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ever.

attempts to sail, he was driven back six times Delphi, Cumæ in Italy, Erythræa, Samos, Cund by the unfavorable wind. At length the vessel in Æolia, Marpessa on the Hellespont, Ancyra was enabled to cast anchor in the port of Otranto in Phrygia, and Tiburtis. The most celebrated ou the 24th of May. Here he was obliged to of the Sibyls is that of Cumæ in Italy, whom submit to a quarantine of three weeks, part of some have called by the different names of Amalwhich, indeed, was allowed to be spent in pro- thæa, Demiphile, Herophile, Daphne, Manto, ceeding to Ancona. Thence be passed through Phemonoe, and Deiphobe. It is said that Germany and Holland to England in the autumn Apollo became enamoured of her, and offered of 1795, and his few succeeding months were to give her whatever she should ask. The Sibyl chiefly marked by the progress of an unconquer- demanded to live as many years as she had able disease, for which the climates of Devon grains of sand in her hand, but unfortunately shire and Bath were, as usual, resorted to in forgot to ask for the continuance of her beauty, vain. He died at Bath, February 8th, 1796, in health, vigor, and bloom. The god granted her the thirty-eighth year of his age, and lies inter- . request, but she refused to gratify his passion, red in the abbey church.

though he offered her perpetual youth and beauBy his will, dated Ashburton, January 12th, ty. Some time after she became old and decre1796, Dr. Sibthorp gives a freehold estate in pit, her form decayed, melancholy paleness and Oxfordshire to the university of Oxford, for the haggard looks succeeded to bloom and cheerfulpurpose of first publishing his Flora Græca, in She had already lived about 700 years ten folio volumes, with 100 colored plates in when Æneas came to Italy, and had three ceneach, and a Prodromus of the same work, in turies more to live before her years were as nu860., without plates. His executors, the honor merous as the grains of sand which she had in able Thomas Wenman, John Hawkins, and Tho- her hand. She gave Æneas instructions how to mas Platt, esqrs., were to appoint a sufficiently find his father in the infernal regions, and even competent editor of these works, to whom the conducted him to the entrance of hell. It was manuscripts, drawings, and specimens, were to usual for the Sibyl to write her prophecies on be confided. The plan of the Prodromus was leaves, which she placed at the entrance of her drawn out by Dr. Sibthorp, but nothing of the cave; and it required particular care in such as Flora except the figures was prepared, nor consulted her to take up these leaves before they any botanical characters or descriptions what were dispersed by the wind, as their meaning

then became incomprehensible. According to The only work which professor John Sib- the most authentic historians of the Roman rethorp published in his life time is a Flora Oxoni- public, the Erythrean Sibyl came to the palace ensis, in one volume 8vo., printed in 1794. It of Tarquin II., with nine volumes, which she has the merit of being entirely founded on his offered to sell for a very high price. The monown personal observation. The species enume arch disregarded her, and she immediately disrated amount to 1200, all gathered by himself, appeared, and soon after returned, when she had and disposed according to the Linnæan system, burned three of the volumes. She asked the with the al erations of Thunberg, which were same price for the remaining six books; and, then new, but which are now not admitted as when Tarquin refused to buy them, she burned improvements. The adoption, though imper- three more, and still persisted in demanding the fect, of Hedwig's genera of inosses in this Flora, same sum of money for the three that were left. must be esteemed a more fortunate measure. This extraordinary behaviour astonished Tar

