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at a moment's warning, to put the admiral's de- finally determined the victory in their favor. We signs in execution.

read of various instances in which signals have To preserve order in the repetition of signals, been used to express the personal danger of a king and to favor their communication, without em or general, who was fighting at the head of a sebarrassment, from the commander-in-chief, to the lect body of men. The knowledge of the critical ship for which they are calculated, the comman- position in which their leader stood, excited fresh ders of the squadrons repeat after the admiral; courage in the rest of the troops, and drove them the chiefs of the divisions, according to their to acts of the greatest intrepidity. In the course order in the line, after the commanders of the of the late war some examples of the same sort squadrons; and the particular ships after the might be adduced, both on the side of Austria chiefs of the divisions; and those in return, aster and on that of France. The action on the bridge of the particular ships, and vice versâ, when the Lodi, the passage of the Tegliementi, &c., would object is to convey any intelligence from the illustrate any observations we could make upon latter to the admiral.

the subject. Signal of attack or assault, in the land service Nor are the advantages which arise from the (Fr. signal d'une attaque, ou d'un assaut). This use of signals confined to these particular cases. signal may be given in various ways: by the dis- Various circumstances grow out of the desultory charge of a lighted shell, by sky.rockets, by colors nature of military operations to render flags of displayed from a conspicuous spot, &c. In 1747 communication indispensably necessary. The marshal Lowendbal made use of lighted shells or vast scope which is given to modern tactics makes bombs, when he laid siege to the town of Bergen- it impossible that the human eye or voice should op-zoom. During the consternation of the in- take in all the critical manæuvres or evolutions habitants, which was excited by a continual dis- that occur when an extended line is actually encharge of these signal shells, the grenadiers gaged. The right wing may be giving way, while entered a practicable breach, and took the town the left is gaining ground, and the centre might by storm.

be in danger, while the two flanks were rapidly Signals made by the colors of an army (Fr. sig- advancing with apparent security against the naux des enseignes).—The ancients had recourse enemy; as was the case in the battle of Marengo. to all the various methods which could be used Under these circumstances a general, by means by signals, to express the particular situation of of communicating signals, would be enabled to affairs, and to indicate measures that should be provide for every contingency without losing adopted. If, during an engagement, victory time by sending his orders verbally. Although seemed inclined more to one side than another, signal Aags, in modern engagements, have been the colors belonging to the victorious party were generally laid aside, their use has been acknowinstantly bent towards its yielding antagonist. ledged in the adoption of warlike instruments, This signal was conspicuous to the men, and ex- which, by the variety of their sounds, convey the cited them to fresh efforts. They imbibed the necessary directions to an engaging army. most lively hopes of success, and eagerly pressed The ancients had signals which they called forward to reap the advantages of bravery and mute signals (signaux muets). These consisted good conduct. When an army was hard pressed in certain actions or signs that were made by a by its enemy the colors of the former were raised general; such as waving the band, brandishing a high in air, and were kept in a perpetual flutter stick or sword, or by exhibiting to view any part and agitation, for the purpose of conveying to of his dress, accoutrements, &c. Instances of the soldiers that the issue of the battle was still the same kind have occurred among the moderns. doubtful, and that nothing but courage and per- Under this denomination may likewise be classed severence could determine the victory. If, in the the different signals made for the movement, heat of action, any particular regiment seemed marching, and manæuvring of troops, in and out to waver and give way, so as to cause an appre- of quarters. When troops are scattered, or sepahension that it might finally be broken, its colors rated from one another, it is usual to communiwere instantly snatched out of the bearer's hands cate by means of fires lighted upon eminences by the general or commanding officer, and thrown during the night, and by smoke during the day. into the thickest of the enemy. It frequently In former times large pieces of wood were happened that the men who were upon the point hung above the towers of cities or castles, which, of yielding ground and Aying received a fresh im- by being drawn up or lowered, gave intelligence pulse from this act, rallied, and, by a desperate of what passed. This method has been succeeded effort of courage, recovered the colors, and re- by the invention of telegraphs, which answer stored the day. This method of reanimating every purpose of communication, when they can their legions was generally resorted to by the be established through any extent of country. Romans. We have had instances in modern Besides those signals there are others which may times in which the fortune of the day has been be called vocal and demi-vocal. The vocal sigwholly decided by some sudden and unexpected nals are those of the human voice, which consist act of an individual

