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able for their union, as for their determined the sandy deserts of Jasalmer and Hansya Hisar. courage and unconquerable spirit of resistance: A general estimate of the value of the country but a state of persecution and distress was most possessed by the Sikhs may be formed, when it favorable for a constitution like theirs, wbich is stated that it contains, besides other couvtries, required constant and great sacrifices of personal the whole of the province of Lahore; which, advantage to the public good ; and such sacrifices according to Mr. Bernier, produced, in the reign can only be expected from men who act under of Aurungzebe, 246 lacks and 95,000 rupees; or the influence of that enthusiasm which the fervor £2,469,500 sterling. The Sikhs who inhabit the of a new religion, or a stiuggle for indepen- country between the Setlej and the Jumpah are dence, only imparts, and which are always most called Malwa Sinh, and were almost all conreadily made when it becomes obvious to all verted from the Hindoo tribes of Jats and Guthat a complete union in the general cause is the jars. The country of the Malwa Sinh is in some only hope of individual safety.

parts fruitful; but those districts which border The Sikhs may be considered as forming the on Hansya and Carnal are very barren; being most western nation of Hindostan ; for the king covered with low wood, and in many places alof Candahar possesses but an inconsiderable ex most destitute of water. Its former capital was tent of territory on the east of the Indus. Since Sirhind, but it is now a complete ruin.' Patiala the complete downfal of the Mogul empire, they is now the largest and most Hourishing town of have acquired very extensive domains. But this province, and next to it is T'hanesur, which major Rennell observes that their power ought is still held in high veneration by the Hindoos, not to be estimated in the exact portion to who have also a high reverence for the river the extent of their population, since they do not Serasweti, which flows through this province. The form one entire state; but a number of small country of Jalendra Dooab, which reaches from ones, independent of each other in their internal the mountains to the junction of the Setlej and the government, and only connected by a federal Beah, is the most fruitful of all the possessions of union. They have extended their territories on the Sikhs, and is perhaps excelled, in climate and the south-east

, that is, into the province of Delhi, vegetation, by no province in India. The soil is very rapidly of late years; and perhaps the light, but very productive; the country, which zemindars of that country may have found it is open and level, abounds in every kind of grain. convenient to place themselves under the pro- The towns of Jalendra and Sultanpour are the tection of the Sikhs, in order to avoid the more principal in the Dooab. The country between oppressive government of their former masters. the Beyah and Ravi Rivers is called Bari Dooab, It is certain that the eastern boundary of the or Manj'ha; and the Sikhs inhabiting it are Sikh's dominions has been advanced to the banks called Manj'ha Sinh. The cities of Lahore and of the Jumnah River, above Delhi, and to the Amritsar are both in this province, and conseneighbourhood of that city; for the adjoining quently it becomes the great centre of the power territory of Schaurunpour is subject to their of this nation. The country of Bari is said to depredations, if not actually tributary to them; be less fertile, particularly towards the mountains, and they make incursions even to the side of the than Jalendra, but, lying on the same level, its Ganges. On the south they are bounded by climate and soil must be nearly the same. The the northern extreme of the sandy desert of inhabitants of the country been Ravi and ChanRegistan, and on the south-west their boundary hab are called D’harpi Sinh, from D’harpi, the meets that of Sindy, or Tatta, at the city of name of the country: the D'hanigheb Sinh are Behker or Bhekr, on the Indus. On the west beyond the Chanhab, but within the Jehalam the Indus is their general boundary, as high up river. The Sind Sinh is the term by which the as the city of Attock; near to which begin the inhabitants of the districts under the Sikhs borterritories of the king of Candahar; and their dering on the Sind are known; and Nakai Sinh northern boundary is the chain of mountains is the name given to the Sikhs who reside in that lies towards Thibet and Cashmere. As this Moultan. is the case, they will be found to

possess

the Their government may be termed a theocracy. whole soubah or province of Lahore, the princi- Although they obey a temporal chief, that chief pal part of Moultan, and the western part of preserves his power and authority by professing Delhi; the dimensions of which tract are about himself the servant of the khalsa, or government, 400 British miles from north-west to south-east, which can only be said to act, in times of great and from 150 to 200 broad, in general; although public emergency, through the means of a nain the part between Attock and Bekhr (that is, tional council, of which every chief is a member, along the Indus) the extent cannot be less than and which is supposed to deliberate and resolve 320. Their capital city is Lahore.

