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SIGNALS.

PLATE I.

PLAN OF TABULAR AND VIMERARY SIGVALS.
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Superior
Flaus
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14 | 26 | 38 50 62
38 50 62 74 86 98

98 | 110 122 134

146

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1.5 27 39 -1 13 75 07 99 11 12 135 147 16 38 40 6476 48 10 12 124 136 1. 17 39 41 43 63 27 101 103 25 37 109 18 30 42 44 46 78 20 102 114 120 338 150 19 31 43 53 67 79 99 103 15 197 199 150

20 32 | 44 | 56 68 80 92 104 116 128 140 152 321 33

6

7

8

21 33 45

45 57 69 81 93 105 117 129 141 153

22 | 34 | 46

46 | 58 70 82 94

106 118 | 130 142 154

10

23 25 47 597 85 95 107 109 | 131 | 1,43|15

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Substit

tute Flag

1. The Colours of the Flags are indicated thus, For RED, vertical

lines, for BLUE,horizontal, and for YELLOW, small dots.

London Published by Thomas Tegg.73. Cheapside.

J. Shury sculp

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on silk or vellum, may be made to shift or slide shown, at the most conspicuous parts of a ship, on thin box-wood attached to the upper and the superior flag will denote thousands, and the lateral columns, in order that the order or place three others hundreds, tens, and units, as in the of the flags may be changed or transposed to preceding article. The number of signals, with different numbers, when the admiral may think it the combination of four flags, will be 9999 in necessary, so that nothing need be apprehended number. from the code of signals falling into the hands of Additional substitute flags.-IIaving assigned an enemy. In this respect the substituie flag one substitute flag for the first combination with may, when hoisted over any other flag, indicate two flags, which for distinction's sake is termed the transposition of that tabular flag to the the integral substitute, it is proper that a second place of No. 1, and the other eleven flags are to and third should be assigned to the other combifollow such change of place in the progressive nations, so as to leave no chasm in the proorder they stand, whereby the tabular system, gressive numbering of hundreds and thousands; with respect to flags indicating numbers, becomes therefore the flag 11, with the letter W prefixed, totally changed, while the original significations is termed the decimal substitute, when three of the signals remain permanent.*

flags, including it, are hoisted : and flag 12, Numerary and alphabetic combinations, with with the letter X prefixed, is termed the centesithe thirteen flags of the table in plate 1.-The mal substitute when four flags are hoisted. plan is not confined solely to the simple tabular Erample with three flags. If 333 were to be form already explained, and which would suffice expressed, flay. 3 would be hoisted uppermost ; to denote a greater number of signals than has next to it the decimal substitute, and the lowest heretofore been practised in the navy; but it is would be the integral substitute. susceptible of a numerary combination capable Erample with four flags.-If 4444 were to be of expressing 20,000 additional ideas, applicable denoted, the flaz 4 would be superior, the cen10 so many words of a dictionary or vocabulary tesimal substitute next, then the decimal and inregularly numbered from 1, to 20,000. The tegral subtitutes. If 4044, the cypher-flag would leiters of the alphabet can also be easily de- be under flag 4 the superior, then the decimal noted, by applying as marked in the table the and integral substitutes, and so on of the other signals first in order from 1 to 26 inclusive. numbers wherever a substitute flag was necesThis is so obvious that it requires no further sary to the last in the combination ; namely, 9999, explanation. For the better understanding of which would he expressed by flag 9 superior the numerary combination, reference will be first to the three substitutes in their proper order. inade to the ten flags numbered in the lateral To complete the series to 10,000, the cyphercolumn from one to ten, which, with the aid of flag is to be hoisted superior to the three substi · the substitute, can express 10,000 signals, by tutes in their natural order. hoisting the flags in the proper order a3 repre By inverting or reversing the numerical flags, sented; and, when these flags are shown inverted the value of 10,000 is added to each signal, or reversed, 10,000 additional ideas can be de- whereby 10,000 additional ideas on the same noted.

principles can be expressed ; consequently, the 1. With one or two flags.—The signal Aags two arrangements, with only thirteen flags, will from 1 to 9, hoisted singly, will express their denote 20,000 signals or words of a dictionary. corresponding numbers as units, and' Aag 10 is Example in the inverted order of the tabular to be considered the cypher flag. When two flags. If 10,023 were to be expressed, it would flags are shown at the same time, the one hoisted only be necessary to hoist flag 2 inverted over superior will express tens, and the under one fag 3, also inverted. To denote 10,123, the units: thus flag 2 over flag 4 would express three flags 1, 2, 3, would be inverted. To de24 : Aag 3 over flag 10, or cypher, would express note 12,345, the superior Aag 2 for so many 30: and flag 4 hoisted over the substitute would thousands would be shown inverted, next flag 3 denote 44. The substitute in this combination would be shown inverted, then the diagonal flags being always considered a repetition in units of 4 and 5 would be shown reversed; that is, the the number immediately above it; the signals, white part next the mast, and so forth, always therefore, that can be expressed by one or two bearing in mind that by this order of inverting or flags are 99 in number.

reversing the flags, there are 10,000 added to the 2. With three flags. When three flags are original numbers which the signals would othershown at the same time, the superior denotes wise express, if the flags were hoisted in the hundreds, the next tens, and the lower one units. original or proper order. Thus, if 346 were to be expressed, tag 3 would The above plan of tabular and numerary be hoisted superior for hundreds, the flag 4 next signals was illustrated by plates containing a for tens, and flag 6 for units; consequently, the variety of essential evolutions in the order of number of signals, with the combination of three sailing and lines of battle. But although it was Hags, will be 999 in number.

allowed to possess great ingenuity, and met with 3. With four flags.- When four flags are a favorable reception from the admiralty, there

appears to have been an insurmountable ob• This suggestion of a transposition-flag was

stacle to its adoption, principally, it was said, afterwards adopted in the New Arrangement of lord arising from a numerary plan of day signals dillowe's Signals, prepared by Mr. M'Arthur in 1792 ; gested by earl Howe, then in contemplation to and a single flag was then appropriated to that pur- have been brought into general practice, wł.en an

opportunity offered.

pise.

