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. of performing the work by them, as is commonly made by the abbé Cavanilles, a Spaniard, insertsupposed, but by no means proved. The sickle ed in the Mem. de l'Acad. Royale, it appears is by far the most frugal and economical tool that the plants succeed best when sown in May, for accomplishing the work with, as causing the and they arrive at perfection in three months and least loss of grain.

a half. The maceration of the smaller stalks is SICLOS, a town of Hungary, with a castle on finished in about fifteen days; of the larger in a a mountain, in which the emperor Sigismund month. The strength and goodness of the thread was imprisoned. In 1543 it was betrayed to the appeared to be in proportion to the perfection of Turks by its commander; but in 1664 it was re- the vegetation and to the distance the plant was covered by the Imperialists. It is sixty-four kept at from other plants. The fibres lie in miles south-east of Canischa.

strata, of which there are sometimes six; they SICON, a town of Cuba, 125 miles west of are not quite straight, but preserve an undulating Havanna.

direction, so as to form a network in their natural SICORUS, in ancient geography, a river of positions. Their smell resembles that of hemp; Hispania Tarraconensis, rising in the Pyrenees. the fibres are whiter, but more dry and harsh Near it Julius Cæsar conquered Afranius and than those of hemp. The harshness is owing to Petreius. Sce Rome. Lucan iv. 14, 130. Plin. a greenish gluten which connects the fibres ; and iii. 3. It is now called Segre.

the white color must be always obtained at the SICULI, an ancient people of Ausonia, who expense of having this kind of thread less supinvaded the Sicanians in Sicily, and gave their ple; when of its natural hue, it is very soft name to the island, about A. A. C. 1059. and flexible. This description belongs chiefly

SICULUM FRETUM, the ancient name of the to the sida : but it will also apply to the malva Straits of Messina. See SICILY.

crispa, Peruviana, and Mauritiana. See Malva. SICYON, an ancient town of Peloponnesus, The malva crispa gave, however, the greatest the capital of Sicyonia. It was taken by Aga- quantity of fibres, and its gluten was most comemnon, and afterwards by the Heraclidæ. It pious. The fibres of the sida abutilon and the became very powerful at the time of the Achæan malva crispa are the longest and the strongest ; League, which the citizens joined, at the per- those of the Peruviana and Mauritiana are the suasion of Aratus. The people are said to have shortest and the weakest. The fibres of those been dissolute and luxurious. Sicyonian shoes plants which had lost their leaves are less strong, were deemed marks of effeminacy. It is now though of equal length with those which had called Basilico.

preserved them. 2. S. Alba; 3. Alnifolia; 4. SICYONIA, a kingdom or province of Pelo- Angustifolia; 5. Arborea ; 6. Atrosanguinea ; 7. ponnesus, on the bay of Corinth, one of the most Carpinifolia ; 8. Ciliaris; 9. Cordifolia; 10. Jaancient and eminent in Greece. Ægialeus, the maicensis; 11. Paniculata ; 12. Periplocifolia ; son of Phoroneus, was the first king, who began 13. Retusa ; 14. Rhombifolia ; 15. Spinosa; to reign about A.A.C. 2089, and reigned fifty- 16. Triquetra; 17. Viscosa; 18. Umbellata; two years. This country in its flourishing state and 19. Urens. These eighteen species have fifgave name to all Peloponnesus. It is fertile, teen capsules each. 20. S. Americana; 21. and abounds with corn, wine, olive oil, iron, Asiatica ; 22. Crispa; 23. Crustata ; 24. Indica; &c.

