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silica, a fusible compound is usually obtained out of the usual road from Turkey in Germany, when the lime predominates. The only refractory it is rarely visited; but in the environs are to be proportions were

seen the ruins of the wall erected by the Greek Lime

2 3

emperors. It is one of the most important fronSilica

tier towns of Turkey; and in 1773 several sharp Alumina

2 2

actions took place here with the Russians. It is

the see of an archbishop. Population 20,000. 155 Excess of silica gives a glass or porcelain, but miles N. N. E. of Adrianople. Long. 27° 6' E., excess of alumina will not furnish a glass. lat 4415' N. When, in mixtures of magnesia, silica, and alu

SILIVRI, or SELIVREA, the ancient Selymmina, the first is in excess, no fusion takes place bria, a sea-port of Turkey, in Romania, on the at 150°; when the second exceeds, a porcelain western side of a promontory, near the sea of may be formed : and 3 parts of silica, 2 magne. Marmora. It contains 6000 inhabitants, of whom sia, and 1 alumina, form a glass. From Achard's 1500 are Greeks, and 200 Jews, and commands a experiments it would appear that a glass may be beautiful prospect of the Propontis. Thirty-two produced by exposing to a strong heat, equal miles west of Constantinople. parts of alumina, silica, lime, and magnesia.

SILIUS Italicus (Caius), an ancient Roman Other proportions gave fusible mixtures, provided poet, and author of an epic poem in seventeen the silica was in excess.

books, containing a history of the second Punic The mineral sommite, or nephelin, consists, war, which decided the empire of the world in according to Vauquelin, of 49 alumina + 46 favor of the Romans. He was born in the reign silica. If we suppose it to consist of a prime of Tiberius, and is supposed to have got the equivalent or atom of each constituent, then that

name of Italicus from the place of his birth ; of silica would be 3 ; for 49:3•2 :: 46:3. But, but whether he was born at Italica in Spain, or if we take Vauquelin's analysis of euclase for the

at Corfinium in Italy, which, according to Strabo, same purpose, we have the proportion of silica had the nane of Italica given it during the Social to that of alumina as 35 to 22. Hence 22:32 war, is a point which cannot be known : though :: 35 : 5.09 the prime equivalent of silica, which if his birth had bappened at either of these places, is not reconcileable to the above number, though grammarians justly observed, he should have been it agrees with that deduced from Sir H. Davy's called Italicensis, and not Italicus. When he experiments on silicon. I give these examples to

came to Rome he applied himself to the bar; show how unprofitable such atomical determina- and, by a close imitation of Cicero, succeeded tions are.

See Iron and Acid (FLUOSILICIC). so well that he became a celebrated advocate, SILICENSE, in ancient geography, a river of and most accomplished orator. His merit and Spain.

character recommended him to the highest offices SILICIOUS, adj. Lat. cilicium, it should in the empire, even to the consulship, of which be therefore written cilicious. Made of he was possessed when Nero died. He is said to hair.

have been aiding and assisting in accusing perThe silicious and hairy vests of the strictest orders

sons of high rank and fortune whom that wicked of friars derive their institution from St. John and emperor had devoted to destruction: but he reElias.


trieved his character afterwards by a long and SILICERNIUM (from silex and cæna, a uniform course of virtuous behaviour. Vespasupper on a stone), among the Romans, a feast sian sent him as proconsul into Asia, where he of a private nature, provided for the dead some behaved with clean hands and an unblemished time after the funeral. It consisted of beans, reputation. After having thus spent the best lettuces, bread, eggs, &c. These were laid upon part of his life in the service of his country, he the tomb, and they foolishly believed that the bade adieu to public affairs, resolving to consedead would come out for the repast. What was

crate the remainder to polite retirement and the left was generally burnt on the stone.

Eating Muses. He had several fine villas in the counwhat had thus been provided for the dead was try: onc at Tusculum, celebrated for having been esteemed a mark of the most miserable poverty. Cicero's; and a farm near Naples, said to have A similar entertainment was made by the Greeks been Virgil's, at which was his tomb, which at the tombs of the deceased ; but it was usual Silius often visited. Thus Martial compliments among them to treat the ghosts with the fragments him on both these accounts (Epig. 49, lib. xi.); from the feast of the living. See FUNERAL, and and politely concludes, INFERIÆ. SILICIS Mons, in ancient geography, a town The present owner they would both prefer.