SIBTHORPIA, in botany, a genus of the an- quin; he bought the books, and the Sibyl ingiospermia ordet and didynamia class of plants; stantly vanished, and never after appeared io the natural order doubtful: CAL. spreading, and di- world. These books were preserved with great vided into five parts almost to the base: cor. care by the monarch, and called the Sibylline divided into five parts in the same manner, which A college of priests was appointed to are rounded, equal, spreading, and of the length have the care of them; and such reverence did of the calyx; the stamina grow in paiks at a dis- the Romans entertain for these prophetic books tance from each other : caps. compressed, orbi- that they were consulted with the greatest socular, bilocular, the partition being transverse. lemnity, and only when the state seemed to be There are two species, viz. 1. S. Evolvulacea; in danger. When the capitol was burnt, in the and, 2. S. Europæa, or bastard moneywort, is a troubles of Sylla, the Sibylline verses, which native of South Britain. The stems are slender, were deposited there, perished in the conflagraand creeping: the leaves are small, round, and tion; and, to repair the loss which the republic notched. The flowers grow under the wings of seemed to have sustained, commissioners were the leaves, are small, and of a pale red color. It immediately sent to different parts of Greece to blossoms from July to September, and is found collect whatever verses could be found of the in Cornwall on the banks of rivulets.

inspired writings of the Sibyls. The fate of SIBYLS, Lat. sibyllæ, in pagan antiquity, these Sibylline verses which were collected after certain women said to have been endowed with the conflagration of the capitol is unknown. a prophetic spirit, and to have delivered oracles, There are now many Sibylline verses extant, but showing the fates and revolutions of kingdoms. they are universally reckoned spurious; and it Their number is unknown. Plato speaks of one, is said that they were composed in the second others of two, Pliny of three, ?Elian of four, and century by some of the followers of Christianity, Varro of ten; which last opinion is universally who wished to convince the heathens of their adopted by the learned. These ten Sibylş gene- error, by assisting the cause of truth with the rally reside in the following places, Persia, Libya, arms of pious artifice.

verses.

mans.

SICAMBRI, or SYGAMBRI, an ancient nation also contrived a method of pasigraphy, or uniof Germany, who were conquered by the Ro- versal language.

They revolted under Augustus, who SICANUS, 1. a king of Sicani; and 2. A marched against them, but did not entirely sub- river of Spain, one of which gave the naine Sidue them. Drusus, however, conquered them, cania to the island of Sicily. and they were carried away from their native SICCITY, n. S. Fr. siccité, Lat. siccitas, of country to inhabit some of the more western siccus. Dryness; aridity; want of moisture. provinces of Gaul. (Dio. 54. Strabo, 4. Tac. ii. That which is coagulated by a fiery siccity will Ann. 26). See Saxons.

suffer colliquation from an aqueous humidity, as salt GICAMBRAI, the country of the Sicambri, and sugar.

Browne. on the banks of the Rhine. It now forms the The reason some attempt to make out from the ci-devant province of Guelderland.

siccity and dryness of its flesh. Id. Vulgar Errours, SIC'AMORE, n. s. Lat. sicamorus. A tree. In application of medicaments, consider what Of trees you have the palm, olive, and sicamore.

degree of heat and siccity is proper. Peacham.

Wiseman's Surgery. SICANA. See SICANIA.

SICE, n. s. Fr. sir. The number six at SICANI, an ancient people of Spain, who dice. emigrated from their native country into Italy, My study was to cog the dice, and afterwards into Sicily, which they called And dexterously to throw the lucky sice ; Sicania. See Sicily.

To shun ames-ace, that swept my stakes away. SICANIA, or SICANA, an ancient name of

Dryden. Sicily, from the Sicani, or their king Sicanus. SICELIDES; 1. the inhabitants of Sicily :

SICARD (Roch Ambrose Cucurron), succes 2. A name given to the Muses, by Virgil, be. sor of the abbé l'Epée at the Parisian institution cause Theocritus, whose Bucolic poetry he for the education of the deaf and dumb, was professed to imitate, was a native of Sicily.born September 20th, 1742, at Fousseret, near Virg. Ecl. 4. Toulouse, in which city he completed his studies SICERA, a name given to any inebriating for holy orders. He, however, devoted himself liquor by the Hellenistic Jews. St. Chrysostom, to the instruction of persons born deaf and dumb, Theodoret