25. Mauritiana; 26. Occidentalis; and 27. TerSICYONIAN. Of or belonging to Sicyon. nata. These eight species, with the Abutilon

SICYOS, in botany, single-seeded cucumber; above described, are all multicapsular. They are a genus of plants belonging to the class of mo- all natives of warm climates; and most of them næcia, and to the order of syngenesia; and in are found in the East or West Indies.. the natural system ranged under tke thirty fourth SIDDEE, or SEDEE, an Arabic title, by which order, cucurbitacea. The male flowers have their the Abyssinians or Habashys are always distincalyx quinquedentated, their corolla quinquepar- guished in the court of Hindostan; where, tite, and there are three filaments. The female being in great repute for firmness and fidelity, flowers have their calyx and corolla similar; but they are generally employed as commanders of their style is trifid, and their drupa monosper- forts or in posts of great trust. mous. There are three species : 1. S. angulata. SID E. Coom, the established legal regicide, 2. S. garcini, and 3. S. Laciniata, which are all or king-killer, in the barbarous kingdom of Senforeign plants.

naar. See SENNAAR. SID, a river of England, in Devonshire, which SIDE, n. s., adj., & v. n. Sax. side; Goth. runs into the English channel at Sidmouth. SIDE'BOARD, N. S.

sijde. The rib part SIDA, or Side, in fabulous history, the wife of


of an animal; edge; Orion.


margin ; verge; any Sida, yellow, or Indian mallow, in botany, a Side’long, adj. & adv. part, person, genus of plants belonging to the class of mona SIDE'SADDLE, n. s. thing placed in opdelphia, order polyandria; and in the natural Sides'MAN,

position, local or system ranging under the thirty-seventh order, SIDE'WAYS, adv. metaphorical, columniferæ. The calyx is simple and angulated; SIDE'wise,

something else, or the style is divided into many parts; there are Si'dle, v. n.

some other part or several capsules, each containing one seed. There person; faction; party; interest: as an adjecare twenty-seven species ;

tive, side means lateral, indirect, oblique; as a 1. S. Abutilon. The Chinese make cords of verb neuter, to lean on one side ; to take or lean this plant. It delights in water, and may be ad- to a party: sidefly is an insect : sidelong, synovantageously planted in marshes and ditches, nymous with side, as an adjective; in a lateral where nothing else will grow. From experiments direction, which also sideways and sidewise



mean : to sidle, to go sideways with another She darted from her eyes a sidelong glance body or thing; also to be on the side: the other Just as she spoke, and, like her words, it few; compounds seem to explain themselves. Seemed not to beg to what she then bid me do.

Dryden. Take of the blood, and strike it on the two side

Poor wretch! on stormy seas to lose thy life; posts, and on the upper door post, of the houses.

For now the flowing tide
Erodus xii. 7.

Had brought the body nearer to the side. Id. The tables were written on both their sides, on the

One mighty squadron with a side wind sped. Id. one side and on the other.

Id. xxxii. 15.

No sideboards then with gilded plate were dressed, When two boars with rankling malice meet

No sweating slaves with massive dishes pressed. Their gory sides fresh bleeding fiercely fret.

Id. Faerie Queen?.

The lovely Thaïs by his side They presume that the law doth speak with all in

Sat, like a blooming eastern bride, differency, that the law hath no side respect to their

In Mower of youth, and beauty's pride.

1 ld. persons.


The deadly wound is in thy soul : There began a sharp and cruel fight, many being When thou a tempting harlot dost behold, slain and wounded on both sides.

And when she casts on thee a sidelong glance, k'nolles's History of the Turks.

Then try thy heart, and tell me if it dance. N. Vexed are the nobles who have sided

People are sooner reclaimed by the side wind of a In his behalf.

Shakspeare. Coriolanus.

surprize, than by downright admonition. Their weapons only

L'Estrange. Seemed on our side ; but for their spirits and souls,

The parts of water being easily separable from This word rebellion, it had froze them up,

each other, will, by a side motion, be easily removed, As fish are in a pond.

Id. Henry IV.

and give way to the approach of two pieces of marble. All rising to great place is by a winding stair ;

Locke. and, if there be factions, it is good to side a man's The reason of the planets' motions in curve lines is self whilst rising, and balance himself when placed. the attraction of the sun, and an oblique or sidelong


la. The plague is not easily received by such as con

if it prove too wet, lay your pot sidelong; but tinually are about them that have it : on the other side, the plague taketh soonest hold of those that shade those which blow from the afternoon sun.