under the immediate inspiration and impulse of According to Sir J. Malcolm, the country now an invisible being; who, as they believe, always possessed by the Sikhs, which reaches from N. watches over the interests of the commonwealth. lat. 28° 40' to beyond N. lat. 32°, and includes It is natural, however, to imagine that the power all the Panjab, a small part of Moultan, and of this assembly should decline; and, from colonel most of that tract of country which lies between Malcolm's account, we may infer that it is nearly the Jumnah and the Setlej, is bounded to the destroyed. The last Guru-mata was called in northward and westward by the territories of 1805, when the British army pursued Holkar the king of Cabul; to the eastward by the into the Panjab. The government is mild; but possessions of the mountaineer rajas of Jammu, in their mode of making war the Sikhs are unNadon, and Srinagar; and to the southward by questionably savage and cruel. Among the Sikhs the territories of the English government, and there is a class of devotees, called Acalis, or

immortals, who, under the double character of disputes, in civil matters, are settled by the heads fanatic priests and desperate soldiers, have usurp- of the village, by arbitration, or by the chiefs. ed the sole direction of all religious affairs at Am- The court of arbitration is called panchayat, or a ritsar; and who, of course, are leading men in a court of five, the general number of arbitrators national council held at that sacred place, and chosen to adjust differences and disputes. It is which deliberates under all the influence of usual to assemble a panchayat, or a court of religious enthusiasni. This order of Sikhs was arbitration, in every part of India under a native first founded by Guru Govind, and are distin- government; and, as they are always chosen from guished by their dress, as well as by their having men of the best reputation in the place where they almost the sole direction of the religious cere meet, this court has a high character for justice. monies at Amritsar. They have a place on the The decision obtained by either of these modes bank of the sacred reservoir of Amritsar, where is final. If a theft occurs, the property is recothey generally resort, but are individually pos- vered, and the party punished, not with death, sessed of property, though they affect poverty, by the person from whom it was stolen, or by the and subsist on charity. The principal chiefs of inhabitants of the village, or his chief. Murder the Sikhs are all descended from Hindoo tribes. is sometimes punished by the chief ; but more The lower order of Sikhs, compared with the generally by the relatives of the deceased, wretched Mahometans who are doomed to op- who, in such cases, rigorously retaliate on the pression and hard labor, are happy; they are murderer, and sometimes on all who endeavour protected from the tyranny and violence of the to protect him. chiefs under whom they live by the precepts of Î'he Sikhs have, in general, the Hindoo cast their common religion, and by the condition of of countenance, somewhat altered by their long their country, which enables them to abandon, beards, and are to the full as active as the Mahwhenever they choose, a leader whom they dislike. rattas, and much more robust, from their living The civil officers, to whom the chiefs entrust fuller, and enjoying a better and colder climate. their accounts, and the management of their Their courage is equal at all times to that of any property and revenue concerns, as well as the natives of India; and, when wrought upon by conduct of their negociations, were in general prejudice or religion, is quite desperate. They Sikhs of the Khalasa cast, who, being followers are all horsemen, and have no infantry in their of Nanac, and not of Guru Govind, are not own country, except for the defence of their forts devoted to arms, but educated for peaceful oc and villages, though they generally serve as incupations, in which they often become very ex- fantry in foreign armies. They are bold, and pert and intelligent. In the collection of the rather rough in their address, which appears revenue of the Panjab, it is said to be a general more to a stranger from their invariably speakrule that the chiefs to whom the territories belonging in a loud tone of voice: but this is quite a should receive the half of the produce, grain habit, and is alike used by them to express the paying in kind, but sugar, melons, &c., in cash, sentiments of regard and hatred. The Sikhs have and the farmer the other: but the chief never been reputed deceitful and cruel, but Sir John levies the whole of his share; and in no country, Malcolm knew no grounds upon which they perhaps, is the ryat, or cultivator, treated with could be considered more so than the other more indulgence. Commerce is rather restrained tribes of India : they seemed to him, from all than encouraged by the heavy duties and the the intercourse he had with them, to be more distracted state of the country. However, a open and sincere than the Mahraitas, and less great part of the shawl trade now flows through rude and savage than the Afghans. They have, the cities of Lahore, Amritsar, and Patiala, to indeed, become, from national success, too proud Hindostan.

