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hard roads, indeed of any roads, will always keep been under the necessity of adopting the leathern within bounds the most luxuriant frogs. "In the guard as their only resource. The same author first shoeing a colt, it is of the utmost importance disputes, on his own experience, the idea prothat his frogs, if he have a sufficient growth of mulgated of late, that the running thrush on the them, which is not always the case, be brought horse's foot is invariably caused by bad shoeing, to touch the earth, not, however, by the use of any averring that it is often a constitutional defect in measures of force, or of setting the foot in an un the horse; questions the utility of the ancient natural or uneven position: the paring around, or practice lately revived, of exposing the naked moderately lowering the crust of the foot, when feet of horses to stone pavement, with the view so deep as to compress and injure the growth of of hardening them ; and strongly reprobates the frog, is yet not only perfectly safe, but highly another revival of the practice of unenlightened necessary. It will soon appear whether the horse's times, on the obvious principles of .quackery, frogs and heels be of that nature to endure the namely, the barbarous and useless mechanical concussion of the hard roads, which most assur extension of naturally narrow heels. edly, notwithstanding much confident assertion, Mr. Bracy Clark, a respectable veterinary surtoo many never can endure; and, if a bruised frog geon, has published certain experiments on the be not very common, all practical horsemen are foot of the living horse. His object appears to enough convinced how extremely liable the heels be the partial or total abolition of the use of the of horses are to contusion and inflammation. In iron shoe. Whenever the roads are covered bad cases of this kind, the only, and too much with ice, it becomes necessary to have the heels neglected, remedy of the bar-shoe has been al- of a horse's shoes turned up, and frequently ready appreciated: in general, to set such feet sharpened, in order to prevent him from slipping upon their natural level, all which ought to be and falling: but this cannot be done without the attempted, will require shoe-heels of considerable frequent moving of the shoes, which breaks and strength.
destroys the crust of the hoof where the nails This author professes to be unaware of any enter. To prevent this, it is recommended to essential improvement of the shoe of Osmer, with those who are willing to be at the expense to the exception of the revival by St. Bel of the have steel points screwed into the heels or quar. concave external surface, notwithstanding the ters of each shoe, which might be taken out and numerous variations which have been attempted; put in occasionally. The method of doing this and represents the shoes of Osmer and Clark, properly, as directed by Mr. Clark, is first to already described, as still of the highest repute; have the shoes fitted to the shape of the hoof, those of the superior kind of farriers being imi- then to make a small round hole in the extremity tations of the former in certain degrees ; whilst of each heel, or in the quarters, about threethose of the lower smiths, especially of the eighths of an inch in diameter, or more, in procountry, resemble yet too much the convex sur- portion to the breadth and size of the shoe; in face, internal concavity, inordinate length, and each of these holes a screw is to be made : the weight of former days.
steel points are likewise to have a screw on them, Mr. Moorcroft formerly published a pamphlet, exactly fitted to that in the shoes. Care must consisting chiefly of the directions of the French be taken that the screw on the points is no longer, Veterinary School, for preventing a horse from when they are screwed into the shoe, than the
striking the foot or shoe against the opposite thickness of the latter. The steel points are to leg.? This accident happens to the horse in two be made sharp; they may either be made square, modes, by which he either strikes the pastern triangular, or chisel pointed, as may be most joint, or the shank above, near the inside of the agreeable; the height of the point above the shoe knee: the old English stable terms in this case should not exceed a quarter of an inch for a were knocking, applied to the pastern, and the saddle horse; they may be made higher for a speedy cut to the shank above. These revived draught horse. The key or handle that is nedirections produced no more success, nor so cessary to screw them in and out occasionally is much attention, as