Evelyn's kalendar. come out of a fresh air.


The snow-white damask ensigns are displayed, As soon as discontents drove men into sidings, as ill humours fall to the disaffected part, which causes

And glittering salvers on the sideboard laid. hing. inflammations, so did all who affected novelties ad.

Favour, custom, and at last number, will be on

the side of grace. here to that side. King Charles.

Sprat. Terms rightly conceived, and notions duly fitted

Yet here and there we grant a gentle bride, to them, require a brain free from all inclination

Whose temper betters by the father's side ;

Unlike the rest that double human care, to siding, or affection to opinions for the author's

Fond to relieve, or resolute to share. Parnel. sakes, before they be well understood.

Digby on Bodies.

A gift of such goods, made by them with the conThe force of these outward streams might well

sent of the sidesmen or vestry, is void. enough serve for the turning of the screw, if it were

Ayliffe's Parergon. so that both its sides would equiponderate. Wilkins. I could see persons dressed in glorious habits, with At a stately sideboard by the wine

garlands upon their heads, lying down by the sides o fountains.

Addisin. That fragrant smell diffused. Milton's Paradise Regained.

It is pleasant to see a verse of an old poet revolting As if on earth

from its original sense, and siding with a modern subWinds under ground, or waters, forcing way,


lu. Sidelong had pushed a mountain froin his seat,

That person, who fills their chair, has justly gained Half sunk with all his pines.

Id. Paradise Lost.

the esteem of all sides by the impartiality of his behaviour.

Id. They, looking back, all the eastern side beheld Or Paradise.


The shining sideboard, and the burnished piate, If our substance be indeed divine,

Let other ministers, great Anne, require. Prior. And cannot cease to be, we are at worst

If the image of the sun should be drawn out into On this side nothing.


an oblong form, either by a dilatation of every ray, The fair blossom hangs the head

or by any other casual inequality of the refractions, Sideways, as on a dying bed ;

the same oblong image would, by a second refraction And those pearls of dew she wears

made sideways, be drawn out as much in breadth by Prove to be presaging tears.

Id. the like dilatation of the rays, or other casual ineNot yet so dully desperate

quality of the refraction sideways. Newton's Opricks. To side against ourselves with fate;

Africanus brought from Carthage to Rome, in silAs criminals, condemned to suffer,

ver vessels, to the value of 11,9661. 158. 91.; a Are blinded first, and then turned over. Hudibras. quantity exceeded afterwards by the sideboards of Men he always took to be

many private tables.

Arbuthnol His friends, and dogs his enemy;

From a rough whitish maggot, in the intestinum Who never so much hurt had done him,

rectum of horses, the sidefly proceeds. As his own side did falling on him.


Derham's Physico-Theology. Or where Hydalpes' wealthy side

The princes differ and divide ; Pays tribute to the Persian pride. Roscommon. Some follow law, and some with beauty side. It is granted, on both sides, that the fear of a

Granrille. Deity doch universally possess the minds of men.

Let not our James, though foiled in arıns, despais, Tillotson.

Whilst on his side he reckons half the fair. Tickel. In the serious part of poetry the advantage is What natural agent could turn them aside, could wholly on Chaucer's side.

yden impel them strongly with a transverse side blow

against that tremendous weight and rapidity, when SIDERIAL DAYS. See AstroNOMY, Index. whole worlds are a-falling? Bentley's Sermons. Siderial YEAR. See Astronomy, Index.

He not only gives us the full prospects, but seve SIDERITIS, iron-wort, in botany, a genus of ral unexpected peculiarities, and side views, unob- plants belonging to the class of didynamia, and served by any painter but Homer.

to the order of gymnospermia; and in the naPope's Preface to the Iliad. All side in parties, and begin the' attack. Perpe.

tural system ranging under the forty-second order, He from the taste obscene reclaims our youth,

verticillatæ. The stamina are within the tube of And sets the passions on the side of truth ;

the corolla. There are two stigmas, one of which Forms the soft bosom with the gentlest art,

is cylindrical and concave; the other, which is And pours each human virtue in the heart. In. lower, is membranous, shorter, and sheathing the Why round our coaches crowd the white-gloved other. The species are fifteen. 1. S. Canabeaux ?

riensis, the Canary iron-wort, is a native of MaWhy bows the sidebox from its inmost rows? Id. deira and the Canary Islands; 2. S. candicans,

Those who pretended to be in with the principles the whitish iron-wort, is also a native of Madeiupon which her majesty proceeded, either absented ra; 3. S. ciliata, the ciliated, or hairy iron-wort; themselves where the whole cause depended, or sided with the enemy.