, and Theophilus of Antioch, who were and became director of a school established for Syrians, and who therefore ought to know the that purpose by the archbishop of Bourdeaux; signification and nature of sicera, assure us that whence in 1789 he removed to Paris, and was it properly signifies palm-wine. Pliny acknowchosen successor to the abbé l'Epée. On the ledges that the wine of the palm tree was very 26th of August 1792 he was arrested in the well known through all the east, and that it was midst of his pupils, by order of the commune of "made by taking a bushel of the dates of the Paris : and, 'notwithstanding various efforts of palm-tree, and throwing them into three gallons his friends, was on the 2nd of September trans- of water ; then squeezing out the juice, it would 'ferred to the prison of the abbey of St. Germain, intoxicate like wine. The wine of the palm-tree where he narrowly escaped being a victim in the is wbite : when it is drunk new, it has the taste ensuing massacres. After a few days' imprison of the cocoa, and is sweet as honey, When it is ment he was set at liberty. On the foundation kept longer, it grows strong and intoxicates. of the normal school, in 1795, he was appointed After long keeping, it becomes vinegar. professor of grammar; and about the same time SICH, adj. A corruption of such. See Such. was made a member of the Institute. He now I thought the soul would have made me rich ; became one of the conductors of a periodical But now I wole it is nothing sich ; work entitled Annales Religieuses, Politiques, For either the shepherds been idle and still, et Littéraires, on account of which he was in

And led of their sheep what they will. cluded by the directory in the number of the

Spenser's Pastorals. journalists exiled to Synamari. This persecu

SICHÆUS, SicHaRBUS, or ACHERBAS, the tion obliged him to conceal himself, and it was son of Phisthenes, uncle and husband of Eliza, not till after the overthrow of the directory that or Dido, and priest of Hercules; who was murhe was able to return to his situation. The old dered by Pygmalion, his wife's brother. See age of Sicard was clouded with misfortunes Dido and PYGMALION. arising from his own improvidence, and Buona SICILIA (Lat.), Sicily. See Sicily, The parte, to whom he applied in his difficulties, ancient name of the three capes of Sicilia were treated him with neglect. After the restoration Pelores, Pachynum, and Lilybeum. he was more fortunate, being successively made

SICILIAN (from Sicilia), of, or belonging to, a knight of the legion of honor, administrator of or produced from, or in Sicily. the hospital of Quinze Vingts, administrator of Sicilian, in music, denotes a kind of gav that of blind youths, and knight of the order of sprightly air, or dance, probably invented in SiSt. Michael. He was also honored with atten- cily, somewhat of the nature of an English jig; tions from the foreign princes who visited Paris usually marked with the characters

6 12

It in 1814 and 1815. His death took place May

g' 10th 1822. He was the author, besides other consists of two strains; the first of four, and the works, of Elémens de Grammaire générale ap- second of eight, bars or measures. pliquée à la Langue Française, 2 vols. 8vo.; Sicilian VESPERS, a horrible massacre of the Cours d'Instruction d'un Sourd-muet de Nais- French in Sicily, A. D. 1282. See Naples. sance, 8vc.; and Théorie des Signes pour l'In SICILIES, KING OF THE Two, the title of the struction des Sourds-muets, 2 vols. 8vo. He ing of Naples; for Naples and Sicily are the

or

8

two Sicilies meant, there being no other place Una foret. Venit medio vi pontus et undis
of the name in Europe, or perhaps on the Hesperium siculo latus abscidit.
globe; nor is Naples itself properly so named, Silius Italicus details this event, lib. xiv. :-
excepting in this political connexion. See

Ausoniæ pars magna jacet Trinacria Tellus
NAPLES.