they originally experienced, made in the shape of the capital letter T, and of and for the following reasons, assigned by Mr. sufficient size and strength. At the bottom of John Lawrence, just quoted, a writer allowed the handle a socket or cavity must be made, on all hands to be practical. The general cause properly adapted to the shape of the steel point, of knocking and cutting in the horse is mal-con- and so deep as to receive the whole head of the formation, crookedness of the pastern joints, and point that is above the shoe. In order to prethe toe pointing inward or outward, whence he vent the screw from breaking at the neck, it will will strike the opposite leg with either the toe or be necessary to make it of a gradual taper ; the heel, even if ridden without shoes. Width of saine is likewise to be observed of the female chest is no kind of security against this defect : screw that receives it, that is, the hole must be and if any preventive measures by shoeing, re wider on the upper part of the shoe than the commended by Moorcroft and others, which, under part: the sharp points may be tempered beside, have the disadvantage of placing the or hardened, in order to srevent them from growhorse in an unnatural and dangerous position, ing too soon blunt; but when they become blunt may have a temporary good effect, it ceases the they may be sharpened as at first. These points instant the horse becomes, in the smallest de- should be unscrewed when the horse is put into gree fatigued and leg-weary, and even, perhaps, the stable, as the stones will do them more inafter a few miles travel. On this account, the pos- jury in a few minutes than a day's riding on ice. sessors of horses which wound their legs in action A draught horse should have one on the point of have generally, in former days, and at present, each shoe, as that gives him a firmer footing in
drawing on ice; but for a saddle horse, when but it is of importance that there should not be points are put there, they are apt to make him any nail in the middle of the toe. For, genetrip and stumble. When the shoes are provided rally, the action of the foot on the ground bas a with these points, a horse will travel on ice with direct tendency to push the shoe, as it were, the greatest security and steadiness, much more backwards along the foot; and it sometimes so than on causeway or turnpike roads, as the happens that the shoe is actually thus displaced; weight of the horse presses them into the ice at in which case, it necessarily follows that the nail every step he takes.
in the middle of the toe must be driven immeBesides the common shoe for horses that have diately against the sensible parts behind it; sound feet, there are also others of various shapes, whilst the rest of the nails, in great measure, determined by the necessity of the case, that is follow the line of the crust, and so avoid doing to say, by the different derangements and dis- mischief to the parts within. The nail-holes on eases to which the horse's foot is liable. Such, the upper surface of the shoe should come for instance, are what farriers call the covered, through the seat, close to the edge of the bevel, flat, or convex shoe; the patten shoe; the shoe that the nails may have a proper and equal hold for all feet, simple, double, and hinged ; the shoe on every part of the crust, which will be shown without nails; the half-moon shoe ; the Turkish by the clenched ends being each equally distant shoe; and the slipper shoe. Eight nails for each from the shoe. As the nail-hole is always made shoe are enough for saddle and light draught with a taper and square pointed punch, a nail horses; but, for such as are employed in heavy , with a head of the same form will fit it better draught, ten are required. A smaller number, it than one of any other shape. is found, do not hold the shoe sufficiently fast; To prevent the necessity of frequent removes, and a greater number, by acting like so many several expedients have been put in practice. wedges, weaken the hoof, and rather dispose the Sometimes a few nails, of a larger size than the crust to break off than give additional security. rest, have been so put in that the heads stood
The manner of disposing the nails has differed considerably beyond the level of the shoe; but considerably at different times. Some writers when these did not break off, as was often the have directed four to be placed on each side of case, they soon wore down. At other times the foot, and the hindniost near the heel : leav- nails with large heads, tapering to a point, were ing between the two rows of nails a considerable screwed into the web of the shoe.