. In the reign of Louis XIV. in the necessary precautions that are adopted to a prirate soldier threw his hat into the midst of prevent a guard or post froin being surprised, to the enemy, during a hard fought and doubtful enounce words of command in action, &c. Of battle, expressing thereby that fresh succors the first description are paroles and countersigns, were arrived to strengthen the French army. which are exchanged between those to whom This circumstance, so apparently trifling, pro- they are entrusted, and which are frequently duced the desired effect. It threw the enemy during the day and night, to prevent the into confusion, gave the French fresh spirits, and enemy from receiving any information by means

of spies. The demi-vocal signals are conveyed Some plants bear a very evident signature of their by military instruments; the different soundings nature and use.

More against Atheism. of which indicate, instantaneously, whether an Some rely on certain marks and signatures of their army is to halt or to advance, whether troops election, and others on their belonging to some parare to continue in the pursuit of an enemy, or to

ticular church or sect.

Rogers. retreat.

SIGNATURE, in printing, is a letter puc at The demi-vocal signals, directed to be observed the bottom of the first page, at least, in each in the British service, as far as regards the ma- sheet, as a direction to the binder in folding, neuvring of corps, &c., consist of signals for the gathering, and collating them. The signatures government of light infantry, and of cavalry regie consist of the capital letters of the alphabet (omitments, squadrons, or troops: the latter are pro- ting J, V, and W), which change in every sheet; perly called soundings. Light infantry signals if there be more sheets' than letters in the alphaare to give notice-to advance; to retreat; to bet, to the capital letter is added a small one of halt; to cease firing; to assemble; to call in all the same sort, as A a, Bb; which are repeated as parties. In the regulations, printed by authority, often as necessary. In large volumes it is easy it is observed that these signals are to be always to distinguish the number of alphabets, after the considered as fixed and determined ones, and are first three or four, by placing a figure before the never to be changed. The bugle horn of each signature, as 5 B, 6 B, &c. company is to make himself perfect master of SIGNATURES are used, in a particular sense, them. All signals are to be repeated; and all to denote those external marks by which phythose signals which are made from the line or siognomists and dabblers in the occult sciences column are to convey the intention of the com- pretend to discover the nature and internal quamanding officer of the line to the officer com lities of every thing on which they are found. manding the light infantry, who will communi- According to Lavater, every corporeal object is cate them to the several companies or detachments characterised by signatures peculiar to itself. either by word or signal.

The doctrine of signatures, like alchymy and asSIGNAL-Flag, in ancient military history, was trology, was very prevalent during the fifteenth a gilded shield hung out of the admiral's galley; and sixteenth centuries; and was considered as it was sometimes a red garment or banner. one of the occult sciences which conferred no During the elevation of this signal the fight con- small degree of honor on their respective protinued, and by its depression, or inclination to- fessors. Some of these philosophers, as they wards the right or left, the rest of the ships were styled themselves, maintained that plants, minedirected how to attack their enemies, or retreat rals, and animals, but particularly plants, had from them.

signatures impressed on them by the hand of SIGNAL-Staff. In matters of military parade nature, indicating to the adept the therapeutic it is usual to fix a red flag, somewhat larger than uses to which they might be applied. Others, a camp color, to point out the spot where the such as the mystic theosophists and chymists of general, or officer commanding, takes his station that day, proceeded much farther in absurdity, in front of a line. This is called the signal-staff. maintaining that every substance in nature had

SIGʻNATURE, n. S. ? Fr. signature ; Lat. either external signatures immediately discernible,

SIG'NATURIST. S signatura, signo. A or internal signatures, which, when brought into sign or mark impressed ; stamp; a mark; proof: view by fire or menstrua, denoted its connexion signaturist, one who holds the old doctrine of with some siderial or celestial archetype. Of signatures.

the doctrine of signatures, as it relates merely to All bodies work by the communication of their

the therapeutic uses of plants and minerals,

traces are to.be found in the works of some of nature, or by the impression and signatures of their the greatest authors of antiquity; but the celesmotions : the diffusion of species visible seemeth to participate more of the former, and the species au

tial signatures were discovered only by the dible of the latter. Bacon's Natural History.

moonlight of the monkish ages. Seek out for plants and signatures,

SIGNATURE OF THE Court OF ROME is a To quack of universal cures.