Ut semel expugnante noto, et vestantibus undis SICILY, a large island in the Mediterranean

Accepit freta cærules propulsa tridente, Sea, adjoining to the southern extremity of Italy,

Namque per occultum cæca vi turbinis olim and extending from lat. 36° 25' to lat. 38° 25' N., Impactum Pelagus lacerata viscera terræ and from long. 12° 50' to long. 16° 5' E.

Discidit, et medio perrumpens arva profundo, Anciently this island was called Sicania, Si Cum populis pariter convulsas transtulit urbes. cilia, and Trinacria, or Triquetra ; the two former from the Sicani and Siculi, who peopled a consi

Claudian states positively derable part of the country; the two latter from Trinacria quondam Italiæ pars fuit. its triangular figure. Its first inhabitants, accord- On cape Faro, the ancient Pelorium, is a lighting to the most respectable ancient authors, were house, or pharos, whence its modern name, and the Cyclopes and Læstrigones, who are said to whence also the strait is called by seamen the have settled in the countries adjoining to Mount Faro of Messina. Eta; but of their origin we know nothing, ex Sicily is throughout intersected by ridges of cept what is related by the poets. After them lills, but none of any considerable height except came the Sicani, who called themselves the ori- Mount Ætna, one of the most celebrated volcaginal inhabitants of the country; but several noes of Europe (see Ætna), and Mount Eryx, ancient historians inform us that they came from on the north-west, which, like Ætna, is isolated, a country in Spain watered by the river Sicanus. and was anciently celebrated for a temple of Diodorus, however, is of opinion that the Sicani Venus Erycina. The climate approaches to that were the most ancient inhabitants of this island. of the tropics, the only appearance of winter He tells us that they were in possession of the being towards the summit of Ætna, which retains whole, and applied themselves to cultivate and the snow throughout the year, and supplies a improve the ground in the neighbourhood of valuable object of commerce. The natural ferÆtna, which was the most fruitful part of the is- tility of the island, which formerly acquired it land; they built several small towns and villages, the name of the granary of Rome, remains undion the hills, to secure themselves against thieves minished, but the sloth of the present inhabitants and robbers; and were governed, not by one scarcely draws from the soil more than sufficient prince, but each city and district by its own king. for their own nourishment. In the mineral Thus they lived till Ætna began to throw out kingdom it possesses gold, silver, lead, copper, flames, and forced them to retire to the western antimony, and sulphur. parts of the island, which they continued to in The labor of the fields, and even the dragging habit in the time of Thucydides. Some Trojans, of carts and waggons on the roads, is in Sicily after the destruction of their city, landed in the generally performed by oxen. For travelling, island, settled among the Sicani, and built the recourse is had to mules, who here, as in other cities of Eryx and Egesta, uniting themselves parts of the south of Europe, discover great steawith them, and taking the general name of Elymi diness in traversing a wretched road, and no less or Elymæi. They were afterwards joined by patience in supporting fatigue. In general the some Phocenses, who settled here on their re breed of caitle and horses has been much negturn from the siege of Troy. After the Sicani lected, and is at present advancing very slowly had for many ages enjoyed an undisturbed pos- towards improvement. Game is found in abundsession of the whole of Sicily, or such parts of it ance, and most of the wild animals of the conas they chose to inhabit, they were visited by the tinent. Siculi, who were the ancient inhabitants of

The only manufacturing establishments of exAusonia properly so called ; but, being driven tent are at Palermo, Messina, and Catania : they out thence by the Opici, they took refuge in consist of silk, cotton, and linen; in part also of the island of Sicily. Not being contented with woollens, though the wool of the island is of inthe narrow bounds allowed them by the Sicani, different quality. If to these we add hats, cutthey began to encroach upon their neighbours ; lery, harness, carriages, and household furniture, upon which a war ensuing, the Sicani were ut- made at Palermo and the principal towns, we terly defeated, and confined to a corner of the have the amount of the Sicilian manufactures. A island, the name of which was now changed from number of articles for the peasantry are in this, Sicania into that of Sicilia.