Could those great shades return to choose their heir, of Italy, near Padua, on a mountain so named.

SILIQUOSE, adj. ? Lat. siliqua. Having In these retirements he applied himself to poetry: SIL'IQUOUS. l a pod or capsula. led not so much by force of genius as by his exAll the tetrapetalous siliquose plants are alkalescent. ceeding great veneration for Virgil. He has


imitated him in his poens; and, though he falls SILIS, in ancient geography, a river of Italy, far short of him, yet he has discovered a great in Venetia.- Plin. iii. c. 18.

and universal genius, which would have enabled SILISTRIA, or DRISTRA, a large town in him to succeed in some degree in whatever he Bulgaria, European Turkey, situated on the Da- undertook, especially if he had begun earlier, . nube, on its south bank, at the influx of the Mise Having been for some time amicted with an imsova. It is well fortified, tolerably built, and has posthume, which was deemed incurable, he grew several handsome mosques and baths. Being weary of life, to which, says Pliny, he put an : Vol. XX

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end with determined courage. There have been is paid to the manufacture of silk. He begins many editions of Silius Italicus. A correct one by giving some account of the mulberry tree. was published at Leipsic, in 1696, in 8vo., with He observes that there are two kinds of the black notes by Cellarius : but the best is that cum mulberry tree which have been cultivated in notis integris variorum et Arnoldi Drakenborch. France. The first of these bears a fruit well Traject. ad Rhen. 1717, in 4to.

known, and frequently presented at table, being SILK, n.s.

Sax. seolc; Goth. silk; the same which is cultivated in our gardens in Silk'ın, adj.

" Silk'WEAVER, n. s. of the bombyx, see below: of this tree have been found, from experience,

SILK'worm. the derivatives following to be too harsh and too succulent, to prove in the root : and silken being often used for soft; every respect a proper food for the silk-worm; tender.

and the silk it yields turns out to be coarse, and Full many a lady fair, in court full oft

of an inferior quality. The second kind of the Beholding them, him secretly envide,

black mulberry tree carries a fruit inferior to the And wished that two such fans, so silken soft,

other in point of size, and improper for the taAnd golden fair, her love would her provide. Spenser. ble; but the leaf of it has been found to be

He caused the shore to be covered with Persian superior to the first, as food for the silk-worm; silk for him to tread upon.

Knolles. The worms were hallowed that did breed the silk; silk of a finer quality than the one first men

and it is less harsh, less succulent, and yields And it was dyed in mummy, which the skilful Conserved of maidens' hearts. Shakspeare. Othello.

tioned. This second sort of the black mulberry Let not the creaking of shoes, or rustling of silks, is, in all probability, the particular kind which betray thy poor heart to woman. Shaksy'eare.

is said to be at present cultivated in the kingdom Men counsel and give comfort to that grief of Valencia, in Spain, for the use of their silkWhich they themselves not feel ; but, tasting it, worms: and, indeed, many of their old plantaTheir counsel turns to passion, which before tions in France consist of this sort. But thei Would give perceptial medicine to rage,

new plantations consist wholly of the white Fetter strong madness in a silken thread,

mulberry tree, hereafter to be mentioned, which Charm ach with air, and agony with words.

is the only one they now cultivate in all their All the youth of England are on fire,

nursery grounds, for the use of their silk-worms. And silken dalliance in the wardrobe lies.

There is a third sort, known by the name of Id. Henry V.

the white mulberry, the leaf of which is more Shall a beardless boy,

tender and less succulent than either of the other A cockered, silken wanton, brave our fields, And fiesh his spirit in a warlike soil,

two, and has been found to produce silk of the Mocking the air with colours idly spread,

finest and best quality. And find no check ?

Id. King John. Some people have been led to think that this These kinds of kuaves, in plainness,

kind of the mulberry trec does not carry any Harbour more craft, and more corrupter ends, fruit, and that it can only be propagated by layThan twenty silky ducking observants

ers; but in this particular the fact stands much the That stretch their duties nicely. Id. King Lear.