Hudibras. supplication answered by the pope, by which he The most despicable pieces of decayed nature are

grants a favor, dispensation, or collation to a becuriously wrought with eminent signatures of divine nefice, by putting the fiat at the bottom of it, in wisdom.

Glanville.

his own hand; or the concessum est written in Signaturists seldom omit what the ancients deli- his presence. This signature, at the bottom of vered, drawing unto inference received distinctions. the supplication, gives name to the whole instru

Browne. That natural and indelible signature of God, The signature contains the clauses, derogations, which human souls, in their first origin, are supposed and dispensations, with which the pope grants to be stampt with, we have no need of in disputes the favor, or the benefice, with a commission for against atheism.

Bentley the execution of it, either in forma dignum, or in Vulgar parents cannot stamp their race With signatures of such majestick grace.

gracious form. Pope's Odyssey.

A signature of the pope's own hand, by which The brain being well furnished with various traces,

he answers, fiat ut petitur, is preferred to another signatures, and images, will have a rich treasure

answered by the prefect, in his presence, in these always ready to be offered to the soul. Watts. words, Concessum uti petitur in præsentia D. N. Herbs are described by marks and signatures, so рарх.

Sometimes in signatures with the fiat the far as to distinguish them from one another. pope adds, proprio molu; which clause gives Baker on Learning them still farther force.

ment.

There are three kinds of signatures: one in And then is heard no more! It is a tale, forma gratiosa, despatched on an attestation of Told by an ideot, full of sound and fury, the ordinary; another in forma dignum antiqua, Signifying nothing !

Id. Macbeth. despatched for canonicates; the third in forma

It was well said of Plotinus, that the stars were

Raleigh. dignum novissima, which is a kind of second significant, but not efficient.

Neither in the degrees of kindred they were destisignature, or executorial letter, granted where, upon the ordinary's failing to execute the first, father, they called ealdfader ; whom we call great

tute of significative words ; for whom we call grandwithin thirty days, the nearest other ordinary is

grandfather, they called thirdafader. enjoined to execute it.

Camden's Remains. SIGʻNET, n. s. Fr. signette. A seal com If the words be but comely and signifying, and the monly used for the seal manual of a king, or sense gentle, there is juice; but where that wanteth, sovereign authority.

the language is thin.

Ben Jonson. Give thy signet, bracelets, and staff.

The holy symbols or signs are not barely significa

tive, but what by divine institution they represent

Genesis xxxviii. 18. He delivered him his private signet. Knolles.

and testify unto our souls is truly and certainly deI've been bold livered unto us.

Brerewood. To them to use your signet and your name.

Here is a double significatory of the spirit, a word Shukspeare. Timon. and a sign.

Taylor. Here is the hand and seal of the duke : you know

Though he that sins frequently, and repents frethe character, I doubt not, and the signet.

quently, gives reason to believe his repentances Id. Measure for Measure. before God signify nothing, yet that is nothing to us.

Id. Proof of my life my royal signet made. Dryden. The impression of a signet ring.

He hath one way more, which, although it signify Ayliffe's Parergon.

little to men of sober reason, yet unhappily hits the The Signet is one of the king's seals, made suspicious humour of men, that governors have a de

sign to impose.

Tillotson. use of in sealing his private letters, and all grants

Speaking is a sensible expression of the notions of that pass by bill signed under his majesty's the mind, by discriminations of utterance of voice, hand : it is always in the custody of the secreta- used as signs, having by consent several determinate ries of state.

significancies.

Holder. Signet, in Scottish law. See Law.

Common life is full of this kind of significant exSIGNIFICAVIT, a writ issuing out of the pressions, by knocking, beckoning, frowning, and chancery, upon certificate given by the ordinary pointing ; and dumb persons are sagacious in the of a man's standing excommunicate by the space

use of them.

Id. on Speech. of forty days, for the laying him up in prison

Brute animals make divers motions to have several till he submit himself to the authority of the significations, to call, warn, cherish, and threaten.

Holder. church : and it is so called because significavit

If he declares he intends it for the honour of anois the emphatical word in the writ. Reg. Orig. There is also another writ of this name in the ther, he takes away by his words the significance of

his action.