of their own strength, and too irritable in their The administration of justice among the Sikhs tempers, to have patience for the wiles of the is in a very rude and imperfect state. Their law former: and they retain, in spite of their change is unwritten. Nothing is consigned to any ex of manners and religion, too much of the original press form of words. There is no definition of character of their Hindoo ancestors (for the great any thing. The custom of the country, the cus- majority are of the Hindoo race) to have the contoin of the court (that is to say, as far as the judge stitutional ferocity of the latter. The Sikh soldier is pleased to be governed by those customs), and is, generally speaking, brave, active, and cheerthe will of the judge,-are the circumstances ful; without polish, but destitute neither of sinwhich guide the decision. Among the Hindoos cerity nor attachment; and, if he often appears some of the sacred books, among the Mahome- wanting in humanity, it is not so much to be attans the Koran, are used as the books of law. tributed to his vational character, as to the habits Among the Sikhs there is no such reference to of a life, which, from the condition of the society any sacred books; and their situation is, in all in which he is born, is generally passed in scenes probability, so much the better: for the Koran or of violence and rapine. The Sikh merchant, or Hindoo books afford scarcely any rules or prin- cultivator of the soil, if he is a Sinh, differs little ciples of law, which are not so vague as to speak in character from the soldier, except that his ocany language which the interpreter chooses to cupation renders him less boisterous. He also give them; and while their authority is sufficient wears arms, and is, from education, prompt to to supersede that of the natural dictates of justice use them, whenever his individual interest, or and equity, which are the only guides of the that of the community in which he lives, requires Sikh judges, the Hindoo or Mahometan has only him to do so. The general occupation of the to find or to feign a principle of his book, which Khalasa Sikhs has been before mentioned. inay enable him to decide as he pleases. Trifling Their character differs widely froir. that of the

Sinhs. Full of intrigue, pliant, versatile, and in- indulge in spirituous liquors, which they almost sinuating, they have all the art of the lower classes all drink to excess; and it is rare to see a Sinh of Hindoos, who are usually employed in trans- soldier, after sun-set, quite sober. Their drink acting business ; from whom, indeed, as they is an ardent spirit, made in the Panjab; but they have no distinction of dress, it is very difficult to have no objection to either the wine or spirits of distinguish them