For, though the white mulberry Grasshoppers eat up the green of whole countries, may not perhaps produce any fruit in a climate and silk-worms devour leaves swiftly. Bacon's Natural History.

so far to the north as ours, yet the truth is, that She weeps, and words addressed seem tears dis. in climates such as that of the south of France,

this tree carries fruit in very great quantities, solved, Wetting the borders of her silken veil. Milton.

though it is of a smaller kind than either of the Without the worm, in Persian silks we shine.

two already mentioned. It is of a dusky white

Waller. color, rather inclining a little to the yellow; and Broad were the banners, and of snowy hue, contains a mumber of small seeds, like mustard А purer

web the silk-worm never drew. Dryden. seed; from which large nurseries of this valuable The Chinese are ingenious silkweavers. Watts. tree are now annually raised all over the southern

Dress up virtue in all the beauties of oratory, and parts of France. you will find the wild passions of men too violent to

For a number of years after the culture of be restrained by such mild and silken language. silk was introduced into France, the people were

Id. on the Mind,

accustomed to employ the leaves of all the difSilk. The culture of this important article ferent kinds of mulberry trees before mentioned, of manufacture has hitherto been considered as promiscuously: and some grafts of the white the exclusive property of other climes, although mulberry from Piedmont, and from Spain, which we have the most positive evidence that the carried a larger leaf than the one they had got worms when reared in this country produce a in France, having been obtained from these material as well calculated for the manufacturers' countries, these grafts were put upon French use as those of France and Italy. As this is a seedling stocks, which had the effect of increassubject that has lately occupied the attention of ing greatly the size of the leaves, and was rethe Society for the promotion of Arts and Manu- garded as an acquisition, as it certainly produced factures, who have printed a series of valuable a larger stock of leaves as food for the worms. practical observations from the pen of Mr. Ste- The consequence of which was that this pracphenson, we cannot do better ihan commence tice of grafting prevailed for a great many years our article by an analysis of their contents. all over Provence and Languedoc. But Mon

It appears that Mr. Stephenson was for seve sieur Marteloy, a physician at Montpelier, who ral years a resident in the provinces of Lan- had made the culture of the silk-worm his parguedoc and Quercy, where the utmost attention ticular study for a number of years together, at

other way.

last made it clearly apparent to the conviction of When the plants in the nursery are sprung, every body, by a regular course of attentive and they take care to strip off the side buds, and well conducted experiments, that the leaf of the leave none but such as are necessary to form the seedling white mulberry was the food of all others head of the tree. If the plants in the nursery the best for this valuable insect; as the worms do not shoot well the first year, in the month of which were fed with this particular leaf were March following they cut them over about seven found to be more healthy and vigorous, and less inches from the ground, which makes them come subject to diseases of any kind, than those that on briskly the year following. When the plants were fed upon any of the other kinds of leaves are grown to the size of one inch diameter, they above mentioned; and that their silk turned out plant them out in the fields where they are to to be of the very best quality. Since that time, remain, making the pits where they plant them namely, 1765, a decided preference has been of the size of six feet square, and dressing the given to this particular leaf beyond all the ground for twenty inches, or two feet deep. others.

During the first year of planting out, they As our British gardeners are more intelligent leave the whole buds which the trees have pushed in their business than any of the French garden- out on the top until the following spring, when ers, it may, by some, perhaps be reckoned unne- they take care to leave none but three or four cessary to say any thing here, with respect to the branches to form the head of the tree; and, as culture of the mulberry tree: but when it is the buds come out, they take off all those which considered that the culture of this tree has been appear upon the body of the tree, from the botso anxiously attended to in France, for a long tom all the way up to those which are left to form period of years past, and they succeed perfectly the head of the tree; and for several years after, in this culture, it may not be deemed altogether at the seasons above mentioned, they take care improper to add here the method used in France to open the heads of the trees, when too thick of in cultivating the mulberry tree.

