and straight, covered with hair; 3dly, from the nails, which and the buttocks naked. It is a native of Africa. are fat and rounded like those of man, or 5. S. cercop. cynomologus, the macaque of sharp-pointed like the claws of beasts in general; Buffon, or hare-lipped monkey of Pennant, has 4thly, from the presence or absence of a beard on no beard ; the nostrils are thick and divided; the the chin; and, 5thly, from the cheeks being tail is long and arched, and the buttocks are provided with, or wanting, pouches in their un- naked. He has cheek pouches, and callosities on der parts.

For greater convenience, the species the buttocks. His tail is from eighteen to twenty of this genus, wbich are very numerous, are ar- inches long. His head is large, bis muzzle very ranged under five subordinate divisions, consi- thick, and his face naked, livid, and wrinkled. dered as distinct genera by some authors, and His ears are covered with hair. His body is not without reason. Three of these subdivisions short and squat, and his limbs thick and short. were adopted by Linnæus; but Dr. Gmelin, The hair on the superior parts of his body is of following Buffon, has added other two, taken a greenish-ash color, and of a yellowish-gray on from the third division of his great precursor. the breast and belly. He has a small crest of These are the simiæ, papiones, cercopitheci, sa- hair on the top of the head. He walks on four paji, and sagoines, which we proceed to describe and sometimes on two feet. The length of his in their alphabetical order :

body, comprehending that of the he is about I. S. apes have no tails. The visage is flat; eighteen or twenty inches. They are mild and The teeth, hands, fingers, feet, toes, and nails, re- tractable, but dirty. semble those of man, and they walk naturally 6. S. cercop. cynosuros, the dog-tailed monerect. This division includes the simiæ, or apes key, has a long tail and no beard ; the face properly so called, which are not found in Ame- is long, with a sooty-colored forehead, and a

whitish band over the eyes; the male parts are II. S. cercopitheci, monkeys, have long tails, highly colored; the nails are convex. It is which are not prehensile; the under parts of their aboui the size of a middling dog; two feet high cheeks are furnished with pouches, in which they when erect. The species are deceitful, restless, can keep their victuals; the partition between the and libidinous.-Kerr. nostrils is thin, and the apertures are, like those 7. S. cercop. diana, the spotted monkey, has of man, placed in the under part of the nose; the a long white beard : the color of the upper parts buttocks are naked and provided with callosities. of the body reddish, as if they had been singed, These animals, which are never found native in marked with white specks; the belly and chin America, are the cercopitheci and cußol of the whitish; tail very long; is a species of a middle ancients.

size. It inhabits Guinea and Congo, according 1. S. cercopithecus æthiops, the mangabey, or to Marcgrave; the Congese call it exquima. M. white-eyed monkey, has a long, black, naked, de Buffon denies it to be of that country; but and dog-like face; the upper eye-lids of a pure from the circumstance of the curl in its tail, in white ; ears black, and like the human : no Marcgrave's figure, and the description of some canine teeth; hairs on the sides of the face, be- voyagers, he supposes it to be a native of South neath the cheeks, longer than the rest; tail long; America. Linnæus describes his S. diana somecolor of the whole body tawny and black; flat what differently: he says it is of the size of a large nails on the thumbs and fore fingers; blunt claws cat; black spotted with white : bind part of the on the others; hands and feet black.

back ferruginous; face black; from the top of shown in London some years ago, of place un- the nose is a white line passing over each eye to certain; that described by M. de Buffon came the ears, in an arched form; beard pointed, black from Madagascar, was very good-natured, and above, white beneath, placed on a fattish excreswent on all fours.

cence; breast and throat white; from the rump, 2. S. cercopithecus aygula, the egret, has a cross the thighs, a white line; tail long, straight, long face, and an upright sharp-pointed tuft of and black; ears and feet of the same color; cahair on the top of the head. The hair on the nine teeth, large. forehead is black: the tuft and the upper part 8. S. cercop. faunus, the marlbrouck, has a of the body light-gray; the belly white : the long tail, and is bearded : the tail is bushy at the eye-brows are large; the beard very small. They extremity. It is a native of Bengal. This species are the size of a small cat; inhabit Java; fawn has cheek-pouches, and callosities on the but. on men, on their own species, and embrace each tocks; the tail is nearly as long as the body and other. They play with dogs, if they have none head, and it is a mistake of Clusius that it termiof their own species with them. If they see a nates in a tuft; the face is of a cinereous gray monkey of another kind, they greet him with a color, with a large muzzle, and large eyes, which thousand grimaces. When a number of them have flesh-colored eye-lids, and a gray band cross sleep, they put their heads together. They make the forehead instead of eye-brows; the ears are a continual noise during the night.

large, thin, and flesh-colored; the upper parts 3. S. cercop. cephus, the moustache, has a of the body are of a uniform yellowish brown beard on the cheeks; the crown of the head is color, and the lower of a yellowish gray: it walks yellowish : the feet are black, and the tip of the on all fours, and is about a foot and a half from ail is of an ash color. Its

ich longer the muzz to the extremity of the tail. The fethan the body and head, being nineteen or males menstruate. twenty inches in length. The female menstruates. 9. S. cercop. fulvus, the tawny monkey, has

One was

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