as in other backward countries, made at their own Both the ancients and moderns have supposed houses, without the benefit of machinery or divithat Sicily was separated from the continent by sion of labor. Hence comparatively few exan earthquake, the strait of Messina, between it changes, a slow intercourse between town and and Calabria, being only a mile in breadth, from country, and in general those symptoms of stagCape Faro in Sicily, io Cape Volpe in Cala- nation which strike an Englishman so forcibly bria, but widens as it proceeds, and at Messina, on visiting a foreign country. four leagues from cape Faro, is four miles. Pom In respect to commerce, Sicily, from the variety ponius Mela observes, “Sicilia, ut ferunt, ali- of its products, the excellence of several of its harquondo agro Brutio adnexa.' To the same pur- bours, and the general safety of its coast for navipose Virgil (ÆÆn. I. iii. v. 414) says :

gation, would, under an enlightened government, Hæc loca vi quondam, et vasta convulsa ruina acquire great importance. The exports and imDissiluisse ferunt, cum protinus utraque Tellus ports are, however, comparatively small, neither

are so

exceeding £1,500,000 for the whole island. Ilere prelates to the number of sixty-one; the demaare no banks, no insurance companies, and very nial or deputies from universities, cities, and little confidence in government. The interior crown estates, to the number of only forty-three. trade is cramped by the want of roads, the navi- Its authority is in a great measure nominal, and gation by the quarantine laws, which are said to it has done little or nothing towards repressing be enforced very unequally, and to be unfairly the abuses which prevail notoriously in every dispensed with in favor of those who are in con branch of administration. The public officers nexion with the public officers. The occupancy adequately paid as necessarily to have of the island by the British troops, from 1806 to recourse to peculation. The hospitals and other 1816, was a source of considerable advantage; public establishments, even when well endowed, and in the latter year a treaty was concluded be- are in a very uncomfortable state. As to the adtween the courts of Naples and London, afford- ministration of justice, the laws, however good ing considerable privileges to the British. The in the letter, are inoperative against a delinquent chief exports of Sicily are silk, corn, salt, olive of influence or fortune. The judges are open to oil, sumac, wine, fruits of various kinds; also all kinds of corruption. The rarity of capital goat, kid, and other skins. The imports consist punishment would claim our praise were it not of colonial produce, harụware, jewellery, lead, accompanied, in cases of doubtful evidence, by and manufactured articles in great variety, but a recourse to torture: in short no country could small quantity. Of the fisheries carried on along be more in want of that political reform which the coast the principal is the tunny fishery. was begun by the British government when in Money accounts are here kept in ounces, taris, possession of the island, and is now (1821) likely and grains.

to be carried on by the inhabitants themselves. 1 grain is equal to fd. sterling.

The revenue of Sicily is computed at 20 grains = 1 tari or 5d. sterling.

£1,000,000; a sum that would not be exorbitant 30 taris = 1 ounce or 12s. 6d. sterling.

were the taxes judicious in their nature, and

equal in the mode of levying; but, until lately, Of late, attempts have been made to raise the the barons or landholders were to a certain deSicilian from a provincial to a national tongue. gree exempt, and the burden was unmercifully A dictionary has been printed, and several poets imposed on the commons. The executive branch have published in their native language. In an is subject to no enquiry or responsibility cient times Sicily produced several writers of in regard to the application of the public funds. note, as Theocritus, Empedocles, Stesichorus, The Sicilian army in time of peace does not and Epicarmus; also painters and sculptors not exceed 10,000 men; the pay of the soldiers, unworthy of competition with those of Greece. adequate only to their subsistence in a plenIn modern times, or rather since the beginning tiful year, makes them dependent on public of the seventeenth century, there have appeared charity in a season of dearth and scarcity. A some successful candidates in the belles lettres, number of the officers are foreigners. The navy poetry, and natural history; and at present Pa. is limited to one ship of the line, iwo frigates, lermo, Catania, and Messina, contain individuals and five sloops : the gun boats are numerous ; oï distinguished attainments; but their efforts but the whole is in a poor state. have been discouraged by the want of a free Sicily has been recently divided into seven press, the inadequacy of the public libraries, and intendancies, instead of the three great provinces the difficulty of intercourse with the more en which before formed its component parts. These lightened part of Europe. Education may be intendancies, and their population, and principal said to be in almost the same incipient state : cities, are as follows: there has yet been no general establishment of elementary schools; and the colleges of Palermo, Catania, and other large towns, have been con

Intendancies.