Of these, space of the fore part of the foot without any. one was usually placed at the toe, and one at each The nails thus placed certainly confined the foot heel. And by this contrivance of the screw it at the sides and heels, left the toe at liberty, and was imagined that the nails might be easily reassisted materially the effect of the sloping sur- placed when worn out. They are apt, however, face of the common shoe, in altering the form of to break off at the neck, and are too expensive the foot from nearly a round to a lengthened for common use. There is, notwithstanding, figure. Latterly, it has been strongly recom- another plan, which, as far as it has been tried, mended to place the nails principally at the fore justifies the author in recommending it. This part of the foot, in order to prevent the heels consists in having nails with a lozenge head, or from being confined. And certainly this is a what may be called a double countersink, termiwiser practice than the former; but, as the foot nating in an edge, instead of coming to a point. should rest on the shoe in the whole extent of This greater breadth of surface prevents its being the crust, it may be thought that the best way of rubbed away as fast as a point; the thickness in connecting them in every part alike would be the middle gives it strength; and the regular that of placing the nails at equal distances from taper to the shank causes it to apply exactly to each other in the whole round of the shoe. the sides of the hole in the shoe, by which it is
However, the objection to this is, that when equally supported, and prevented from bending the foot strikes the ground with considerable or breaking. There should be four nails to every force, the back part of it becomes a little broader shoe ; that is to say, two in the forepart, and one than when it is in the air, or when the foot is at at each heel. rest. This spreading is not considerable, nor The heads of these nails must be struck in does it extend far along the sides of the foot, tools, or dies; the four holes in the shoe must be but it is sufficient to act upon the hindmost made to correspond with the neck of the nail; pails, when near the heels; hence arises the ne- and, when the nail is driven, the workman must cessity for there being a greater distance between cover the head with a tool, which will receive its the last nail and the heel of the shoe than be- upper part, and prevent its being injured by the tween any two nails. Accordingly it may be hammer. These nails are, in effect, so many Jaid down as a general rule that the last nail caulkings, with the advantages of allowing 2 should not be nearer the heel than from two more level tread; of being easily replaced, by inches to an inch and a half. Such a distance putting new nails in the old holes; and, by being has been found sufficient to prevent the heels being at a distance from the heel of the shoe, they are confined, and not sufficiently great to allow the not so likely to hurt the opposite leg. The nails shoe to spring, and loosen the last nails, as fre- and nail-holes, however, employed at the Veteriquently happens when they are farther distant nary College, are very different from those in from the heel.
The latter are stamped with a All the nails should be at equal distances from punch of a particular form : and, the heads each other, except the two in front, which should being of a conical shape, are received into the be a little wider apart than the rest ; this, how- nail-holes, so as to preserve their hold as long as ever, is not a maiter of essential consequence; the shoe exists. Mr. Spencer is the inventor of
hese nails, which, though made of a more dura- fcedtan : Goth. skiota; Swed. skiuta. To put ole metal, are little more in price than the com forth ; emit; push forward ; discharge any thing mon sort.
so as to make it fly with speed or violence; to * The head of the common nail,' says Mr. perform the act of shooting; germinate; protuColeman, “is not conical, but nearly square berate; be emitted; move along swiftly: as a and no part is received into the nail-hole. noun substantive, the act or impression of any When the nail is driven into the shoe, up to the thing emitted : endeavour to strike, or act of nead, the farrier generally continues to hammer striking with a missive; a branch from a main with great violence; and, as the nail-hole cannot stock : a shooter is one who shoots, or uses a admit the head, the texture of the nail contigu- missive weapon. ous to the head is shivered, and, in a few days, The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at is broken :-whereas the head of Mr. Spencer's him.
Genesis. nail operates as a wedge; the more it is ham Not an hand shall touch the mount, but he shall mered, the more closely it is connected with the be stoned or shot through. Exodus xix. 13. nail-hole, so as to become part of the shoe.
They that see me shoot out the lip, they shake the head.
Psalms. Moreover, the head of the coinmon nail, when
None of the trees exalt themselves, neither shoot not injured by the farrier, projects beyond the shoe; and, when worn out, the shoe is liable to up their top among the thick boughs.
Ezekiel xxxi. 14. come off. This accident will more frequently
A grain of mustard groweth up and shooteth out happen if the nails are placed in the old nail
Mark iv. 32. holes of the crust, before the nail-holes of the I owe you much, and, like a witless youth shoe are punched, the farrier should examine the That which I owe is lost; but if you please situation of the former nails; and, by having To shoot an arrow that self way new crust for the nails, the shoe will be more Which you did shoot the first, I do not doubt firmly connected with the hoof.'
To find both.
Shakspeare. It now only remains for us to conclude with
This murderous shaft that's shot some few remarks on the shoeing of other ani- Hath not yet lighted; and our safest way
Is to avoid the aim. mals employed in the service of man, and espe
The noise of thy cross-bow cially the mule, the ox, and the ass.
Will scare the herd, and so my shoot is lost. The shoe for the fore feet of the mule is, in
Such trees as love the sun do not willingly degeneral, very similar to that which the farriers scend far into the earth ; and therefore they are comcall the bar shoe. It is very wide and large, monly trees that shoot up much.
Bucon. especially at the toe, where it sometimes projects If the menstruum be overcharged, metals will four inches and upwards beyond the hoof. This shoot into crystals.