Stillingfleet. register, directed to the justices of the bench,

The clearness of conception and expression, the commanding them to stay any suit depending boldness maintained to majesty, the significancy and between such and such parties, by reason of an sound of words, not strained into bombast, must excommunication alleged against the plaintiff, escape our transient view upon the theatre. &c.—Reg. Orig. 7. And in Fitzherbert we find

Dryden, writs .of significavit in other cases; as significa

The maid from that ill omen turned her eyes, vit pro corporis, deliberatione, &c.-F. N. B. Nor knew what signified the boding sign,

Id. 62, 66. The common writ of significavit is the But found the powers displeased. same with the writ excommunicato capiendo.

What signifies the splendour of courts, considering

the slavish attendances that go along with it. SIGʻNIFY, v. a. & v. n. Fr. signifier; Lat.

L'Estrange. SIGNIFʻICANCE, n. s. significo. To de If the first of these fail, the power of Adam, were SIGNIF’ICANCY,

clare by a sign or it never so great, will signify nothing to the present Signif'ICANT, adj. token; import; societies in the world.

Locke. SIGNIFʻICANTLY, adv. make known : to By scripture, antiquity, and all ecclesiastical express a meaning with force or emphasis : sig- writers, it is constantly appropriated to Saturday, nificance or significancy is power of signifying; the day of the Jews' Sabbath, and but of late years meaning; weighty or important meaning ; ener

used to signify the Lord's day.

Nelson. gy; consequence: the adjective and adverb Those parts of nature, into which the chaos was corresponding.

divided, they signified by dark and obscure names;

as the night, Tartarus, and Oceanus. He sent and signified it by his angel unto John.

Burnet's Theory of the Earth. Revelation i. 1. Christianity is known in scripture by no name so Whereas it may be objected, that to add to reli- significantly as by the simplicity of the gospel. gious duties such rites and ceremonies as are signi

South. ficant, is to institute new sacraments. Hooker. A lye is properly a species of injustice, and a vio

Since you are tongue-tied, and so loth to speak, lation of the right of that person to whom the false In dumb significants proclaim your thoughts. speech is directed; for all speaking, or signification

Shakspeare. Henry VI. of one's mind, implies an act or address of one man Stephano, signify

to another. Within the house your mistress is at hand.

How fatal would such a distinction have proved

Shakspeare. in former reigns, when many a circumstance of less Life's but a walking shadow; a poor player, significancy has been construed into an overt act of That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, high treason.

Addison.

ld.

The Romans joined both devices, to make the nation of European Scythia, who inhabited the emblem the more significant ; as, indeed, they could territory beyond the Danube.—Herodot. v. c. 9. not too much extol the learning and military virtues SIHON, a king of the Amorites, on the east of this emperor.

Id.

banks of the Jordan. About A. M. 2540, he As far as this duty will admit of privacy, our Saviour hath enjoined it in terms of particular signi- considerable part of it. About A. M. 2552,

invaded the kingdom of Moab, and seized a ficancy and force.

I have been admiring the wonderful significancy of having refused a passage to the Israelites through that word persecution, and what various interpreta- his territories, Moses attacked him, subdued and tions it hath acquired.

Swift.

depopulated his country, and gave it to the What signifies the people's consent in making and Reubenites. Numb. xxi. 21—31. Deut. ii. repealing laws, if the person who administers hath 26-34. no tie?

Id. Sinon, in modern geography, a large rivor of The government should signify to the protestants Asia, called also Amu and Gihon. ”It rises in of Ireland that want of silver is not to be remedied. Bukharia, and runs into Lake Aral. It formerly

Id. SIGNINUM Opus, in archaiology, is a name

ran into the Caspian Sea, but the Tartars changed

its course. given by Vitruvius (book viii. chap. 7), to a SIKHS, Seiks, or Seeks. Under the word particular kind of work made use of in the con

Seeks we have given Mr. Watkins's account of struction of wells and cisterns. The following this formidable sect of Hindoo religionists. Sir is the plan pursued : -They mixed five parts of J. Malcolm and other modern writers supply pure sand and two of lime; and, having stirred many additional facts of their political history. ihese well together, added pieces of soft sandy During the interval that elapsed between the stone, about a pound weight each. This mass defeat and death of Banda, and the invasion of served to cover the walls or ground work; and, India by Nadir Shah, a period of nearly thirty for the purpose of additional solidity, they beat years, we hear nothing of the Sikhs ; but on it with masses of wood pointed with iron. Ac- that event they are said to have fallen upon the cording to Pliny, the signinum opus was con- inhabitants of the Panjab, who sought shelter in structed of pounded tiles and lime.

the hills, and to have plundered them of that SIGNIORY, n. s. Ital. seignoria. Lordship; property which they were endeavouring to sedominion; seniority.

cure from the rapacity of the Persian invader. If ancient sorrow be most reverent,

Enriched with these spoils, says the author whose Give mine the benefit of signiory,

account of them we now cite, the Sikhs left the And let my griefs frown on the upper band.

hills, and built the fort of Dalewal, on the Ravi, Shakspeare. Richard III. At that time

whence they made predatory incursions, and are Through all the signiories it was the first,

stated to have added both to their wealth and And Prospero the prime duke.