4. S. elegans,the elegant iron-wort; 5.S. hirsuta,

Swift. My secret enemies could not forbear some expres- parts of Europe ; 6. S. hyssopifolia, the hyssop

the rough iron-wort, is indigenous in the south sions, which by a side wind reflected on me. The chaffering with dissenters is but like opening leaved iron-wort

, is a native of Italy and the a few wickets, and leaving them a-jar, by which no Pyrennees; 7. S. incana, the hoary iron-wort

, is more than one can get in at a time, and that not a native of Spain; 8. S. lanata, the woolly ironwithout stooping and sidling, and squeezing his body. wort; 9, S. montana, the mountain iron-wort, is

Swift. a native of Italy and Austria; 10. S. perfoliata, Ere the soft fearful people to the flood the full-leaved iron-wort, is a native of the LeCommit their woolly sides.

Thomson. vant; 11. S. Romana, the Roman iron-wort, is The kiss snatched hasty from the sidelong maid. Id. a native of Italy; 12. S. scordioides, the GerTwo nations still pursued

mander iron-wort, a native of the south of Peculiar ends, on each side resolute

France; 13. S. Syriaca, Syrian iron-wort, a To fy conjunction.


native of the Levant. SI'DERAL, adj.) Lat. sidus, a star. Starry; SIDEROXYLON, iron-wood, in botany, a SI'DERATED, astral : siderated is blasted genus of plants belonging to the class of pen

Sidera'tion, n.s. ) (supposed by the stars); tandria, and to the order of monogynia; and in planet-struck: the noun substantive correspond- the natural system ranging under the forty-third ing.

order, dumosæ. The corolla is cut into ten These changes in the heavens, though slow, pro- parts, the laciniæ or segments being incurvated duced

alternately; the stigma is simple; the berry conLike change on sea and land : sideral blast,

tains five seeds. There are ten species : 1. S. Vapour and mist, and exhalation hot,

cymosum, the sproutful iron-wood, a native of Corrupt and pestilent ! Milton's Paradise Lost.

the Cape of Good Hope, 2. S. decandrum, the Parts cauterized, gangrenated, siderated, and mor ten-chived iron-wood, has ten stamina ; 3. S. tified, become black; the radical moisture, or vital foetidissimum, the stinking iron-wood, is a native sulphur, suffering an extinction.

of the Cape of Good Hope; 4. S. inerme, Browne's Vulgar Errours. Thc contagious vapor of the very eggs produces a

smooth iron-wood, in this country requires a mortification or sideration in the parts of plants on

warm stove; 5. S. lycioides, the willow-leaved which they are laid.

Ray on the Creation. iron-wood, is a native of North America; 6. S. The musk gives

melanophelum, laurel-leaved iron-wood; 7. S. Sure hopes of racy wine, and in its youth,

mite, the mild iron-wood, requires a warm stove Its tender nonage, loads the spreading boughs in this country; 8. S. siriceum, silky iron-wood, With large and juicy offspring, that defies

is a native of New South Wales; 9. S. spinoThe vernal nippings and cold sideral blasts. Philips. sum, thorr.y iron-wood, or argan, is a native of SIDERATIO. See NECROSIS.