Id. excess is given it with a view to enlarge the basis The Turkish bow giveth a very forcible shoot, inof the foot, which is in general exceedingly nar
somuch as the arrow hath pierced a steel target two row in this animal. The shoe for the hind feet inches thick ; but the arrow, if headed with wood, is open at the heels, like the horse's shoe ; but hath been known to pierce through a piece of wood
Id. it is lengthened at the toe, like the preceding one.
of eight inches thick. The former is called in French planche, and the
They will not come just on the tops where they latter florentine. The foot of the ass, having the
were cut, but out of those shools which were waterboughs.
Id. same shape as that of the mule, requires the
The shooter ewe, the broad-leaved sycamore. same kind of shoe, with this only difference, that
Fairfar. the shoe for the fore foot is not closed at the heels,
We are shooters both, and thou dost deign and that its edges do not project so much beyond To enter combat with us, and contest the hoof. The same form of shoe is used for the With thine own clay.
Herbert. hind feet of this animal.
The men shoot strong shoots with their bows. The ox's shoe consists of a flat plate of iron,
Abbot. with five or six stamp-holes on the outward edge
The land did shoot out with a very great promon. to receive the nails; at the toe is a projection of tory, bending that way, four or five inches, which, passing in the cleft of
Id. Description of the World. the foot, is bent over the hoof, so as to keep the And just as much grows downward to the roots.
The tree at once both upward shoots, shoe in its proper place. In many parts of
Cleaveland. France, where the ox is used for draft, it is
Tell like a tall old oak how learning shouts sometimes necessary to employ eight shoes, one To heaven her branches, and to hell her roots. under each nail; or four, one under each exter
Denham. nal nail; and sometimes two, one under
Light the external nail of each fore foot. In the des Shoots far into the bosom of dim night cription here given of the mule's and ass's shce, A glimmering dawn.
Milion. we cannot avoid condemning the cruel and igno
of winning graces waited still, rant practice of extending the toe of the shoe so And from about her shot darts of desire
Id. far beyond the toe of the hoof. See VETERI Into all eyes to wish ner stiil in sight. NARY ART.
Materials dark and crude, SHOOMSKA, one of the Kurile islands, With heaven's ray, and tempered, they shoot forth
Of spiritous fiery spume, till touched three leagues south of Cape Lopatka, in Kants- So beauteous, opening to the ambient light. chatka. Its inhabitants consist of a mixture of
A shooting star in Autumn thwarts the night. Id. natives and Kamtschadales.
Where Tigris at the foot of Paradise SHOOT, v.d., v. n., &? Pret. I shot; part. Into a gulf shot under ground, till part SHOOT'ER, N. s. [n. s. I shot or shotten. Sax. Rose up a fountain by the tree of life.
I saw them under a green mantling vine,
And, making one luxuriant shoot,
The two ends of a bow shot off, fly from one ano Tell them that the rays of light shoot from the sua ther.
Boyle. to our earth at the rate of one hundred and eighty When he has shot his best, he is sure that none thousand miles in the second of a minute, they stand ever did shoot better.
The grand ætherial bow Which, like a warning-piece, must be shot off,
Shoots up immense.
Fired by the torch of noon lo tenfold rage,
The’ infuriate hill forth shoots the pillared flame. Beware the secret snake that shools a sting. Id.
Id. I have laughed sometimes when I have reflected
Pride pushed forth buds at every branching shost, on those men who have shot themselves into the
And virtue shrunk almost beneath the root. Harte. world; some bclting out upon the stage with vast applause; and some hissed off, quitting it with dis SHOOTING, among sportsmen, is the killing grace.
of game by the gun, with or without the help of The liquid air his moving pinions wound, dogs. It is now generally confined to flying or And in the moment shoot him on the ground. Id.
running, especially the first; which, by experiThus having said, she sinks beneath the ground
ence, is found to be the best and most diverting With furious haste, and shoots the Stygian sound.
way of shooting; indeed there is scarcely any Id.
other than these two in use now among gentleA shining harvest either host displays, And shoots against the sun with equal rays.
men, for few will watch by a river side to shoot The monarch oak, the patriarch of the trees,
wild fowl; although, about a century ago, to Shoots rising up, and spreads by slow degrees. Id.