wood, and particularly to cut off any branch Mr. Stephenson goes on to observe that their which seems to take the lead from the rest, and first object is to make choice of a spot of ground to engross more of the sap than what falls to its for their seed bed, of a gravelly or sandy soil, share, that the different branches may increase which has been in garden culture, or under til- equally as much as possible. After the trees are lage for some time, and which they know to be planted out, and likewise while the plants are in good heart. When this ground is thoroughly in the nursery grounds, they take care to dress dressed, they make drills at the distance of two the ground about the trees regularly three or feet from each other, in which they sow the four times a year, which greatly assists the trees seeds, in the same manner as they usually do to get on. lettuce for salads. They then cover the seeds Here it is proper to mention that it is the lightly with some of the finest earth, after put- practice in France to plant out some of their ting it through a sieve; and, if the weather young plants from the nursery by way of espahappens to be dry, they water it slightly once or lier, in some sheltered situation, in a garden, for twice a week, as they judge to be necessary. example, where the soil is not over rich: and, if These seeds they sow as above, at any time from it can be had, where the soil has a great proporthe end of April to the end of May, and even tion of gravel or sand; the intention of which during the first week in June; and some gar- is, to procure early leaves for the worms in their deners, the better to ensure success, were in the infant state; as these leaves generally come out practice of sowing the seeds at three different more early upon dwarfish plants in a sheltered times during the same season : to wit, the first situation, than upon the trees planted out in a sowing in the last week of April; the second more open exposure; and upon this occasion about the middle of May; and the third in the they have also recourse for tender leaves to their beginning of June. When the plants are fairly young plants in the seed bed and nursery above ground, they take particular care to keep grounds. them clear from weeds, and, from time to time, Any quantity of the seed of the white multo point with a spade or a hoe the ground in the berry can be obtained either from Montpelier or intervals betwixt the different drills.

Marseilles, where it is regularly to be found for After remaining for two years in the seed bed, sale in the seed shops. It may also be obtained they take up the plants : such of them as are of by the same means from Spain; the seed from the size of a writing quill, they plant out in the which country is even preferable to that from nursery grounds ; each plant at two feet distance France, as the Spanish tree carries a larger leaf from each other in the row, and the rows at three than that of France, and has the leaf equally feet distance from each other, that there may be tender and good as the other, when used from room for cleaning and dressing the ground be- the seedling trees. twixt the plants. At transplanting, they cut off From the experiments carried on by M. nearly half the root, and also cut off the tops Marteloy, that gentleman made it fully appear at about six or seven inches above the ground. that the leaves of the trees which grew in a rich All the other plants, which are too small for the soil were by no means proper food for the silknursery, they plant out thick by themselves, to worm, as they were too luxuriant and full of remain for another year, or two, if necessary: juice for them; and that the leaves of those trees after which they plant them out in the nursery which were raised in a gravelly or sandy soil, grounds as above. 'he most proper time for where no manure was employed, were greatly to transplanting the mulberry tree is just after the be preferred. fall of the leaf in autumn.

From these experiments, also, one of the rea

sons, and apparently the principal one, may now As an encouragement to the small heritors be pretty clearly pointed out, which rendered and farmers to plant mulberry trees upon their abortive the trials made in England, during the grounds, the French government are at an anreigns of James I. and Charles II., for intro- nual expense in keeping up large nurseries of ducing the culture of silk into Great Britain; these trees in many different parts of the counthough that reason was altogether unknown in try, whence the small heritors and farmers are England, at the times these different trials were liberally supplied gratis with whatever numbers made. It appears to have been only this, that of these trees they desire to plant out upon their they had on other food to give to their worms grounds; and proper directions are ordered to but the leaves of the black mulberry, carrying be given along with the trees, by the gardeners the large fruit usually presented at our tables, who are charged with the care of these public which is now altogether rejected in France as an nurseries, that the people to whom the trees are improper food for the worms; and which was thus given may know how to treat them prorendered infinitely more destructive for these perly. This beneficent public measure is attendinsects by the trees which produced them having ed with great advantage to the country, as the been all of them reared in the richest grounds poorer people are by this means saved from the in England, namely, in the garden grounds about trouble and expense of rearing the trees, until London, which we know are in a manner yearly they come to be of a proper size for planting out loaded with dung.