Population Capitals and their ducted on a very antiquated plan, Latin and the

in 1317. population. doctrines of the Catholic church having excluded every branch of ordinary knowledge. The schools Palermo

405,231 Palermo

180,000 called Scuoli Normali, established in 1789, are Messina

236,784 Messina

44,650 on a better footing, the pupils being limited in Catania

289,406 Catania 45,081 number, and the teachers subjected to a previous Siragosa 192,710 Siragosa 13,850 examination. Girls, as in other Catholic coun Caltanisetta 155,225 Caltanisetta 15,627 tries, are put, at the age of eight or ten, into a Girgente 288,877 Girgente 14,882 convent or retiro, where, during six or eight Trapani 145,712 Trapani 24,330 years, they are taught little else than reading, writing, or the ceremonies of the Catholic faith.

1,713,945 Fortunately the new plan of teaching (of Bell and Lancaster) is at present (1820) finding its way into Sicily. The religion of Sicily is the The principal promontories, most of which, Catholic; the number of ecclesiastics in Sicily as well as its rivers, are celebrated by the ancient is said to amount to 70,000, exclusive of a still poets, are Cape Faro, the north-east point. Cape greater number of monks and nuns; all, or al- Passaro (Pachynum), the south point, on an most all, marked by the uniform character of island, half a league from the main, and a mile ignorance and superstition.

in circuit, surrounded by rocks : en it is a fortiThe Sicilian parliament is composed of three fied tower and light-house. On the south coast branches : the nobles to the number of 227; the from the east are Cape Scalambri, Cape St.

Marco, and Cape Sorello. Cape Bæo (Lyll- Besides which it has a very strong citadel. Its beum), at the west end, is a low promontory, two ancient ports still exist, the southern named north of which is the island San Pantaleo Porto Maggiore (Portus Magnus), has six miles (Motya). On the north coast are Cape St. Vito, at its greatest breadth, and is entered by a strait ihe west point of the gulf of Castel-a-Mare, Cape one-third of a mile wide. In this port, twenty Orlando, Cape Biancho, and others.

yards from the shore, a spring of fresh water The north coast, being bounded by mountains bubbles up amidst the salt." The northern port, (Nebrodes Mons), has but few streams that de- Porto Picolo (Portus Minor and Marmoreus), serve the name of rivers. Those of the east and held the naval force of ancient Syracuse. The south are more considerable. Amongst the for- fountain of Arethusa, celebrated by poets and mer are the Alcantara (Onobala), south of Taor- historians, and to which divine honors were mina, the Giaretta (Symæthus), south of Catania, paid, is now a brackish stream, which issues the largest of the island, and the Atellaro, north suddenly from the earth by two openings, and of Cape Passaro. On the south coast the rivers serves to wash the dirty rags of the modern Syraare the Salso (Himera), which empties itself at cusians. Alicata, the Platani (Camicus), and the Bellici About 300 years after the arrival of the Siculi, (Hypsa).