shoot flying was looked on as a rare accomplishNew creatures rise,
ment in a sportsman. It is necessary for any A moving mass at first, and short of thighs ; person who sports much to have two guns; the Till shooting out with legs, and imp'd with wings. barrel of one about two feet nine inches, which
will serve very well for the beginning of the seaLet me but live to shadow this young plant son, and for wood-shooting ; the other about From blites and storms: he'll soon shoot up a hero.
three feet three inches, for open-shooting after
Id. At first she Autters, but at length she springs
Michaelmas; the birds by that time are grown To smoother flight, and shoots upon her wings. Id.
so shy that your shoots must be at longer disHeaven's imperious queen shot down from high ;
tance. But, if you intend one gun to serve for At her approach the brazen hinges fly,
all purpuses, a three-feet barrel, or thereabouts, The gates are forced.
Id. is most proper. You should always have it As a country-fellow was making a shoot at a cocked in readiness, holding your thumb over the pigeon, he trod upon a snake that bit him.
cock, lest it go off when you would not have it.
L'Estrange. It is generally accounted the best way to aim Straight lines in joiner's language are called a at the head, if the game fly over your head; but joint; that is, two pieces of wood, that are shot, to aim as it were under the belly, if it fly from that is, planed, or else pared with a paring chisel.
you; and it will be best to let the game fly a lit
Mo.ron. That rude mass will shoot itself into several forms,
tle past you before you fire, for so doing the shot till it make an habitable world : the steady hand of will the better enter the body. Shot delivered Providence being the invisible guide of all
from a gun in general lose or decrease half the tions.
quantity every ten yards, or thereabouts; so that The last had a star upon its breast, which shot at forty yards there will not be thrown in above forth pointed beams of a peculiar lustre. Addison.
a fourth of what would be into the same space at The corn laid up by the ants would shoot under twenty yards. From which it appears that, if ground, if they did not bite off all the buds; and you take aim a foot before a cross shoot at forty therefore it will produce nothing.
yards, you will be the most likely to meet the This valley of the Tyrol lies inclosed on all sides bird with the centre shot; and which is looked by the Alps, though its dominions shoot out into se
upon to fly the strongest, and to be the more veral branches among the breaks of the mountains.
efficacious at long distances, than the diverging
Id. on Italy.
shot; for, whatever be the cause of their divergYou cannot think he would deny
ing, it must in some degree retard their motion. To lend the other friendly aid,
But, if there be a brisk wind, it will certainly Or wink, as coward and afraid.
bend the course of the shot; you must therefore Where the mob gathers, swiftly shoot along, consider, whether the wind blow with the bird, Nor idly mingle in the noisy throng. Gay. or against it; if it blow with it, you need little
Expressed juices of plants, boiled into the con more than to observe the general rule; because sistence of a syrup, and set into a cool place, the the wind helps the bird forward nearly as much essential salt will shoot upon the sides of the vessels. as it diverts the shot: but, if it fly against the
Arbuthnot on Aliments
wind, the shot declines more than the bird is reA wild where weeds and flowers promiscuous shoot,
tarded, and therefore you ought to take aim at a Or garden tempting with forbidden fruit.
Pope. Not half so swiftly shoots along in air
greater distance before the bird. The gliding lightning.
