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leather smooth; the shoes are then carried to the SHOEING, in karriery. Horses, and other grindstone, by which they are polished, and animals destined to labor, are shod with iron, in finished up in every part, the soles blacked, and order to defend and preserve their hoofs. As polished by the wheel with a composition of feet differ, so should shoes. bees' wax and ivory black, which renders them In a treatise on this subject, by Mr. Clark of glossy : the upper leathers are then brushed by Edinburgh, the common form of shoes and the à circular brush, which is turned by the lathe, method of shoeing are, with great reason, conand the shoes are rendered fit for sale, except demned, and a new method recommended, which those which require binding and lining, with a seems founded on rational principles, and to lining of thin leather, in which case they are have been confirmed by experience. 'In prefinished in the same manner as common shoes. paring the foot for the shoe according to the

The Society of Arts have shown a laudable common method,' our author observes, 'the frog, desire to recominend various machines to the the sole, and the bars or binders, are pared so trade, to enable the workman perform his much that the blood frequently appears. The operations without so much sitting in a bent common shoe by its form (being thick on the inposture. The first of these was Mr. Holden's, side of the rim, and thin upon the outside) must then Mr. Parker's, and next Mr. Stas's, whose of consequence be made concave or hollow on machine, being the most approved, demands that side which is placed immediately next the some description. A small bench, or table, is foot, in order to prevent its resting upon the sole. firmly supported on four legs, at about four feet The shoes are generally of an immoderate from the ground; a circular cushion is affixed weight and length, and every means is used to upon the bench, having a hollow or basin in the prevent the frog from resting upon the ground, centre of it, with a hole from the bottom of the by making the shoe heels thick, broad, and strong, hollow, quite through the cushion, and also or raising cramps or caukers on them. From through the centre of the bench. This hole re- this form of the shoe, and from this method of ceives a strap, which is doubled, and the two treating the hoof, the frog is raised to a consiends sewed together. The last is put into the derable height above the ground, the heels are double of the strap, and it is drawn down by a deprived of that substance which was provided treadle, so as to hold the last firmly in the hol. by nature to keep the crust extended at a proper low of the cushion, which is stuffed soft within- wideness, and the foot is fixed as it were in a side; and, as the hole through the cushion is too vice. By the pressure from the weight of the small for the shoe to pass down, the last can be body, and resistance from the outer edges of the set in any direction which is most convenient shoe, the heels are forced together, and retain for the sewing; but, by relieving the treadle, it that shape impressed upon them, which it is imcan be removed in an instant, turned round, and possible ever afterwards to remove; hence a confixed again to sew another part. A seat can be traction of the heels, and of course lameness. applied in front of the machine, for the work. But farther :man to rest himself occasionally: this seat is • The heels being forced together, the crust supported by only two legs, and a piece of presses upon the processes of the coffin and exwood, which projects horizontally from beneath tremities of the nut-bone: the frog is confined, the seat, and enters into a mortise, made in a and raised so far from the ground that it cannot part of the frame. Upon this the workman sits have that support upon it which it ought to astride, as if upon a saddle; and, as his work have: the circulation of the blood is impeded, is held before him at a proper height, he sits in and a wasting of the frog, and frequently of the an upright posture, which is not attended with whole foot, ensues. Hence proceed all those the same prejudicial effects as stooping to work diseases of the feet known by the names of upon the knee. The machine is provided with founder, hoof-bound, narrow heels, thrushes, a small tray, or box, behind the cushion, to con corns, high-soles, &c. The bad effects of this tain all the small articles which the work re- practice are still more obvious upon the external quires; also a drawer beneath it for tools, &c.; parts of the hoof. The crust towards the toe, a whetstone fixed up at a convenient height; being the only part of the hoof free from comand an anvil, which fits into the hollow of the pression, enjoys a free circulation of that fluid cushion, so as to lie firmly, to hammer the lea- necessary for its nourishment, and grows broader ther upon instead of a lapstone.

and longer; from which extraordinary length of Shoe of an Anchor, a small block of wood, toe, the horse stumbles in his going, and cuts his convex on the back, and having a small hole, legs. The smaller particles of sand insinuate sufficient to contain the point of the anchor fluke, themselves between the shoe and the heels, which on the foreside. It is used to prevent the anchor grind them away, and thereby produce lamefrom tearing or wounding the planks on the ship's ness. All this is entirely owing to the great bow, when ascending or descending; for which spring the heels of the horse must unavoidably purpose the shoe slides up and down along the have upon the heels of a shoe made in this bow, between the Ruke of the anchor and the form. This concave shoe in time wears thin at planks, as being pressed close to the latter by the the toe, and, yielding to the pressure made upon weight of the former.