Morocco; 10. S. tenax, silvery-leaved iron-wood, SIDEREAL, or Siderean, from Latin side- is a native of Carolina. The wood of these trees, reus, starry. Of or belonging to the stars ; like a being very close and solid, has given occasion star; starry; the same with sideral, but more for this name to be applied to them, it being so used, as well as siderial.

heavy as to sink in water. As they are natives SIDERIA, in the old system of mineralogy, of warm countries, they cannot be preserved in a genus of crystals, used to express those altered this country unless they are placed in a greenin their figure by particles of iron. These are house. They are propagated by seeds procured of a rhomboidal figure, and composed only of from abroad. six planes. Of this genus three species were SIDERUM, the name first given by Sir T. enumerated : 1. A colorless, pellucid, and thin Bergman to the phosphuret of iron, 'which he one; found in considerable quantities among the took to be a new metal. See PHOSPHURET. iron ores of the forest of Dean in Gloucestershire, SIDLA, SIdlaw, or Sidley Hill, the prinand in several other places. 2. A dull, thick, and cipal and the highest of the Sidlaw Hills, which brown one; not uncommon in the same places gives name to the whole ridge, is 1406 feet above with the former. And, 3. A black and very the level of the sea. glossy kind, a fossil of great beauty; found in Sidla, SIDLAW, SIDLEY, or SudLaw Hills, the same places, also in Leicestershire and Sussex. a ridge of hills of Scotland, extending from west

SIDERIAL, or SIDEREAL. See SiderEAL. to east, through the counties of Perth and For

far; commencing at Kinnoul and terminating which he enjoyed with the queen and the earl of near Brechin. This ridge stands on the south Leicester was wholly employed in the encourageside of the valley of Strathmore, and is so named ment of genius and literature, his praises have from its situation ; sud-laws, in the Gaelic lan- been transmitted with advantage to posterity. guage, signifying south hills. The mountains No person was so low as not to become an object are of various heights. Next to Sidlaw, the of his humanity. After the battle of Zutphen, highest, are King's Seat, Kinpurnie, and Dun- when he was lying on the field, mangled with sinnan.

woands, a bottle of water was brought him to SIDMOUTH, a market-town in the hundred relieve his thirst; but, observing a soldier near of East-Budleigh, Devonshire, situate at the him in a like miserable condition, he said, “This mouth of the small river Sid, near the sea, man's necessity is still greater than mine,' and twelve miles south-east of Exeter, and 158 west resigned to him the bottle of water. Besides his by south from London. It was anciently a con- Arcadia, he wrote several smaller pieces both in siderable sea-port, but its harbour has long since prose and verse, which have been published. been choked with sand. Of late years it has SIDNEY (Algernon), the celebrated English pabeen much frequented as a watering-place, and triot, was the second son of Robert earl of Leicesis much improved. It has an elegant ball-room, ter, and Dorothy, eldest daughter of the earl of and on the beach a commodious tea-room and Northumberland. He was born about 1617. shade. The town stands between two hills, and During the civil wars he took part against the although open to the ocean, is entirely free from king, and distinguished himself as a colonel in fogs, so that it is esteemed a very healthy as well the army of the parliament. He was afterwards as pleasant situation. Market on Saturday. appointed one of king Charles's judges, but deFairs Easter-Tuesday, and the Wednesday after clined appearing in tnat court. During the September 1st. It is a vicarage, valué £18 15s. usurpation of Cromwell, Sidney, who was a 5d.

violent republican, retired to the country, and SIDNEY (Sir Philip), was born at Penshurst, spent his time in writing those discourses on in Kent, in 1554; his father was Sir Henry Sid- government which have been so deservedly celeney, an Irish gentleman, and his mother Mary, brated. After the death of the protector, he again the eldest daughter of John Dudley, duke of took part in the public transactions of his counNorthumberland. He was sent when very young try, and was abroad on an embassy to Denmark, to Christ-church College at Oxford, but left the when king Charles was restored. Upon this he university at seventeen to set out on his travels. returned to Hamburgh, and afterwards to FrankAfter visiting France, Germany, Hungary, and fort, where he resided till 1677, when he returned Italy, he returned to England in 1575, and was to England, and obtained from the king a pardon. next year sent by queen Elizabeth as her ambassa- After his return he made repeated attempts to dor to Rodolph II. emperor of Germany. On his procure a seat in parliament, but all of them return he visited Don John of Austria, governor proved unsuccessful. After the intention of the of the Netherlands, and was received with great commons to seclude the duke of York from the respect. In 1579, when queen Elizabeth seemed throne had been defeated by the sudden dissoluon the point of concluding her long-projected tion of parliament, Sidney joined with eagerness 'marriage with the duke of Anjou, Sir Philip the councils of Russel, Essex, and Monmouth, wrote her a letter, in which he dissuaded her who had resolved to oppose the duke's succession from the match with unusual elegance of expres- by force of arms. Frequent meetings were held sion, as well as force of reasoning. About this at London ; while, at the same time, a set of