in the fields, where they are intended to remain. The mulberry trees ought not to be pruned When the young mulberry trees are in the the first year after planting out, for fear of mak- seed bed, and even when afterwards planted out ing them bleed too much; but in the second in nursery grounds, and likewise for several years spring it is reckoned advisable to dress their after they are planted out in the fields to remain, heads, and to continue to repeat that dressing you must be careful every night, in the spring yearly, during the next ten or twelve years; and summer seasons, to examine with care, all taking care to make them hollow in the middle, round your plants, for a little snail without a so as to give a free passage for the air, and to shell, which is very fond of the bark of these render it easy to gather the leaves. After the trees when young, and preys upon them prodifirst twelve years are over, it will be sufficient giously. These snails will cut over your young if a dressing of the same kind is regularly given plants in the seed beds and nursery grounds, to them once every three years. But as some and will even continue to prey upon the trees of the branches may probably be broken annu till they are pretty old ; and, thou they do not ally, in gathering the leaves, care must be taken absolutely kill the trees when planted out, yet to prune all such branches as may happen to be they hurt them greatly, and retard their growth. thus broken, to prevent the trees from suffering These snails, therefore, must be gathered up materially by such accidents. In planting out every night as above mentioned, a little after the mulberry tree, in the field where it is to re- sun-set, which is better than in the morning, main, care must be taken to cover the roots because the mischief they occasion is generally properly, so that the earth may not lie hollow done in the night; and they must be burnt, or upon them, which would injure the plant. They otherwise effectually destroyed; for if you do should also take care to prop the different trees not kill them they will find their way again to with stakes, to prevent them from wind-waving; the trees. placing straw next the body of the tree, to pre Mr. Stephenson then proceeds to give an acvent the bark from being hurt; and it will be count of the manner ed France for disenproper also to surround them with briars or gaging the seeds from the fruit of the mulberry, brambles, to preserve them from all injury from which requires a considerable degree of labor as cattle.

well as atiention. Having gathered the quantity Here it is proper to remark that the second of fruit you propose to set apart for seed, which crop of leaves which come out upon the mul- must be thoroughly ripe before it is pulled, you berry trees, after having been stripped of their put the fruit into a large tub or vessel, where first leaves for the use of the, are not you cause a person to tramp and press it with allowed to fall off themselves in the autumn. his bare feet, in order to bruise the whole of it They are gathered for the second time with care, thoroughly, and by that means disengage the a little before the time they would fall naturally, seed from the little pods or cells in which it is and are given for food to their sheep, and eaten contained. You must at the same time have in by them with greediness, and by that means readiness another tub, which must be pretty turn out to good account to the farmer. Before deep, into which you introduce a piece of dat the culture of silk was introduced into that part wood, which must be made to rest upon the of Languedoc which is near to the mountains of sides of the tub, at the distance of six, eight, or Cevennes, the peasantry over all that neighbour- more inches from the bottom of the tub, as hood were miserably poor, as their soil, which is you shall judge to be necessary for your quanmostly gravel and sand, was incapable of carry- tity of fruit. This cross piece of wood is caling crops of any kind of grain whatever. But culated to support a round cane sieve, which is as it was found, upon trial, to answer remarkably to rest upon it. This sieve must be very fine, well for the mulberry tree, the people entered that is, the holes must be very small and close with great alacrity into the culture of silk; and set together, that as little of the pulp of the fruit they have succeeded so well in that lucrative as possible may go through the holes along with branch, that, from having been amongst the poor- the seed. est, they are now more at their ease than most of Things being thus prepared, and the tub filled the peasantry of that kingdom.