it, is forced wider, and of consequence breaks To SHOE AN Anchor, is to cover the fukes off all that part of the crust on the outside of with a broad triangular piece of plank, whose the nails. İnstances of this kind daily occur, area or superficies is much larger than that of the insomuch that there hardly remains crust suffiHukes. It is intended to give the anchor a surer cient to fix a shoe upon. hold of the bottom in very soft and cozy ground. It is generally thought that the broader a

shoe is, and the more it covers the sole and frog, • It is to be remembered that a horse s shoe a horse will travel the better. But, as has been ought by no means to rest upon the sole, otherformerly remarked, the broader a shoe is of this wise it will occasion lameness; therefore it must form, it must be made the more concave; and, rest entirely on the crust: and, in order that we of consequence, the contracting power upon the may imitate the natural tread of the foot, the shoe heels must be the greater. It is likewise to be must be made flat (if the height of the sole do observed that, by using strong broad-rimmed not forbid it); it must be of an equal thickness concave shoes in the summer season, when the all around the outside of the rim; and, on that weather is hot and the roads very dry and hard, part of it which is to be placed immediately next if a horse is obliged to go fast, the shoes, by re- the foot, a narrow rim or margin is to be formed, peated strokes (or friction) against the ground, not exceeding the breadth of the crust upon acquire a great degree of heat, which is commu which it is to rest, with the nail-holes placed exnicated to the internal parts of the foot; and, actly in the middle; and from this narrow rim together with the contraction upon the heels oc- the shoe is to be made gradually thinner towards casioned by the form of the shoe, must certainly its inner edge. canse exquisite pain. This is frequently suc • The breadth of the shoe is to be regulated by the ceeded by a violent inflammation in the internal size of the foot, and the work to which the horse parts of the hoof, and is the cause of that disease is accustomed: but, in general, it should be in the feet so fatal to the very best of our horses, made rather broad at the toe, and narrow towards .commonly termed a founder. This is also the the extremity of each heel, in order to let the reason why horses, after a journey or a hard ride, frog rest with freedom upon the ground. The are observed to shift their feet so frequently, and nece

ecessity of this has been already shown. The to lie down much. If we attend further to the shoe being thus formed and shaped like the foot, convex surface of this shoe, and the convexity the surface of the crust is to be made smooth, of the pavement upon which horses walk, it and the shoe fixed on with eight or at most ten will then be evident that it is impossible for them nails, the heads of which should be sunk into the to keep their feet from slipping in this form of holes, so as to be equal with the surface of the shoe, especially upon declivities of the streets. shoe. The sole, frog, and bars, as I have already

• It is also a common practice to turn up the observed, should never be pared, farther than heels of the shoes into what are called cramps or taking off what is ragged from the frog, and any caakers, by which means the weight of the horse excrescences or inequalities from the sole. And is confined to a very narrow surface, viz. the it is very properly remarked by Mr. Osiner, inner round edge of the shoe-rim and the points That the shoe should be made so as to stand a or caukers of each heel, which soon wear round little wider at the extremity of each heel than the and blunt; besides, they for the most part are foot itself: otherwise, as the foot grows in length, made by far too thick and long. The conse- the heel of the shoe in a short time gets withir. quence is, that it throws the horse forward upon the heel of the horse ; which pressure often the toes, and is apt to make him slip and stum- breaks the crust, and produces a temporary ble. To this cause we must likewise ascribe the lameness, perhaps a corn.' But so much are frequent and sudden lameness borses are subject farriers, grooms, &c., prejudiced in favor of the to in the legs, by twisting the ligaments of the common method of shoeing and paring out the joints, tendons, &c. I do not affirm,' says our feet, that it is with difficulty they can even be author, “that caukers are always hurtful, and ought prevailed upon to make a proper trial of it. They to be laid aside: on the contrary, I grant that cannot be satisfied unless the frog be finely shaped, they, or some such-like contrivance, are ex the sole pared, and the bars cut out, in order to tremely necessary, and may be used with advan- make the heels appear wide. This practice gives tage upon flat shoes where the ground is slip- them a show of wideness for the time; yet that, pery; but they should be made thinner and together with the concave form of the shoe, forsharper than those commonly used, so as to sink wards the contraction of the heels, which, when into the ground, otherwise they will rather be confirmed, renders the animal lame for life. hurtful than of any advantage.