Alterations and improvements to the code of 3. Every signal has immediate reference to the day und night signuls now, established in the article relative to it in the Instruction Book; and, navy.-In the Spanish armament of 1790, and that the articles may not be mistaken for the pages, Russian armament of 1791, earl Ilowe's day they are always referred to in Roman numerals. signals, printed in quarto, with instructions, also The like is attended to in the indices, and the his night signals, were issued to his majesty's numbers of the signals are placed in figures on ships under the orders of admiral lord Hood, the left hand, so as not to be mistaken for the commander-in-chief, then also one of the lords pages referred to on the right. commissioners of the admiralty. In the summer 4. Instead of the leaves formerly allotted to of 1792, when a rupture with the French re the supplemental flags, they are now exhibited public was apprehended, lord Hood was ap- to view on two pages only, under the title of pointed to the command of a squadron in the Single Flags appropriated to particular Signals Channel, for the purpose of exercising the independent of the Numerals; therefore no numofficers and men in the order of battle, and of ber or article is attached to them as formerly, sailing, and other duties in their several stations, but the purport of each retained, by which it is which might best qualify them for service, pre- distinguished when referred to, either in the paratory to and in battle against an enemy.' Signal or Instruction Book ; thus, affirmative

During this service, in which a squadron of flag, annulling flag, rendezvous, preparative, &c. fifteen sail, including frigates, was exercised in 5. The single flags appropriated to particular the various evolutions indicated by earl Howe's signals being arranged as in the preceding artiday signals, Mr. M'Arthur, the admiral's secre- cle, the numeral signals are made to commence tary, turned his attention to render them more at No. 1, instead of No. 13, as formerly in lord simple and perspicuous, by preparing a new Howe's code, and from 13 the numbers and arrangement, in which several important altera- significations follow as heretofore. tions and additions were incorporated, drawn 6. To the end that the numbers and significafrom the code which he had, as already noticed, tions may be permanent, and to remove every presented two years antecedently to the admi- apprehension of their being useful to the enemy ralty. From motives of respeet and delicacy in case of getting possession of them in this towards earl Howe, sir Hyde Parker, then act- regular form, in the accompanying model of ing as captain of the feet under lord Hood, a signal board, the numerical flags, painted transmitted to the former a copy of Mr. M'Ar- in a duplicate order, are made to change or thur's explanatory observations on the proposed slide, with observations on an additional signal new arrangement of day signals and instructions. proposed to be inserted in the department allotted. The whole having been subsequently laid before Single flags (namely, by the introduction of what the lords commissioners of the admiralty, they is called a key or transposition fag, which, when were approved of and printed in the latter end hoisted, denotes that the numeral or integral flag of 1792, under Mr. M'Arthur's superintendence, hoisted under it is to be transposed or changed with all the alterations and additions he had to the upper place allowed, No. 1;) and the other suggested, together with a new code of night eight integral flags are to follow such change of signals, he had at the same time compiled, and place in the progressive order they stand, wheresutmitted for approval.

by the numeral system becomes totally changed. From that period these day signals and in- This suggestion may, perhaps, on a due consistructions, together with the new code of night deration, be deemed worthy of adoption. signals alluded to, and to be hereafter noticed, 7. The table of triangular flags, page 6, Signal have been issued to his majesty's ships, with Book, is proposed to be substituted for the former little or no variation in form or substance. The one, as being more simple in form. following being the principal heads of the expla 8. In some signals it has been tijought necesnatory observations préfixed to the new arrange- sary to insert a N. B. illustrative of them taken ment of lord Howe's signals, submitted to the from the Instructions; such as signals 4, 24, admiralty, they will suffice to give the reader a' 25, &c., whereby signals that formerly appeared competent idea of the improvements suggested, on a perusal of the Instructions only, are now and which were ultimately adopted.

brought forward to view in the proper departSignal book. -1. The column of purport in ments of the respective signals. earl Howe's quarto Signal Book is proposed to 9. Should the new signals 10, 11, and 12, rebe done away entirely, and a copious alphabetical Jative to enforcing the general station signal, and numerical index substituted; the present No. 4, not be deemed essential, they may arrangement, therefore, may be printed in a remain blanks, or be appropriated for other convenient octavo size, with as large a type as significations. lord Howe's quarto impression.

10. If the Signal Book were printed on stout 2. By leaving a small blank space on the paper, and half bound, it would admit the margin outer margin of the leaves, the index to the sig- to be cut out in the form submitted, with great nals and instructions, as well as the numbers on regularity, as alphabetical and numerical indices, each page, may be exhibited in the form cut out and be equally adapted for a commander-in-chief in the accompanying Signal Book; whereby both to make signals, as well as private ships to refer books become at once arranged either for a flag immediately to the significations indicated. Eight or private ship. Similar attention has been paid plates are annexed of the most essential evoluto private ships' signals, to which is added a tions, with instructions on the principal move. numerical index, whe signals are made with

These are entirely new, and have been facility, and their significations found without introduced for the reasons to be noticed in the any further arrangement.

subsequent article.

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