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patronised by the earls of Morton and Maccles- horse is subject to have his fore legs from the field. In 1739 he accompanied the former to knee to the cornet all in a straight line. Comthe Orkney Isles, where he was employed in monly short-jointed horses do not manege so adjusting the geography of that part of Scotland. well as the long-jointed; but out of the manege Mr. Short having returned to London, and es- the short-jointed are the best for travel or fatablished himself there, was in 1743 employed tigue. by lord Thomas Spencer to make for him a re SHORT-SIGHTEDNESS, myopia, that defect in flector of twelve feet focus, for which he received the conformation of the eye wherein the crystal600 guineas. He made several other telescopes line, &c., being too convex, the rays reflected of the same focal distance with greater improve- from different objects are refracted too much, ments and higher magnifiers; and in 1752 fi- and made to converge too fast, so as to unite nished one for the king of Spain, for which, with before they reach the retina, by which means its whole apparatus, he received £1200. This vision is rendered dim and confused. was the noblest instrument of the kind that had Myops. A learned author thinks it probable then been constructed, and perhaps it has never yet that, out of so great a number of short-sighted been surpassed except by the astonishing reflectors persons as are daily to be met with, few are born of Herschel. See TELESCOPE. Mr. Short was so; for it generally grows upon young people at wont to visit the place of his nativity once every the age of twenty or twenty-five, and therefore two or three years during his residence in London, might possibly be prevented by using their eyes and in 1766 he visited it for the last time. On the while young to all sorts of conformations, that 15th of June 1768 he died, after a short illness, is, by often looking through glasses of all sorts of at Newington Butts, near London, of a mortifica- figures, and by reading, writing, or working with tion in his bowels, having nearly completed spectacles of several degrees of convexity ; for, his fifty-eighth year. He left a fortune of about whatever be the powers by which the eye con£20,000, of which £15,000 was bequeathed to forms itself to distinct vision, they may possibly two nephews and the rest in legacies to his friends. grow weak, or lose their extent one way or other, In gratitude for the steady patronage of the earl for want of variety of exercise. It seems an of Morton, he left to his daughter, the Lady Mary opinion without foundation to think that such an Douglas, afterwards countess of Aboyne, £1000 exercise of the eyes can any wise injure them, and the reversion of his fortune, should his provided due care be taken to avoid looking at nephews die without issue ; but this reversionary objects that are too bright. legacy the lady, at the desire of her father, gene Dr. Smith mentions a young gentleman who rously relinquished by a deed in favor of Mr. became short-sighted immediately after coming Short's brother, Mr. Thomas Short, and his out of a cold bath, in which he did not totally children. Mr. Short's eminence as an artist is immerse himself, and has ever since used a conuniversally known, and he is said to have been a cave glass for many years.
It is commonly man of amiable manners; but if, out of such a thought that short-sightedness wears off in old fortune, he left nothing to the hospital in which age, on account of the eye becoming flatter: but he received the rudiments of that education by the learned doctor questions whether this be which he acquired it, he was guilty of an omission matter of fact or hypothesis only. highly criminal.
It is remarkable that short-sighted persons SHORTFORD, 4. d. fore-close, an ancient commonly write a small hand, and love a small custom in the city of Exeter, when the lord of print, because they can see more of it at a view. the fee cannot be answered rent due to him out That it is customary with them not to look at the of his tenement, and no distress can be levied person they converse with, because they cannot for the same. The lord is then to come to the well see the motion of his eyes and features, and tenement, and there take a stone, or some other are therefore attentive to his words only. That dead thing off the tenement, and bring it before they see more distinctly, and somewhat farther the mayor and bailiff, and thus he must do seven off, by a strong light than by a weak one; bequarter days successively; and, if on the seventh cause a strong light causes a contraction of the quarter day the lord is not satisfied of his rent pupil, and consequently of the pencils, both here and arrears, then the tenement shall be adjudged and at the retina, which lessens their mixture, to the lord to hold the same a year and a day; and consequently the apparent confusion; and, and forthwith proclamation is to be made in the therefore, to see more distinctly, they almost cout, that, if any man claims any title to the close their eye-lids, for which reason they were said tenement, he must appear within the year anciently called myopes.-Smith's Optics, vol. and day next following, and satisfy the lord of ii. Rem. p. 10, &c. the said rent and arrears : but if no appearance Jurin observes that persons who are much and be made, and the rent not paid, the lord comes long accustomed to view objects at small distances, again to the court, and prays that according to as students in general, watch-makers, gravers, the custom the said tenement be adjudged to painters in miniature, &c., see better at small dishim in his demesne as of fee, which is done ac- tances, and not so well at great distances, as the cordingly, so that the lord hath from thenceforth rest of mankind. The reason is, that in the eye, as the said tenement, with the appurtenances 10 well as in other parts, the muscles, by constant him and his heirs.