Id. Tempest.

reputation by harassing and plundering the rear The earls, their iitles, and their signiories, of Nadir Shah's army, which, when it returned They must restore again.

Daniel's Civil War. to Persia, was encumbered with spoil, and My brave progenitors, by valour, zeal,

marched, from a contempt of its enemies, with a Gained those high honours, princely signiories, disregard to all order. And proud prerogatives.

IVest. The weak state of Hindostan, and the confuSIGNORELLI (Luke), an eminent Italian sion into which the provinces of Lahore and painter, born at Florence in 1439. He excelled Cabul were thrown, by the death of Nadir, were chiefly in naked figures; and painted much for events of too favorable a nature to the Sikhs to Sextus IV. He died in 1521.

be neglected ; they became daily more bold, SIGONIUS (Charles), a learned Italian, born from their numbers being greatly increased by of an ancient family in Modena in 1525. He the union of all those who had taken shelter in taught Greek at Venice, Padua, and Bologna; the mountains; the re-admission into the sect of had some disputes with Robertellus and Gru- those who, to save their lives, had abjured for a chius on Roman antiquities, in which he was period their usages; and the conversion of a well versed. He wrote a vast number of books; number of proselytes, who hastened to join a the chief are, 1. De Republica Hebræorum. standard under which robbery was made sacred, 2. De Republica Atheniensium. 3. Historia de and to plunder was to be pious. Aided with Occidentali Imperio. 4. De Regno Italiæ. He these recruits, the Sikhs extended their irrupdied in 1584, aged sixty.

tions over most of the provinces of the Panjab; SIGUENZA, the ancient Segontium, a city of and though it was some time before they re-posSpain in Old Castile, and province of Guad- sessed themselves of Amritsar, they began, imalaxara, stands on an eminence near the source of mediately after they quitted their fastnesses, to the Henares. It is a bishop's see, and was, flock to that holy city at the periods of their until 1807, the seat of a university founded by sacred feasts. Some performed this pilgrimage cardinal Ximenes : at present it contains about in secret and in disguise; but in general, ac5000 inhabitants, three churches, two hospitals, cording to a contemporary Mahometan author, a castle and arsenal. Here Pompey fought a the Sikh horsemen were seen riding at full celebrated battle with Sertorius, and the Goths gallop towards their favorite shrine of devotion. were afterwards defeated in the neighbourhood They were often slain in making this attempt, by the troops of the empire. It is seventy-five and sometimes taken prisoners; but they used miles east of Madrid. In the neighbourhood on such occasions to seek, instead of avoiding, are salt springs.

the crown of martyrdom :' and the same authoSIGUNÆ, SiGynt, or SIGYNNÆ, an ancient rity states ó that an instance was never known of

a Sikh, taken in his way to Amritsar, consenting and dispersing the Sikhs in every direction. That to abjure his faith.'