the island first began to be known to the Greeks, Messina (Messana), from its ancient splendor, who established various colonies, and built many as weil as from being formerly the residence of cities in different parts of the island; and it is the viceroy for six months of the year, disputes the only from the time of their arrival that we have honor of being the capital : it is situated near the any history of the island. The first of the Greeks north extremity of the east coast. The ravages of that came into Sicily were the Chalcidians of the plague in 1743, and other causes, have greatly Eubæa, under the conduct of Thucles, who reduced its population, which is thought not to built Naxus, and a famous altar of Apollo, exceed 25,000, though it has means of containing which, as Thucydides tells us, was still standing five times that number. Its port is entirely natu- in his time without the city. The year after, ral, and one of the best in Europe, being formed which was, according to Dionysius Halicarnasby a semicircular peninsula on the south-east, sensis, the third of the seventeenth Olympiad, five miles in circuit, with an entrance three- Archias the Corinthian, one of the Heraclidæ, quarters of a mile wide, and capable of holding laid the foundations of Syracuse. Seven years 1000 sail in thirty-five to forty fathoms depth. after, a new colony of Chalcidians founded The largest vessels can also make fast to the quay, Leontini and Catana, after having driven out which lines the peninsula for a mile in length. the Siculi, who inhabited that tract. About the The harbour is protected by the castle of St. Sal. same time, Lamas with a colony from Megara, vador, on the isthmus of the peninsula, by four, a city of Achaia,

settled on the river Pantacius, forts on its points, and by a battery on the west at a place called Trotilum, where his adventurers shore. With these advantages, and that of being lived some time in common with the Chalcidians a free port, its trade is trifling.

of Leontini; but, being driven thence by the Taormina (Tauromenium), a celebrated city of Leontines, he built the city of Thapsus, where antiquity, is now a poor village, on a hill two he died. Upon his death, the colony left Thapmiles above the level of the sea, at the foot of sus; and under the conduct of Hyblon, king of which is the village and road of Giardini. At the Siculi, founded Megara Hyblæa, where they Taormina are seen the most entire remains of a resided 245 years, till they were driven out by Roman theatre in Italy, with other antiquities. Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse. During their abode

Jaci d'Aquila is a little town at the mouth of at Megara they sent one Pamilus, who was come the Fiume-F'reddo, cold river, the ancient Acis, from Megarian Achaia their original city, to celebrated by the fable of Acis and Galatea, and build Selinus. This city was founded about whose waters, though said to be colder than ice, 100 years after the foundation of Megara. Antinever freeze. They were praised by the ancients phemus and Entimus, the former a Rhodian, the for their salubrity, but at present are thought to other a Cretan, led each a colony of their counbe poisonous from containing vitriol.

trymen, and jointly built the city of Gela on a Catania, the third city of Sicily, contains river of the same name, establishing ir their new 40,000 inhabitants. It has several times been settlement the Doric customs, about forty-five destroyed by earthquakes and eruptions of Ætna, years after the founding of Syracuse. The inwhose foot is but five miles distant. Since the habitants of Gela founded Agrigentum 108 years earthquake in 1693, which totally overturned it, after their arrival in Sicily, and introduced the it has been rebuilt on a regular plan, with straight same customs there. A few years after, Zancle and wide streets, and the houses only one story. was built by the pirates of Cumæ in Italy; but It has a good port, but little or no trade. chiefly peopled by the Chalcidians, Samians,

Augusta, a fortified town of 9000 inhabitants, and Ionians, who chose rather to seek new setand a good port, is on the south side of an island, tlements than live under the Persian yoke. Some formerly a peninsula, but separated from the time after Anaxales, tyrant of Rhegium, drove main by the earthquake of 1693.

out the ancient proprietors; and, dividing his Syracuse, called by the natives Saragoza, one lands among his followers, called the city Mesof the most celebrated cities of the Roman empire, sena, or Messene, which was the name of his whose walls had 180 stades of circuit, is now a native city in Peloponnesus. The city of Hipoor town of 14,000 inhabitants. The land on mera was founded by the Zancleans under the which it stands was anciently peninsula, but direction of Eucleides, Simus, and Sacon; but the isthmus has been cut through for its defence. peopled by the Chalcidians and some Syracusan

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