One good pointer in the field at a time, if you Now should my praises owe their truth
have patience to attend him, will be sufficient To beauty, dress, or paint, or youth,
for two men to shoot with ; but if you have an 'Twere grafting on an annual stock,
old spring spaniel, that is so well under comThat must our expectations mock;
mand that you can always keep him near you,
such a dog may be used with your pointer with down, for which purpose it is sufficient to press great advantage : as he will better find birds the ramrod two or three times on the wadding, that are wounded, and also spring such as are and not (as the usual practice is) to ram down near you, which you otherwise might pass. Ent the wadding by main force, by drawing up the if you should be fond of hunting many pointers ramrod, and then returning it into the barrel together in a field, as is frequently done, you with a jerk of the arm, many successive times. should rot have more than one amongst them For, by compressing the powder in this violent who has been taught to fetch his game; lest, by manner, some of the grains will necessarily be endeavouring to get it from each other, they bruised, whilst the explosion will not be so should tear it. Two persons in the field with quick, and the shot will be spread wider. In guns are better than more at partridge shooting ; pouring the charge of powder into the barrel, who should with patience pay a due attention to care should be taken to hold the measure as each other. When your dog points, walk up much as possible in a perpendicular line, that without any hurry, separating a few yards, one the powder may the more readily fall to the botto the right, the other to the left of your dog : if tom. It is even of service to strike the butt end a covey spring, never shoot into the midst of of the gun gently on the ground, in order to dethem, but let him on the left single out a bird tach those grains of powder, which, in falling which flies to the left, and him on the right a down, adhere to the sides of the barrel. The bird to the right, that you may not interrupt each shot should never be rammed down tight: after other, nor both shoot at the same bi and rea- having given a stroke on the ground with the dily fire at the first aim. Let each of you mark butt-end of the gun, in order to settle it, the the fall of his bird, and immediately run to the same as for the powder, the wadding should then place ; and if the dog do not secure it, or the be gently put down, but much less close than bird should be only wounded, and have run, that over the powder; for, when the shot is put him upon the scent; but if your dog under- wadded too tight, it spreads wide, and the piece stand his business, and will fetch his game, it is will recoil. In this, therefore, as well as in better to trust to him, and load again as quick as every other mode of loading, the sportsman you can. It will always be of great use, and should never carry his gun under his arm, with save much time and trouble, to have a person the muzzle inclined to the ground; that practice without a gun, to mark the flight of the birds. If at all times loosens the wadding and charge too a single bird be sprung, let him take the shoot to much: sometimes produces the loss of shot, and whose side it flies : the bird being killed, cause always indicates laziness in the shooter, and inyour dog to lie by it whilst you load, lest he difference to the sport. spring other birds that are near you. If
When the piece is fired, it should, if possible, grace the birds to a hedge, double the row by be reloaded immediately, whilst the barrel is walking one on each side, taking your dog on warm, lest, by delaying it, a certain moisture the ditch side : here, if you have a spaniel, he should be formed in the barrel, which would rewill be of great use; as you may make him go tain a part of the powder when pouring in the along in the ditch, and your pointer on the other charge, and hinder it from falling to the bottom. side ; by which means you will not pass a bird, Powder, also, will imbibe moisture from the air, and one of you will most likely get a good shoot and, therefore, it is of additional advantage 10 at it. Your own judgment, with very little ex- load the piece whilst the barrel is warm, because perience, will best direct where the birds are some part of the moisture will be thereby evapomost likely to be found at different times of the rated. For the same reason, the sportsman day, according to the grounds you have to hunt should fire off a little powder before be loads the in. A fowling-piece should not be fired more first time; for it has been found, even in the than twenty or five-and-twenty times without driest seasons, that the coldness of the barrel, and being washed; a barrel, when foul, neither shoots perhaps some little moisture condensed in its so ready, nor carries the shot so far as when cavity, have sensibly diminished the force of the clean. The flint, pan, and hammer, should be powder in the first discharge. well wiped after each shot; this contributes Some sportsmen prime before they load ; this greatly to make the piece go off quick, but then may be proper when the touch-hole is enlarged, it should be done with such expedition that the and the barrel is very thin at that place, because, barrel may be re-loaded whilst warm. The flint in this case, if the piece is not first primed, it should be frequently changed, without waiting will in loading prime itself, which diminishes the till it misses fire before a new one is put in. charge : but, when the touch-hole is of its proFifteen or eighteen shots, therefore, should only per size, the piece should never be primed until be fired with the same flint; the expense is too after it is loaded; for then it will be known, trifling to be regarded, and, by changing it thus from the few grains of powder which usually often, much vexation will be prevented. A gun, make their way into the pan, that the touch-hole also, should never be fired with the prime of the is clear and unobstructed; and, on the contrary, preceding day; it may happen that an old prim- if no grains come through, that it will be proper ing will sometimes go off well, but it will more to strike the butt end of the gun smartly with frequently contract moisture and fuse in the the hand, and to prick the touch-hole till they firing ; then the object will most probably be appear. But, whether the practice is to prime missed, and that because the piece was not fresh before or after loading the piece, it is highly primed.
proper, after every discharge, to prick the touchSome attention is requisite in loading a piece; hole, and what is still better, to guard against the powder should be only slightly rammed all remains of fuse or squib, by inserting into