sect, unable to make any stand against the army A. D. 1746 the Sikhs made themselves mas of the Abdali, pursued their old plan of retreatters of a considerable part of the Dooab of ing near the mountains; and collected a large Ravi and Jalendra, and the country between the force in the northern districts of Sirhind, a distance rivers Ravi and Beyah, and that river and the of above 100 miles froin Lahore, where the army Setlej, and extended their incursions to the of Ahmed Shah was encamped. Here they conneighbouring countries. But though they were ceived themselves to be in perfect safety; but severely and repeatedly checked by Mir Manu, that prince made one of those rapid inovements the governor of Lahore, yet, after his death, they for which he was so celebrated, and, reaching the avaiied themselves of all the advantages which Sikh army on the second day, completely surthe local distractions of a falling empire afforded prised and defeated it with great slaughter. In them of extending and establishing their power. this action, which was fought in February 1762, Their bands, under their most active leaders, the Sikhs are said to have lost upwards of 20,000 plundered in every direction, and were successful men; and the remainder fled into the hills, in obtaining possession of several countries, abandoning all the lower countries to the Afghans, from which they have never since been expelled; who committed every ravage that a barbarous and their success, at this period, was promoted, and savage enemy could devise. Amritsar was instead of being checked, by the appointment of razed to the ground, and the sacred reservoir their old friend, Adina Beg Khan, to Lahore; as again choked with its ruins. Pyramids were that brave chief, anxious to defend his own go- erected, and covered with the heads of slaughtered vernment against the Afghans, immediately er.- Sikhs; and it is mentioned that Ahmed Shah tered into a confederacy with the Sikhs, whom caused the walls of those mosques which the he encouraged 10 plunder the territories of Ah- Şikhs had polluted to be washed with their blood, med Shah Abdali. The Afghan monarch, resent- that the contamination might be removed, and ing this, determined upon invading India, when the insult offered to the religion of Mahomet Adina Beg, unable to oppose him, fled : and the expiated. This species of retaliation appears to Sikhs could only venture to plunder the baggage, have animated instead of depressed the courage and cut off the stragglers of the Afghan army, of the Sikhs, who, though they could not venture by which they so irritated Ahmed Shah, that he to meet Ahmed Shah's army in action, harassed threatened them with punishment on his return; it with an incessant predatory warfare; and, when and, when he marched to Cabul, he left his son that sovereign was obliged, by the commotions Taimur Khan, and his viziei Jehan Khan, at of Afghanistan, to return to Cabul, they attacked Lahore, with orders to take vengeance on the and defeated the general he had left in Lahore, Sikhs for all the excesses which they had com- and made themselves masters of that city, in mitted. The first expedition of Taimur Khan which they levelled with the ground those niosques was against their capital, Amritsar, which he which the Afghans had, a few months before, destroyed, filling up their sacred tank, and pol- purified with the blood of their brethren. luting all their places of worship; by which A. D. 1763, when Ahmed Shah, after retaking action he provoked the whole race to such a Lahore, was obliged, in the ensuing year, to redegree thai they all assembled at Lahore, and turn to his own country, the Sikhs again expelled not only attempied to cut off the communication his garrison, and made themselves masters of between the fort and country, but collected and the Panjab; and, from that period until his divided the revenues of the towns and villages death, a constant war was maintained, in which around it. Taimur Khan, enraged at this pre- the enterprize and courage of the Afghans gradu sumption, made several attacks upon them, but ally gave way before the astonishing activity, and was constantly defeated; and, being at last re invincible perseverance, of their enemies; who, duced to the necessity of evacuating Lahore, if unable to stand a general action, retreated to and retreating to Cabul, the Sikhs, under one of impenetrable mountains, and, the moment they their celebrated leaders, called Jasa Sinh Calal, saw an advantage, rushed again into the plains immediately took possession of the vacant soubah with renewed vigor and recruited numbers. of Lahore, and ordered rupees to be coined, with Several Sikh authors, treating of the events of an impression to the following import: ‘Coined this period, mention a great action having been by the grace of Khalsah Ji, in the country of fought by their countrymen, near Amritsar, Ahmed, conquered by Jasa Sinh Calal. Although against the whole Afghan army, commanded by they were afterwards expelled, together with the Ahmed Shah in person; but they differ with Afghans, from ahore, yet after the death of regard to the date of this battle, some fixing it in Adina Beg Khan, the governor of this province, 1762, and others later. They pretend that the they eagerly seized the opportunity that was thus Sikhs, inspired by the sacredness of the ground afforded them of making themselves again mas on which this action was fought, contended ters of Lahore. Their success was, however for victory against superior numbers with the soon checked by Ahmed Shah Abdali, who, irri- most desperate fury, and that the battle tertated by their unsubdued turbulence and obsti- minated in both parties quitting the field, without nate intrepidity, made every effort (after he had either being able to claim the least advantage. gained the victory of Panipath, which estab- The historians of Ahmed Shah are, however, lished his supremacy at Delhi) to destroy their silent' regarding this action, which indeed, from power; and, with this view, he entered the all the events of his long contests with the Sikhs, Panjab early in 1762, and over-ran the whole of appears unlikely to have occurred. that country with a numerous army, defeating When oppressed, the Sikhs became formid.

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