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arrangement. These night signals and instruc- shore, hoisted on the left post or right, together tions, thus prepared and comprised, with in- with one or two obscurations of the lights, either dices, in one small octavo volume, were then in a horizontal or vertical position, will denote adopted, and have ever since been used in his more ideas than is required for any code of night majesty's navy. As it may be deemed improper signals. to give publicity to these night signals, or to ex The lanterns are to be made in a cylindrical hibit in this work a detail of the principles on form ; dimensions about nine inches diameter, which they are founded, suffice it to observe and proportionable height. A lamp with four that the utility of the plan, compared to that for. burners is to be placed in a socket in the centre, merly in practice by showing lights at particular and so constructed that, if a lantern should happarts of a ship, or in the form of triangles, pen to be upset, the oil cannot be spilt. Instead squares, or lozengrs, where best seen, is too ob- of horn or glass to the lanterns it is proposed to vious to be dwelt upon; yet, when a fleet is in substitute talc, or what is commonly known by the presence of an enemy, it may be proper to the name of Muscovy glass, which is equally as make signals in the night by lights only. transparent as common glass, is much lighter;
Lord Hood, knowing well how to appreciate and will not consume by fire. every improvement in naval tactics, was the first Each lantern to have an obscurer of tin or commander-in-chief of a fleet who issued to the canvas, to denote the combinations to be hereflag-officers of squadrons and captains of ships after explained. These obscurers to be in the "inder his orders, at the commencement of the form of cylinders, perforated with air-holes at war in 1793, the New Arrangement of Day and the tops and open at the bottoms so as to encirNight Signals above noticed ; and their utility cle or cover the lanterns, and thereby eclipse the since that period has been confirmed by the lights when necessary. practice and experience of every successive com The obscurations, or eclipses, of the lights, mander-in-chief. From the observations of many are thus practised with facility :-Suppose the intelligent officers, it was found that the code of four lights hoisted vertically, or one over the numerary night signals, although it had advan- other, at the usual distance of ten or twelve feet tages in some respects over every other known asunder, each lantern to have its obscurer placed mode practised, yet there was a desideratum from five to six feet over it, and, by a line passing sought after, namely, to give privacy to night through a small block attached to the lantern signals when in expectation of falling in with an halyards, any of the lights at the word of comenemy, or approximating the line of an enemy's mand would be obscured. In exposing the light coast. It is, therefore, the object of the following again, it is only necessary to haul the topping auxiliary plan, proposed by Mr. M'Arthur, to line of the obscurer, while the lantern remains remedy the disadvantages that might eventually in the same permanent situation. result by firing guns, as the component part of The lanterns and mode of obscuring the lights the numerary combination to night signals, and being premised, the plan is susceptible of the which may still be continued as the standing following arrangement:- The first will denote, system, when the feet is not in expectation of as by preparatory signal, that the combinations falling in with the enemy. This can be effected are to be applied telegraphically, to the letters of by the combinations of four distinct lights, with- the alphabet. The second arrangement will deout the aid of guns or false fires ; and the mode note, by preparatory signal, the first twenty-five proposed will have the superadded advantage of numbers allotted to the significations in the being occcasionally employed as a nocturnal standing Night Signal book for the navy, and in telegraph, for naval or military purposes. order to express fifty additional numbers, makGeneral principles to be adopted.
ing in all seventy-five signals, which is more
than the numerary code with guns, lights, and 1. An improvement in the construction of false-fires compréhend, an obscuration of one sagnal lanterns; and, as only four are required light for an interval of twenty or thirty seconds for each ship, they ought to be issued as an ar- will denote the numbers from 26 to 50 inclusive; ticle of store by the navy office.
and the obscuration of two lights will denote the 2. The signals are to be made from on board numbers from 51 to 75 inclusive, as expressed in ship where best seen, forward or abaft; or if a the following table :-The open cyphers, thus ship be directly a-head or a-stern of other ships O, in the annexed table, denote the lights shown, to whom these signals are to be communicated. and the shaded ones, thus
denote the lights The signal lanterns may be shown at the larboard o scured or eclipsed. and starboard yard-arms, where best seen; but, It is to be observed that, when one or two if used on shore, the left hand post or signal staff; lights are to be obscured, the lights composing and the right hand post or staff
, are to be consi- the signal are first shown for å few minutes ; dered synonymous terms to the application, at then one or two lights, as indicated in the table, sea, of forward and abaft, or larboard and star to be obscured for twenty or thirty seconds, and board yard-arms.
which is to be repeated by showing the lights 3. The combination of two, three, or four again until answered and understood by the ships lights, shown at sea forward or abaft, or at the to which the signal may be addressed. larboard and starboard yard-arms; but, if on
Table exhibiting the Letters of the Alphabet, and Seventy-five Numeral Signals, by the
Combination of Four Lights, shown and obscured.
A Table of the number of Guns, Lights, and Blue LIGHTS, employed to express numbers,
which refer to certain significations, as set forth in the following table.
One gun to call the attention of the fleet.
the larboard tack.
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Explanation of the table.- Each lantern-light ready to put his orders in execution. Having to four expresses 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively. One observed their answer, he will show the signal blue-light expresses 5. Two guns express 10, which is to direct their operations : as, to chase, three guns express 20, and four guns 30. To to form the line, to begin the engagement, to express any number, therefore, as for instance board, to double upon the enemy, to rally or 19, fire two guns, burn one blue-light, and hoist return to action, to discontinue the fight, to refour vertical lights where they can best be seen. treat and save themselves. The dexterity of
Previous to making any of the first nine signals, working the ships in a fleet depends on the prewhich do not require guns to express the num cise moment of executing these orders; and on ber, one gun will be fired to draw the attention of the general harmony of their movements : a cirthe fleet, and in making the remaining signals, the cumstance which evinces the utility of a signal necessary guns will be fired to draw the attention of preparation. of the fleet previous to hoisting the lights, or As the extent of the line of battle, and the fire burning the blue-light. To prevent a confusion and smoke of the action, or other circumstances of lights, when a signal is made from the com- in navigation, will frequently prevent the admimodore, the top light will be covered.
ral's signals from being seen throughout the fleet, It is recommended to use glass signal-lanterns, they are always repeated by the officers next in as horn admits a very dull light. Such lanterns command; by ships appointed to repeat signals ; should be well strengthened down the sides, and and, finally, by the ship or ships for which they be provided with a secure ring at the bottom as well are intended. as at the top, for the convenience of bending them The ships that repeat the signals, besides the to each other; and to the top ring of three of the chiefs of squadrons or divisions, are usually frisignal-lanterns a tack should be fitted, about a gates lying to windward or to leeward of the fathom long, to admit their being bent to each line. They should be extremely vigilant to obother with regularity and despatch.
serve and repeat the signals, whether they are to Signal, PREPARATORY (Fr. signal prépara- transmit the orders of the commander-in-chief, toire), a signal given by the admiral to the whole, or his seconds, to any part of the fleet, or to or any part of his fleet, and is immediately an- report the fortunate or distressful situation of any swered by those to whom it is directed; by part thereof. By this means all the ships from showing the same signal, to testify that they are the van to the rear will, unless disabled, be ready Vol. XX.