-90 far with water that it may rise more than half ness of the soil. In a cold moist climate a way up the brim of the sieve, when placed upon person is not able, even with the utmost care, the piece of wood, you then put a handful or to produce above the half of the cocoons from two of the bruised fruit into the sieve, which the same quantity of eggs which can be dorie in you rub hard with your hands upon the bottom a warmer and drier climate. But, as in the of the sieve, in order to make the seed pass colder climate the mulberry tree carries nearly through the holes, and every now and then you three times the quantity of leaves, which it can lift up the sieve with both hands, and shake it to do in the other, thence it arises that the colder make the water pass through it, which carries the climates, such as those before mentioned, are seed along with it. Besides rubbing the fruit able, upon the whole, to raise at least as inuch with your hand upon the bottom of the sieve, as silk, from the same quantity of eggs, as the above, you also take it and rub it heartily be- warmer countries ; because the quantity of food twixt the palms of your hands, rubbing the one is the great article, as the grain or eggs of the hard against the other; as it takes a great deal silk-worm can easily be multiplied to as great a of work and pains to get the seeds disengaged quantity as you please. out of their little cells, and must be done effec Having thus gone through the articles of tually before the seeds will pass through the holes greatest importance in relation to the first and of the sieve. This work must be repeated till leading branch of our subject, the next which vou observe that the whole of the seed has passed naturally falls to be considered is the method through the holes of the sieve; after which you observed in France in hatching the worms. But, throw aside the pulp, and must proceed in the before proceeding to this article, it may not be same manner with the rest of the fruit, till you improper to premise the following particulars, have finished the whole. You then take the as they seem justly to demand a very particular sieve and piece of wood out of the tub, and attention. pour off all the water, when you will find the Here then it must be observed that the greatseed at the hottom; but along with it a great est care ought to be taken to procure healthy quantity of the pulp, which has been forced good seed or eggs, because it has been ascerthrough the holes of the sieve, in rubbing the tained, from repeated experience, that the eggs fruit hard upon the bottom of it with your hand, from those houses where the worms were infectas above mentioned.

ed with bad air carries along with it, to the It should be noticed that all the seeds which worms produced therefrom, the same distempers swim upon the surface of the water are light and to which the worms of the preceding year were good for nothing, and must, therefore, be thrown subject. The eggs, in order to be properly preaside. You then put the pulp and seed, which served, should be kept in some dry place, with you find mixed together at the bottom of the tub, a free air not too hot; and you should avoid into another vessel, and fill the tub with water keeping them in any vault or cellar under ground, as at first, having put the piece of wood and the because any kind of damp is found to be desieve in their proper places as before, after which structive to them. you pass the pulp and seed, by degrees, through The eggs of the silk-worm have been found the sieve, by rubbing it with your hand upon to degenerate in the space of five years; hence the bottom as before, and lifting up the sieve a change from time to time is judged to be nefrom time to time, with hoth hands, and shaking cessary, taking care to have the eggs brought it, as already mentioned. In passing it this from a warmer to a colder climate. This, howsecond time you will disengage a great quantity ever, must be done by degrees, and not carried of the pulp, which you throw aside from time at once from one extreme to another. For exto time, as soon as you observe that none of the ample, eggs brought from the Levant, the Isle seed remains amongst it. You then pour off the of Cyprus, or from other countries of the same water as before; and, if you find that there is latitude, ought not to be brought at once into still some of the pulp remaining with the seed, such a cold climate as that of Flanders or the you must pass it a third time through the sieve, north of France; but should be first brought which will effectually clean it, if your sieve is into such a climate as that of Provence or Lanfine enough. If your sieve is too coarse, that guedoc, whence, after having remained there for is, if the holes are too large, it will occasion you two years, they can be brought with safety into a great deal more work, as you will be obliged the colder countries. to pass it oftener through the sieve, since that The first year that the eggs are brought from operation must be repeated till the seed is per- a warm to cold climate, you must not expect fectly clean; after which you must spread the great success from them: on the contrary, you seed upon a clean cloth, and expose it to the will find, though the utmost care and attention sun, till it is thoroughly dry. Three days, or are given to them, that the greatest part of the even four days, of a full sun are necessary to worms will die. But still you will be able to dry and harden the seed properly for keeping. save enough to stock yourself sufficiently with

Upon this part of our subject it seems proper eggs, which every succeeding year will be found to add that in a cool moist country, such as to answer better as the worms become naturalised about Paris or London, it is reckoned the mul- to the climate, which can only be brought about berry tree carries a double, nay, nearly a triple gradually; and indeed more time will be requiquantity of leaves to what it can do in the hotter site for this purpose in Britain than in France, or drier climates, such as that of the south of as the climate upon the continent is more fixed France, which is judged to be owing to the and steady than with us in England. moisture of the climate, and the superior rich In transporting the eggs from one country to

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