exercise, are enabled to contract themselves with Short-IIAND Writing. See STENOGRAPHY. more strength, and by disuse are brought to less
Suont-Jornted, in the manege. A horse is strength. Hence, in the persons before-mentioned, said to be short-jointed that has a short pastern; the greater muscular ring of the uvea contracts when this joint or the pastern is too short, the more casily and strongly, and the cornea more rea
dily obeys the contraction of the ring, whence Shepherd, leave decoying,
But a little after toying,
Id. greater convexity, does by degrees lose something of its elasticity, so as not to return to its
Ask for what price thy venal tongue was sold ! natural elasticity, when the muscular ring ceases Of shotten herrings, or stale stinking fish.
Tough withered truffles, ropy wine, a dish
Id. to act upon it. This is one cause of their not
Sometimes they shot out in length, like rivers; and seeing so well at great distances : also the liga- sometimes they flew into remote countries in colonies. mentum ciliare, being seldom employed to lessen
Burnet. the convexity of the capsula, does by degrees The same metal is naturally shot into quite different become less capable of performing that office: figures, as quite different kinds of them are of the and the capsula, being seldom drawn out and saine figure.
Woodward. put into tension, must lose something of its dis He, prone on ocean in a moment flung, tensile quality, so as less easily to comply with Stretched wide his eager arms, and shot the seas the action of the ligament. And this is another
Pope. cause of their not seeing so well at great dis
He touched the pence when others touched the tances.---Jurin, Essay on Dist. and Indist.Vision. The hand that signed the mortgage paid the shot. The general remedy for short-sightedness is a
Swift. concave lens, held before the eye, which, making
Suor (Fr. boulet, et en général toutes sortes de the rays diverge, or at least diminishing much of charges pour les canons), a name given to all their convergency, makes amends for the too sorts of balls used for artillery and fire-arms, great convexity of the crystalline.
from the pistol to the cannon : those for cannon SHOT, part. & n. s. The pret. and part. and carronades being of iron, and those for smallSHOTFREE, adj. pass. of Shoot, which
arms of lead. SHOTTEN, adj. see. The act of shooting: the path or flight of a missile ; the missile the ordnance for which it is intended ; as forty
Cannon shot is distinguished by the nature of emitted ; a gun charged ; Fr. escot, an account: two, thirty-two, twenty-four, eighteen, twelve, shotfree is clear of the reckoning: not to be hurt nine-pounders, &c., and those for small-arms by by shot: sbotten is having shot or ejected the the names of the pieces ; as musket, carbine, spawn.
pistol, &c. She sat over against him, a good way off, as it Shot, PATENT Millen, is thus made: sheets were a bow shot.
Genesis xxi. 16.
of lead, whose thickness corresponds with the Their tongue is as an arrow shot out, it speaketh size of the shot required, are cut into small deceit.
pieces, or cubes, of the form of a die. A great A shot unheard gave me a wound unseen. Sidney. quantity of these little cubes are put into a large On the other side a pleasant grove
hollow iron cylinder, which is mounted horizonWas shot up high, full of the stately tree That dedicated is to Olympick Jove.
tally and turned by a winch ; when by their Faerie Queene.
friction against one another, and against the I shall here abide the hourly shot
sides of the cylinder, they are rendered perfectly Of angry eyes.
Shakspeare. Cymbeline, round, and very smooth. The other patent shot Proud death!
is cast in moulds, in the same way as bullets are. What feast is towered in thy infernal cell,
Shot, Small, or that used for fowling, should That thou so many princes at a shot
be well sized, and of a moderate bigness; for So bloodily hast struck ?