Europe, when they can obtain them. The use The general character of the religious tribes of of opium to intoxicate is very common with them. Acalis, Shahid, and Nirmala, is formed from They also take b'hang (cannabis sativa), another their habits of life. The Acalis are insolent, ig- inebriating drug. norant, and daring : presuming upon those rights The conduct of the Sikhs to their women difwhich their nụmbers and fanatic courage have fers in no material respect from that of the tribes established, their deportment is hardly tolerant of Hindoos or Mahometans: their moral characto the other Sikhs, and insufferable to strangers, ter, with regard to women, and indeed in most for whom they entertain a contempt which they other points, may, from the freedom of their take little pains to conceal. The Shahid and the habits, generally be considered as much more Nirmala, particularly the latter, have more know- lax than that of their ancestors, who lived under ledge and more urbanity; they are almost all the restraint of severe restrictions, and whose fear men of quiet peaceable habits; and many of of excommunication from their caste, at least them are said to possess learning. There is an- obliged them to cover their sins with the veil of other tribe among the Sikhs, called the Nanac decency. This the emancipated Sikhs despise ; Pautra, or descendants of Nanac, who have the and there is hardly an infamy with which this decharacter of being a mild, inoffensive race; and, bauched and dissolute race are not accused, and though they do not acknowledge the institutions with justice, as Sir John Malcolm believed, of of Guru Govind, they are greatly reveșed by his committing in the most open manner. followers, who hold it sacrilege to injure the The Sikhs are almost all horsemen, and they race of their founder; and, under the advantage take great delight in riding. Their horses were which this general veneration affords them, the formerly famous for their strength, temper, and Nanac Pautra pursue their occupations ; which, activity ; but they are now no better mounted' than if they are not mendicants, is generally that of the Mahrattas. They use swords and spears, and travelling merchants. They do not carry arms;

most of them now carry match-locks, though some and profess, agreeably to the doctrine of Nanac, still use the bow and arrow, a species of arms to be at peace with all mankind.

for excellence in the use of which their foreThe Sikh converts continue, after they have fathers were celebrated, and which their descendquitted their original religion, all those civil ants appear to abandon with great reluctance. usages and customs of the tribes to which they The education of the Sikhs renders them hardy, belonged, that they can practise, without infringe- and capable of great fatigue; and the condition ment of the tenets of Nanac, or the institutions of the society in which they live affords constant of Guru Govind. They are most particular with exercise to that restless spirit of activity and enregard to their intermarriages ; and on this point terprise which their religion has generated. Such Sikhs descended from Hindoos almost invariably a race cannot be epicures; they appear, indeed, conform to Hindoo customs, every tribe inter- generally to despise luxury of diet, and pride marrying within itself. The Hindoo usage re- themselves in their coarse fare. Their dress is garding diet is also held equally sacred ; no also plain, not unlike the Hindoos, equally light, Sikh descended from a Hindoo family ever vio- and divested of ornament. Some of the chiefs lating it, except upon particular occasions, such wear gold bangles, but this is rare; and the geas a Guru-mata, when they are obliged, by their neral characteristic of their dress and mode of tenets and institutions, to eat promiscuously. living is simplicity. The principal leaders among The strict observance of these usages has enabled them affect to be familiar and easy of intercourse many of the Sikhs, particularly of the Jat and with their inferiors, and to despise the pomp and Gujar tribes, which include almost all those set state of the Mahometan chiefs; but their pride tled to the south of the Setlej, to preserve an in- often counteracts this disposition; and they aptimate intercourse with their original tribes; who, pear to have, in proportion to their rank and considering the Sikhs not as having lost caste, but consequence, more state, and to maintain equal, as Hindoos that have joined a political associa- if not more, reserve and dignity with their foltion, which obliges them to conform to general lowers, than is usual with the Mahrattah chiefs. rules establi for its preservation, neither re They boast that they can raise more than fuse to intermarry, nor to eat with them. 100,000 horse; and, if it were possible to as

The higher caste of Hindoos, such as Brahmins semble every Sikh horseman, this statement and Cshatriyas, who have become Sikhs, continue might not be an exaggeration; but there is, perto intermarry with converts of their own tribes, haps, no chief among them, except Ranjit Sinh but not with Hindoos of the caste they have aban of Lahore, that could bring an effective body of doned, as they are polluted by eating animal 4000 men into the field; and the force of Ranjit food, all kinds of which are lawful to Sikhs, ex- Sinh did not in 1805 amount to 8000, and part cept the cow, which it is held sacrilege to slag. of that was under chiefs who had been subdued The Mahometans who become Sikhs intermarry from a state of independence, and whose turwith each other, but are allowed to preserve none bulent minds ill-brooked a usurpation which of their usages, being obliged to eat hog’s-flesh, they deemed subversive of the constitution of and abstain from circumcision. The Sikhs are their common ealt! His army is now more förbidden the use of tobacco, but allowed to numerous than it was, but it is composed of

inaterials that have no natural cohesion, and the taining but eighty-five houses, but is supposed first serious check which it meets will probably to have been once a populous city, called by the cause its dissolution.