• In the flat form of shoe, its thickeșt part is In shoeing a horse, we should in this, as in upon the outside of the rim, where it is most ex every other case, study, to follow nature: and posed to be worn; and, being made gradually certainly that shoe which is made of such a form thinner towards its inner edge, it is therefore as to resemble, as near as possible, the natural much lighter than the common concave shoe : tread and shape of the foot, must be preferable yet it will last equally as long, and with more to any other. But it is extremely difficult to lay advantage to the hoof; and, as the frog or heel down fixed rules with respect to the proper me. is allowed to rest upon the ground, the foot enthod to be observed in treating the hoofs of dif joys the same points of support as in its natural ferent horses : it is equally difficult to lay down state. It must therefore be much easier for the any certain rule for determining the precise form horse in his way of going, and be a means of to be given to their shoes. This will be obvious to making him surer footed. It is likewise evident every judicious practitioner, from the various that, from this shoe, the hoof cannot acquire any constructions of their feet, from disease, and bad form ; when, at the same time, it receives from other causes that may occur; so that a great every advantage that possibly could be expected deal must depend upon the discretion and judg- from shoeing. In this respect it may very proment of the operator, in proportioning the shoe perly be said that we make the shoe to the foot, 10 the foot, by imitating the natural tread, to pre- and not the foot to the shoe; as is but too much vent the hoof from contracting a bad shape. the case in the concave-shoes, where the foot

very much resembles that of a cat's fixed into a in this respect : for, it fitting or shaping them to walnut-shell. It is to be observed that the hoofs the foot, they require to be frequently heated, in of young horses, before they are shod, for the order to make them bend to the unequal surface most part are wide and open at the heels, and which the hoof acquires from the constant use of that the crust is sufficiently thick and strong to these shoes : they thereby become soft: and to admit of the nails being fixed very near the ex- attempt to harden them by heating or hammertremities of each. But, as I have formerly re- ing when they are shaped to the foot would undo marked, from the constant use of concave shoes, the whole. But flat shoes, by inaking them, the crust of this part of the foot grows thinner when heated, a little narrower than the foot, will, and weaker; and when the nails are fixed too by means of hammering, become wider, and acfar back, especially upon the inside, the horse quire a degree of elasticity and firmness which it becomes lame: to avoid this, they are placed is necessary they should have, but impossible to more towards the fore-part of the hoof." This be given them by any other means whatever; so causes the heels of the horse to have the greater that any farrier, from practice, will soon be able spring upon the heels of the shoe, which is so to judge, from the quality of the iron, how much very detrimental as to occasion lameness ; where a shoe, in fitting it to the circumference of the as, by using this flat form of shoe, all these in- hoof, will stretch by hammering when it is almost conveniences are avoided ; and if the hoofs of cold: this operation, in fitting flat shoes will be young horses, from the first time that they were the less difficult, especially when it is considered shod, were continued to be constantly treated that, as there are no inequalities on the surface according to the method here recommended, the of the hoof (or at least onght not to be) which heels would always retain their natural strength require to be bended thereto, shoes of this kind and shape.

only require to be made smooth and flat; hence • It has been alleged that, in this form of shoe, they will press equally upon the circumference horses do not go so well as in that commonly or crust of the hoof, which is the natural tread of used. This objection will easily be set aside, by a horse.' attending to the following particulars. There are Mr. Moorcroft, a late ingenious veterinary but few farriers that can or will endeavour to make practitioner in London, avowed a preference to this sort of shoe as it ought to be. The iron, in this kind of shoe, which he calls the seated forming it, does not so easily turn into the circu- shoe,' and which he formed in a die, in the same lar shape necessary as in the common shoe; and, manner that money is struck in coining. His perhaps, this is the principal reason why they account of it is as follows :-. The shoe best calobject to it, especially where they work much by culated to answer the purpose,' says he,' is that the piece. And, as many horses that are com so strongly recommended by Mr. Osmer and monly shod with concave shoes have their soles Mr. Clark. The upper surface of this shoe conconsiderably higher than the crust, if the shoe is sists of two parts: an outer part, which is a pernot properly formed, or if it is made too flat, it fect plane near the rim, corresponding with the must unavoidably rest upon the sole, and occa breadth of the crust, and called the seat; and sion lameness. The practice of paring the sole an inner part, sloping from the seat, and distinand frog is also so prevalent, and thought so ab- guished by the name of the bevel. The seat is solutely necessary, that it is indiscriminately obviously intended to support the crust in its practised, even 10 excess, on all kinds of feet: whole extent, the bevel to lie off the sole; and and, while this method continues to be followed, this part, being more or less broad, according to it cannot be expected that horses can go upon the kind of work proposed to be done, will give hard ground (on this open shoe) with that free- the requisite strength to the shoe. As the whole dom they would do if their soles and frogs of the crust bears on the seat, it is less liable to were allowed to remain in their full natural be broken than when only a small part of it rests strength. There is one observation I would on the shoe. In consequence, likewise, of the farther make; which is, that the shoe should be crust resting on the flat seat, the weight of the made of good iron, well worked, or what smiths body has a tendency to spread the foot wider in call hammer-hardened, that is, beaten all over every direction, rather than to contract it, as has lightly with a hammer when almost cold. The been observed to happen with the common shoe: Spanish and Portuguese farriers use this practice and it has in fact been found, in various ingreatly, insomuch that many people, who have stances, that a foot contracted by the common seen them at work, have reported that they form shoe, and afterwards shod with the seated one, their horses' shoes without heating them in the has become wider without the horse having been fire as we do. It is well known that heating taken from his usual work; and again, that a foot, iron till it is red softens it greatly; and, when being of a full size and proper form when first shoes thus softened are put upon horses' feet, shod with the seated shoe, has retained the same they wear away like lead. But, when the shoes size and form, without the slightest alteration, as are well hammered, the iron becomes more com- long as the seated shoe was used. By the slope pact, firm, and hard ; so that a well-hammered or bevel in the shoe, a cavity is formed between shoe, though made considerably lighter, yet will it and the sole, sufficient to admit a picker, and last as long as one that is made heavier; the ad to prevent pressure on this part, without the sole vantage of which is obvious, as the horse will itself being hollowed, and consequently weakened. more his feet with more activity, and be in less For if it be one of the functions of the horny sole danger of cutting his legs.