Id. Hamlet. should it be too great, then it flies thin, and Though I could 'scape shot free at London, I fear scatters too much; or if too small, then it hath the shot here : here's no scorning but upon the pate. not weight and strength to penetrate far, and the
Id. Henry 1v.
bird is apt to fly away with it. In order, thereGo thy ways, old Jack ; die when thou wilt, if fore, to have it suitable to the occasion, it not good manhood be not forgot upon the earth, then am I a shotten herring.
being always to be had in every place fit for the
Id. At this booty they were joyful, for that they were purpose, we shall set down the true method of supplied thereby with good store of powder and shot. making all sorts and sizes under the name of
mould shot. Its principal good properties are As the fund of our pleasure, let each pay his to be round and solid. Take any quantity of shot ;
lead you think fit, and melt it down in an iron Far hence be the sad, the lewd fop, and the sot. vessel ; and as it melts keep it stirring with an
Ben Jonson. iron ladle, skimming off all impurities whatsoever The fortifier of Pendennis made his advantage of that may arise at the top; when it begins to the commodiousness afforded by the ground, and shot look of a greenish color, strew on it as much rather at a safe preserving the harbour from sudden auripigmentum or yellow orpiment, finely powattempts of little fleets, than to withstand any great dered, as will lie on a shilling, to every twelve navy.
Carew. He caused twenty shot of his greatest cannon to be
or fourteen pounds of lead ; then, stirring them made at the king's army.
together, the orpiment will fame. The ladle He only thought to crop the flower,
should have a notch on one side of the brim, for New shot up from a vernal shower. Milton. more easily pouring out the lead; the ladle From before her vanished night,
must remain in the melted lead, that its heat Shot through with orient beams. Id. Paradise Lost. may be the same with that of the lead, to preImpatient to revenge the fatal shot,
vent inconveniences which otherwise might hapHis sont band doubly to his left succeeds. pen by its being either too hot or too cold : then,
Dryden. to try your lead, drop a little of it into water,
and, if the drops prove round, then the lead is is still liquid, as it also cools and contracts, ne of a proper heat; if otherwise, and the shot have cessarily pits, like the surface of metal in the tails, then add more orpiment to increase the channel of a mould, so that the greater part of heat, till it be found sufficient. Then take a the shot are somewhat hollow, and of an irreplate of copper, about the bigness of a trencher, gular form; consequently too light for the purwhich must be made with a hollowness in the pose to which they are destined, and liable to middle, about three inches compass, within unequal resistance in their passage through the which must be bored about forty holes ac air. These defects are remedied in the patentcording to the size of the shot which you intend shot, the manufacture of which differs only fron: to cast; the hollow bottom should be thin ; but that of the preceding kind in the addition of a the thicker the brim, the better it will retain the larger portion of arsenic, which varies according heat. Place this plate on a frame of iron, over to the quality of the lead ; in dropping it from a tub or vessel of water, about four inches from such a height that it becomes solid before it the water, and spread burning coals on the plate, enters the water, which is from forty to 100 feet; to keep the lead melted upon it: then take some and, in some subsequent operations, which are lead and pour it gently on the coals on the plate, as follows :—it is first dried and sifted. It is and it will make its way through the holes into then boarded, which consists in scattering it on the water, and form itself into shot; do thus till several polished slabs or trays of hard wood, all your lead be run through the holes of the with rims, in the form of a II, except that the plate, taking care, by keeping your coals alive, sides converge towards the lower part, to which that the lead do not cool, and so stop up the a slight inclination and alternate motion in their holes. While your are casting in this manner, own planes are given by boys employed in the another person with another ladle may catch manufacture. The shot, whose form is imperfect, some of the shot, placing the ladle four or five are detected by the sluggishness of their motion, inches underneath the plate in the water, by and remain behind, whilst the others roll off which means you will see if they are defective, from the board. The last operation is the po and rectify them. Keep the lead in a just de- lishing ; which is performed by agitating it with gree of heat, that it be not so cold as to stop up the addition of a very small quantity of black the holes in your plate, nor so hot as to cause lead, not exceeding two spoonfuls to a ton, in an the shot to crack; to remedy the heat, you must iron vessel, turning on an horizontal axis like a refrain working till it is of a proper coolness; butter churn. It does not appear that any higher and, to remedy the coolness of your lead and degree of perfection than that which is thus alplate, you must blow your fire; observing that tained remains to be desired. The argentine the cooler your lead is, the larger will be your