Romans Segontiaci, by the Britons Caer-Segont, The religion of the Sikhs seems, says Sir John and by the Saxons Silcester, or the great city. Malcolm, to have been a sort of pure deism, Leland records the walls to have been two miles grounded on most sublime general truths, blended in compass, comprising eighty acres of ground. with the belief of all the absurdities of the Hin. These are remaining at present, and are of nine doo mythology, and the fables of Mahometanism; unequal sides, formed of rows of stones and for Nanac professed to conciliate Hindoos and flints alternately, being about eighteen feet high Mahometans to the belief of his doctrine, by per- and fifteen thick; the remains of the ditches are suading them to reject those parts of their respec- in some places twelve yards over, with the aptive belief and usages, which, he contended, were pearance of having had four principal gates. unworthy of that God whom they both adored. Many British coins have been dug up at difierHe endeavoured to impress both Hindoos and ent times. Without the walls on the north-east Mahometans with a love of toleration, and an is a pond, which was the site of an amphitheatre. abhorrence of war; and his life was as peaceable A military road called Lonbank and Grimsdike, as his doctrine. But is it not evident, says an pitched with flints, runs from the south gate to anonymous writer, that so far as absurdities are Winchester; and another, called the Portway, mixed with a religious creed, so far the purity of leads from the south-gate, by Andover, to Old its deism is excluded ? But to proceed ; Guru Sarum. Govind gave a new character to the religion of SILENCE, n.s., interj.

2

Fr. silence; Lat. his followers, by establishing institutions and SI’LENT, adj. [&v.a. silentium. Forbearusages, which not only separated them from other Si'LENTLY, adv.

Sa

ance of speech; the Hindoos, but which, by a complete abolition of state of holding peace; stillness; secrecy; oball distinctions of castes, destroyed a system of livion : be stilll to silence is, to oblige to hold civil polity, which, from being interwoven with peace; still; forbid to speak : the adjective and the religion of a weak and bigoted race, fixed the adverb corresponding. rule of its priests upon a basis that had withstood O my God, I cry in the day time, and in the night the shock of ages.

season I am not silent.

Psalm xxii. 2. SILARUS, a river of Italy, in Picenum, rising

Unto me men gave ear, and waited and kept silence in the Appennine mountains, and falling into the at my counsel.

Job xxix. 21. Tyrrhene Sea. Its waters had a petrifying virtue. I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp auStrabo. v. Mela ii.

thority over the man, but to be in silence. SILAS, or Sylvanus, the fellow-traveller

1 Timothy ii. 12. with St. Paul, and one of the primitive teachers

Sir, have pity; I'll be his surety. of Christianity in the apostolic age.

He is -Silence! one word more styled a prophet in Acts xv. 32. Some writers Shall make me chide thee, if not hate thee.

Shakspeare. conjecture that he and Carpus were the two disciples whom John the Baptist sent to Jesus. He would have made them mules, silenced their

We must suggest the people, that to 's power (Matt. xi. 2, 3.) Some make him the same with

pleaders, and Tertius, who mentions himself as Paul's amanu- Dispropertied their freedoms.