a quarrel with the earl of Oxford occasioned subordinate conspirators, who were not, however, his withdrawing from court; during which re- admitted into their confidence, met and emtirement he is supposed to have written his braced the most desperate resolutions. Keiling, celebrated romance, called Arcadia, which is so one of these men, discovered the whole conspioften quoted by Dr. Johnson in his dictionary: racy; and Algernon Sidney, together with his In 1585, after the queen's treaty with the United noble associates, was immediately thrown into States, he was made governor of Flushing and prison, and no art was left unattempted to inmaster of the horse. Here he distinguished volve them in the guilt of the meaner conspirahimself so much that his reputation rose to the tors. Howard, an abandoned nobleman, without highest pitch. He was named, it is said, by the a single spark of virtue or honor, was the only republic of Poland, as one of the competitors for witness against Sidney; but, as the law required that crown, and might even have been elected, two, his Discourses on Government, found unhad it not been for the interference of the queen. published in his closet, were construed into treaBut his illustrious career was soon terminated; son, and declared equivalent to another wjiness. for in 1586 he was wounded at the battle of It was in vain for Sidney to plead that papers Zutphen, and carried to Arnheini, where he soon were no legal evidence; that it could not be after died. His body was brought to London, proved they were written by him; and that, and buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. He is de- if they were, they contained nothing treasonscribed by the writers of that age as the most able. The defence was over-ruled; he was deperfect model of an accomplished gentleman that clared guilty, condemned, and executed on the could be formed, even by the wanton imagination 7th December, 1683. His attainder was re. of poetry or fiction. Virtuons conduct, polite versed in the first year of king William. He conversation, heroic valor, and elegant erudition, was a man of extraordinary courage, steady even all concurred to render him the ornament and to obstinacy; of a sincere but rough and boistedelight of the English court; and, as the credit rous temper. Though he professed his belief in


the Christian religion, he was an enemy to an

And from his bosom purge this black despair. established church, and even, according to Bur

Id. Henry VI. net, to every kind of public worship. In his Give me so much of your time, in exchange of it, principles he was a zealous republican; govern

as to lay an amiable siege to the honesty of Ford's

wife. ment was always his favorite study, and his

Shakspeare. essays on that subject are a proof of the pro

I fetch my life and being

From men of royal siege. Id. Othello. gress which he made.

Your sum of parts SIDON, in ancient geography, a city of Phe

Did not together pluck such envy from him, nicia, in Asia, famous in Scripture for its riches, As did that one, and that in my regard arising from the extensive commerce carried on Of the unworthiest siege.

Id. Hamlet. by its inhabitants. Heavy judgments were de

The more I see nounced against the Sidonians on account of their Pleasures about me, so much more I feel wickedness, which were accomplished in the Torment within me, as from the hateful siege time of Artaxerxes Ochus, king of Persia ; for

Of contraries.

Milton's Paradise Lost. that monarch having come against them with an

It entereth not the veins, but taketh leave of the army, on account of their rebellion, the city was permeant parts, as the mouths of the meseraicks, an 1 betrayed by its king; upon which the wretched accompanieth the inconvertible portion into the inhabitants were seized with despair ; they set


Browne's Vulgar Errours. fire to their houses, and 40,000, with their wives

Love stood the siege, and would not wield his breast..