brilliancy of the shot when newly made, the shot; as the hotter it is, the smaller they will be. beautiful accuracy of its form, and the curious After casting, take them out of the water, and instance of inanimate tactics which it presents dry them over the fire with a gentle heat, stirring when scattered on a plate, render it even an them continually that they do not melt; when agreeable object of contemplation. dry, separate the great shot from the small, by The shot now used in the royal navy is princithe help of a sieve made for that purpose, ac- pally confined to three sorts, namely, round, cording to their several sizes. But those who grape, and case or canister. would have very large shot, make the lead trickle Round-shot (Fr. boulet rond) is the most with a stick out of the ladle into the water, simple, and composed of a ball or globe of without the plate. If it stop on the plate, and cast-iron, whose weight is in proportion to the yet the plate be not too cool, give but the plate size of the cannon, or to the diameter of its a little knock, and it will run again ; care must bore. be had that none of your implements be greasy, Grape-shot (Fr. charge à la suédoise, ou charge oily, or the like ; and when the shot, being se en grappe) is a combination of balls, fig. 6, plate parated, are found too large or too small for your V., put into a canvas bag, and corded strongly purpose, or otherwise imperfect, they will serve together, so as to form a sort of cylinder, whose again at the next operation. The sizes of com- diameter is equal to that of the ball which is mon shot for fowling are from No. 1 to 6, and adapted to the cannon. smaller, which is called mustard seed, or dust Case or canister-shot (Fr. charge à mitraille), shot; but No.5 is small enough for any shooting fig. 7, is formed by putting a quantity of small whatsoever. The No. 1 may be used for wild shot into a case or canister. geese; the No. 2 for ducks, widgeons, and other The tin case is cylindrical, in diameter a little water-fowl : the No. 3 for pheasants, partridges less than the calibre of the gun or howitzer. It after the first month, and all the fen-fowl; the is filled with lead balls, so as to make up the No. 4 for partridges, woodcocks, &c.; and the weight of the shot. These balls are seldom less No. 5 for snipes and all the smaller birds. than one ounce and a quarter in weight. But
Shot thus made is not without considerable little effect is to be expected from firing caseimperfections. The exterior coat of the lower shot beyond 300 yards, from the very great dipart of the drop becoming suddenly fixed by the vergency of the balls. The proportions of shot contact of the water, its superior portion, which for the royal navy are,
60 round each gun for Chan. Serv.
2 80 Round for ships Middle, upper, and 70
do. for Foreign do.
do. for Chan. do. quarter-deck
| 100 do. for Foreign do. Ditto for sloops
do. for Chan. do. 1 60 do. for Foreign do.
Grape and case-shot are supplied each in the right hand figures rejected, gives 48 lbs., the proportion of from five to twelve rounds for weight required. every gun, as the nature of the service may re To find the diameter of the shot, when the quire. There are other sorts of shot formerly weight is given. Rule.--Multiply the cube root used, such as the chain, cross-bar, langrel, &c., of the weight in pounds by 1.923, and the probut these are now nearly discontinued in the duct is the diameter in inches. Erample.- What
is the diameter of an iron shot of 52 lbs? The Chain-shot (Fr. boulets enchaînés), fig. 8, con cube root of 52 is 3.732, which, multiplied by sists of two balls linked together, being princi- 1.923, gives 7:177 inches, the diameter required. pally designed to destroy the masts and rigging, Rule, by logarithms :which they are better fitted to perform than the To one-third of the logarithm of 52 0:572001 single bullets.
Add the constant logarithm
0.283979 Double-headed or bar-shot(Fr. boulet ramé, ou boulet à deux têtes), fig. 9, is a ball cut into two Logarithm of the diameter 7.117 = 0.855980 equal parts, and joined together by a bar of iron. In the French service the middle is sometimes Table of DIAMETERS of English Round Shot. filled with a composition, and the whole covered with linen dipped in brimstone ; the cannon in firing also inflames the combustibles or compo Nature. 68 42 32 24 18 sition of this ball, which sets fire to the sails of the vessel. One of the heads of this ball has a hole to receive a fuse, which communicates with Inches.
6.684 6.105 5.475 5.043 the charge of the cannon.
Spherical case-shot, or Shrapnell's shell, so termed from the inventor colonel Shrapnell, of the royal artillery. See Shell.
Nature. 12 9 6 3 1 Star-Shot consists of four pieces of iron, whose bases, when separate, form the quadrant of a circle ; so that the whole, being joined, Inches. 4.403 4.000 3.498 2.775 1.92 forms a cylinder equal to the shot of the cannon. Each of those pieces is furnished with an iron bar, the extremity of which is attached to a sort
TABLE of GRAPE Shot for SEA-SERVICE. of link, as keys are strung upon a ring. Being discharged from the gun, the four branches or arms extend every way from the link in the
Weight of each Total Weight of the centre. These also are chiefly intended to de
Shot. Grape complete. stroy the sails or rigging, but their flight and execution are very precarious at a tolerable dis
lbs. oz. tance.