Id. ensis in Rom. xvi. 21; but why he should have silence that dreadful bell; it frights the isle called himself Tertius in that epistle, while he is From her propriety:

Id. Othello. called Silas or Sylvanus in the Acts and other Deep night, dark night, the silent of the night, epistles, we know not. In the two epistles to The time of the night when Troy was set on fire, the Thessalonians, his name is expressly joined The time when screech-owls cry, and ban-dogs bowl. with those of Paul and Timotheus in the incipi

Shakspeare. ent salutations. He was sent with Paul from

Second and instrumental causes, together with.naAntioch to the synod at Jerusalem; and he and

ture itself, without that operative faculty which God Judas were sent by the synod with Paul and gave them, would become silent, virtueless, and dead.

Raleigh's History. Barnabas, with their decrees to the churches.

This passed as an oracle, and silenced those that He accompanied Paul to Lycaonia, Phrygia, moved the question. Bacon's Henry VII. Galatia, and Macedonia ; and was his fellow Since in dark sorrow I my days did spend, prisoner at Philippi. Along with Timothy he I could not silence my complaints. Denham, instructed the disciples at Berea, and preached This would silence all further opposition. at Corinth. St. Peter also wrote his first epistle

Clarendon. to the dispersed Jews by him (chap. v. 12). He

Silent, and in face died in Macedonia.

Confounded, long they sat as stricken mute. Milton. SILBURY Hill, the remains of a stupen

Nameless in dark oblivion let them dwell; dous Roman barrow, near the village of Ave. For strength from truth divided, and from just, bury, Selkely hundred, Wiltshire, seven miles lllaudable, nought merits but dispraise

And ignominy; yet to glory aspires, from Marlborough; it rises 170 feet in perpen- Vain-glorious, and through infamy seeks fame ; dicular height, and its form is the frustum of a

Therefore eternal silence be their doom. cone, its diaineterat the top being 105 feet, and

The sun to me is dark, at the bottom 500.

And silent as the moon, SILCHESTER, a parish in Holdshott hun When she deserts the night, dred, and division of Basingstoke, Hants., on Hid in her vacant interlunar cave.

Id. the border of Berkshire, seven miles north from This new created world, whereof in hell Basingstoke, and forty-five from London; con Fame is not silent.

Id.

Id.

over.

Thus could not the mouths of worthy martyrs be oblong, and grow in pairs at the joints; the silenced, who, being exposed unto wolves, gave loud lowers are small, white, and entire; they stand expressions of their faith, and were heard as high as on foot-stalks which issue from the alæ of the heaven.

Browne.

leaves; they are erect, alternate, single, and Hail, happy groves ! calm and secure retreat

lateral. It grows in corn-fields, and flowers in Of sacred silence, rest's eternal seat! Roscommon.

June and July. 4. S. armeria, broad-leaved These dying lovers, and their floating sons, Suspend the tight, and silence all our guns. Waller.

catch Aly. The stem is about eighteen inches, and You to a certain victory are led ;

erect, with a few branches; the leaves are smooth, Your men all armed stand silently within. Dryden.

sessile, and broad at the base; the flowers terThe difficulties remain still, till he can show who minal, in fastigiate bundles, small and red. It is meant by right heir, in all those cases where the may be seen on the banks of rivers, and is in present possessor hath no son : this he silently passes flower in July and August. 5. S. conoidea,

Locke. greater corn catchfly, or campion. The leaves Had they duly considered the extent of infinite are narrow and soft; the calyx is conical, with knowledge and power, these would have silenced their thirty striæ ; the flowers proceed from the divascruples, and they had adored the amazing mystery. rications of the stem ; the petals are entire. It

Rogers. grows in corn-fields, and flowers in June. 6. If it please him altogether to silence me, so that I Š. noctiflora, the night flowering catchAy. The shall not only speak with difficulty, but wholly be stem is about two feet high, and forked; the disabled to open my mouth to any articulate utterance ; yet I hope he will give me grace, even in my oval, with longer teeth than the other species ;

calyx has ten angles, is somewhat clammy, and thoughts, to praise him.