Dryden. and children, perished in the flames. This city is now called Saide; and, according to Bruce's

Siege. The first operation of a siege, says colonel account, not only its harbour is filled up with James, is investing. The body of troops investsand, but the pavement of the ancient city stood ing a town should at least be as strong again as seven feet and a half lower than the ground on

the garrison ; so as to be able to divide itself into which the present city stands. Volney describes several parties, in order to take possession of all it as an ill-built dirty city. See Saide.

the avenues leading to the place. By day they SIDONIA, an epithet of Dido (Ovid. Met. should keep themselves out of cannon-shot'; bui, xiv. 80); also of Carthage, because built by Si soon as it is dusk, they must approach donians.–Virg. Æn. 1, v. 682.

much nearer, the better to be able to support SIDONIAN, of or belonging to Sidon. each other, and to straiten the town. SIDONIANS, the people of Sidon. They

To undertake the siege of a town (entreprenwere extremely ingenious in arts and manufac dre le siège d'une ville Fr.), to invest it, to form tures, and were particularly famous for embroi

lines circumvallation, to open trenches, &c. dery and dyeing

To lay siege to a town (faire le siège d'une SIDONIORUM Insule, in ancient geogra- ville, Fr.), to draw your forces round a town phy, islands in the Gulf of Persia.—Strabo, xvi. for the purpose of attacking it.

SIDONIS, an ancient country of Asia, in the To carry on a siege (continuer un siège, Fr.), west of Syria, or Phænicia, on the coast of the to persevere by regular approaches, &c., in gainMediterranean. Sidon was the capital.

ing ground upon the garrison. SIDONIUS, APOLLINARIS. See APOLLINARIS. To lay close siege (presser le siège, Fr.), to SIDRA, an extensive gulf in the eastern part approach close to the walls for the purpose of of the territory of Tripoli

, in the interior of making a breach and storming, or of starving which are extensive quicksands, celebrated in out the garrison. For a full and scientific exantiquity under the appellation of Syrtis, from planation of the different methods which are a corruption of which the modern name is de- adopted in modern times, for the attack and derived. It extends from long. 15° 30' to 19° 30° fence of places, particularly of sieges, see Essai E., and from lat. 30° 30' to 32° 30' N.

Général de Fortification et d'attaque et défense SIDUS GEORGIUM, in astronomy, a name des places, tom. i. page 61, &c. &c. sometimes given to the primary planet, discovered General phrases and terms used at a siege are, by Dr. Herschell in 1781. By most foreign, and viz:- To besiege a place. See Siege. some British philosophers, it is named Herschell. To accelerate the siege (accélérer siège, Fr.) See ASTRONOMY, Index.

is when an army can approach so near the place SIEGE, n. s. & v.a. Fr. siege ; qu. Lat. sedis? as the covert-way, without breaking ground, unThe act of besetting a fortified place; a leaguer; der favor of some hollow roads, rising grounds, a seat; throne; stool; place: to besiege (obso- or cavities, and there begin their work. lete).

An attack is when the besieging army can apDrawing to him the eyes of all around,

proach the town so near as to take it, without From lofty siege began these words aloud to sound. making any considerable works.

Faerie Queene. To form the siege, or lay siege to a place (mettre Him he had long opprest with tort,

le siège à une place, Fr.), there must be an army And fast imprisoned in sieged fort.


sufficient to furnish five or six reliefs for the It seemed, by the manner of their proceeding, trenches, pioneers, guards, convoys, escorts, &c., that the Turks purposed rather by long siege than by and artillery, with all the apparatus thereto beassault to take the town. K'nolles's History of the Turks.

longing; magazines furnished with a sufficient Our castle's strength

quantity of all kinds of warlike stores; and a Will laugh a siege to scorn : here let them lie, general hospital, with physicians, surgeons, meTill famine eat them up.

Shakspeare. Macbeth. dicines, &c. Beat away the busy roeddling fiend,

To ruise the siege (lever le siège, Fr.) is to That lays strong siege unto this wretch's soul, give over the attack of a place, quit the works VOL. XX.


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