46 24 pounder 4
6 A Shot of a most destructive nature has been
34 1 invented by a Mr. Fane, and experiments on its
25 5 effects were exhibited in 1811, before the lords
19 151 of the admiralty. It is a four-pounder shot,
10 15 wrapped round with a prepared cotton, and
7 6 made very hard, so as to appear like a large cannon
5 8} ball-on firing of which, it has the usual effect
3 144 of a cannon-shot; but, the moment it starts from
2 104 the cannon's mouth, it presents one solid mass of
5 fire; and whatever it may happen to strike, whe
8$ ther rigging or hull of a ship, it will immediately take fire.
To find the weight of an iron shot, whose dia Small shells, ás four inches and two-fifths, and meter is given; and the contrary. Rule.--Dou- hand-grenades, were quilted into grape for thirble the cube of the diameter in inches, and teen-inch mortars, at Gibraltar. The fuses were multiply it by 7; so will the product (rejecting turned inwards next the iron tompion, and the two last or right hand figures) be the weight leaders of quick-match for communicating fire in pounds. Erample.-What is the weight of an to the fuses were introduced through holes made iron shot of seven inches diameter? The cube in the wooden bottom, and placed as near the of 7 is 343, which doubled is 686, and this mul- fuse as possible, in the centre of the grape. tiplied by 7 produces 4802, which, with the These answered very well for short ranges.
If at any time case-shot cannot be procured, The shote, peculiar to Devonshire and Cornwall, or tin for the purpose of making cases, a very in shape and colour resembleth the trout; howbeit good substitute may be made by the following in bigness and goodness cometh far behind him. method :- Take a wooden bottom of one-fourth
Careu. of an inch less than the ordinary size, roll strong SHOT-GUAGE, an instrument for measuring cartridge paper which has been sponged over the diameter of shot. two or three times with water, and nearly dry, on SHOT-RACKS, wooden frames bolted to the a former of the same diameter to the proper di- coamings and head-ledges round the hatch-ways mensions; paste down the exterior edge of the on the decks, to contain the different species of cylindrical case, and nail it on to the bottom with shot. small tacks ; when dry, pour in a quantity of SHOVE, v. a., v. n., & n. s. hot pitch and rosin, or kitt composition; then a Belg. schuyven; Swed. skufwa. To push by layer of musket-balls; continuing them alter- main strength ; drive; rush against; impel: to nately till the case is filled in length equal to two push before one; move by a pole in a boat : the diameters of a round shot, independent of the act of shoving or pushing. wooden bottom; over the last tier put another The hand could pluck her back that shoved her on. bottom two inches in thickness, and nail it on.
Shakspeare. To Shot The Guns (Fr. mettre les boulets In the corrupted currents of this world, dans les canons) is to load the pieces of ordnance Offence's gilded hand may shove by justice; with the necessary quantity of gunpowder and And oft the wicked prize itself ball.
Buys out the law.
Id Shot, Tin Case, in artillery, is formed by
Of other care they little reckoning make, putting a great quantity of small iron shot into à Than how to scramble at the shearer's feast,
Milton. cylindrical tin box called a cannister, that just And shove away the worthy bidden guest. fits the bore of the gun. Leaden bullets are
There the British Neptune stood, sometimes used in the same manner; and it Beneath them to submit the officious food, must be observed that, whatever number of And with his trident shoved them off the sand. sizes of the shots are used, they must weigh
Dryden. with their cases nearly as much as the shot of l'll mount.
Shoving back this earth on.which I sit, the piece.
Id. Tyrunnick Love.
He grasped the oar, Shot Flaggon, a sort of flaggon somewhat Received his guest aboard, and shoved from shore. bigger than ordinary, which in some counties,
Garth. particularly Derbyshire, it is the custom for the
A strong man was going to shove down St. Paul's host to serve his guests in, after they have drunk cupola.
Arbuthnot. above a shilling
He used to shove and elbow his fellow-servants to SHOT OF A Cable, on ship-board, is the get near his mistress, when money was a paying or splicing of two cables together, that a ship may
Behold a reverend sire ride safe in deep waters and in great roads; for a ship will ride easier by one shot of a cable,
Crawl through the streets, shoved on or rudely than by three short cables out a-head.
pressed SHOT-BOXES (Fr. caisse à munitions) are
By his own sons.
You've played and loved, and eat and drank your boxes in which grape, case, and small-arms' shot, are packed for service.
Walk sober off, before a sprightlier age SHOTE, n. s. Sax. sceora; Lat. trutla minor. Come tittering on, and shove you from the stage. A fish.