Wake.
Speech submissively withdraws

the petals are of a reddish white. 7. S. nutans, From rights of subjects, and the poor man's cause ;

Nottingham catchfly. The stem is about two Then pompous silence reigns, and stills the noisy laws. feet high and firm; the radical leaves are broad,

Pore.

obtuse, and grow in a tuft; those on the stem The thunderer spoke, nor durst the queen reply ; are narrow and acute; the flowers are white, A reverend horror silenced all the sky. Id. Íliad. and grow in lateral panicles; the petals are

Ulysses, adds he, was the most eloquent and most bifid and curled; the calyx is long, bellying a silent' of men ; he knew that a word spoken never little, with ten longitudinal striæ. It grows in wrought so much good as a word concealed.

pastures, and flowers in June and July. Broomė.

SILENI, an ancient nation of India, who SILENCE [Lat. silentium], in emblematical dwelt on the banks of the Indus. painting and sculpture, has been personified by Sileni, in the mythology, the fawns and Harpocrates, as a young man with his finger in satyrs, so called from Silenus. his mouth. Silence, or rather secresy, is also SILENUS, in mythology, the son of Pan, or expressed by a figure lifting a seal to his lips. Mercury, by Tetra, and one of the sylvan deities, The allegory was furnished by Alexander the born at Malea, in Lesbos. He became the nurse, Great, who, observing Hephestion reading at the preceptor, and constant attendant of Bacchus. same time with himself a letter which he had He had a temple in Elis. He is generally reprereceived from his mother, drew from his finger sented as a jolly fat old man, riding on an ass, the ring which he used as a signet, and placed it crowned and wreathed round with Aowers, and on the other's lip.

often intoxicated, with a cup in his hand. In SILENE, catchfly, fly-bane, Aly-wort, or vis- this situation he was once found by some Phrycous campion, in botany, a genus of plants be- gian peasants, sleeping on the road, having lost longing to the class of decandria, and order of his way (as many others have done), following trigynia ; and in the natural system arranged Bacchus. They took him to king Midas, who under the twenty-second order, caryophyleæ. entertained him hospitably for ten days, and then The calyx is ventricose; the petals are five in restored him to Bacchus, who rewarded Midas number, bifid and unguiculated, and crowned by giving him the power of turning every thing by a nectarium; the capsule is cylindrical, he touched into gold. See Midas. Those aucovered, and trilocular. There are twenty-six thors who celebrate Bacchus as the conqueror of species, of which seven are natives of Britain India, say that Silenus was a great philosopher, and Ireland. 1. S. acaulis, moss campion. The and assisted Bacchus in his Indian expedition radical leaves are spread on the ground like a by his wise counsels. Paus. iii. c. 25; Philost. tuft of moss; the stalks are about an inch long, Ovid. Met. iv. &c. and naked, bearing each a single purple flower. SILENUS is also the name of two ancient hisThis species grows on mountains, and bas been torians, viz. 1. A Carthaginian, who wrote a hisfound in Wales and Scotland within half a mile tory of Carthage in Greek. 2. An Italian, who from their top. It is in flower in July. 2. S. wrote an account of Sicily. amoena, sea campion. The stem is two or three SILESIA, an important province of Prussia, feet long, slender, procumbent, and branched is situate between Poland on the east, and Bohealternately; the leaves are long and narrow; the mia on the west, extending from long. 14° 25' to flowers are white, and grow on the opposite foot- 18° 12' E., and from lat. 49° 40' to 51° 59' N. stalks, three on each, in unilateral bunches; the The county of Glatz, and a portion of Lusatia, calyx is hairy and purplish, and has ten angles. are annexed to it. In form it is oblong, extendIt grows on the south coast, and flowers in June ing in length, from south-east to north-west, 210 and July. 3. S. anglica, the small torn cam- miles, in breadth about 100, and contains an pion, or English catch-fly. The stem is weak, area computed at ,000 square miles, with a hairy, and above a foot high; the leaves are population of more than 2,000,000. Silesia,

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