to defend the sensible sole, of which, from its The common concave shoes are very faulty situation and nature, no one can doubt, it must

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be evident, that the more perfect it is left, the stronger it must necessarily be, and of course 1. For the strongest sort of cart-horses . 2 12 the more competent to perform its office.' 2. For the smaller horses of this kind . . 1 12 Mr. Coleman, however, states as objections, 3. For the largest coach-horses

. 1 12 that the sole may be pressed by this form of the 4. For the smaller ditto

4 shoe, and that the flat part of the shoe is made 5. For saddle-horses of any height llb. 2oz. to 10 of the same breadth at the quarters as at the 6. For race-horses . .

5 oz. to 4 toe. These objections, however, bear rather on an By reducing the superfluous breadth of these imperfect practice, than an erroneous principle, shoes, their thickness may be increased without in Osmer's mode of shoeing, as may be seen above, making any addition to their weight.' where direction is given to slope or bevel the Mr. Coleman expresses his sentiments of the shoe, that a cavity may be formed between it shoe proposed by Mr. St. Bel in the following and the sole. But the grand objection of the words :- Mr. St. Bel employed a shoe with a smiths, probably, to Osmer's shoe, subsists in its flat upper surface; but, from not attending to the being somewhat more difficult to forge than the very important operation of removing the sole common one to which they have been accus- under the heels of the shoe, to every kind of tomed.

hoof, it frequently failed of success. Professor St. Bel, who has not on all points • The best form for the external surface of the reasoned so correctly, observes, that the feet of shoe is a regular concavity; that is, the comhorses at their inferior surface are naturally con mon shoe reversed. This shoe leaves the hoof cave, flat, or convex. Suppose, for instance, a of the same figure when shod as before its apfoot well formed and properly concave; a se- plication. And it is evident that a concavity cond fiat; and a third convex. The inconve- has more points of contact with pavement and niences attending the convex and flat foot will other convex bodies than a flat or convex surbe considerably increased by shoes with a simi- face, and that the horse is consequently more lar surface, because the iron of the shoe being secure on his legs. A shoe that is dat externally harder than the horn of the hoof presents a may preserve the hoof equally well in health; smoother and more polished surface, and, conse- but this form is not so well calculated to prequently, more liable to slip. On this account, vent the horse from slipping as a concavity. therefore, it is, that I have proposed the concave There are two circumstances necessary to be shoe, that is to say, concave in its lower surface, attended to in shoeing, viz. to cut the hoof and because it represents the natural shape of the apply the shoe. Before the hoof is protected by foot, and because it fulfils, in every respect, the iron, some parts require to be removed, and views and intentions of nature; and I am there- others preserved. This is even of more imfore convinced that it ought to be applied to all portance than the form of the shoe. good feet. As some cases are to be excepted have attended chiefly to the shoe, and not to its from every general rule, so here the use of the application, or to the hoof; and this error has concave shoe is to be excepted from the case produced more mischief, and more enemies to of a flat foot, and especially of a convex one: the Veterinary College, than all the prejudices but it does not follow from this exception that and calumnies of grooms and farriers. The the use of this shoe may not become general first thing to be attended to is to take away a in time; because it must be remembered that portion of the sole between the whole length of feer only become flat and convex through bad the bars and crust, with a drawing-knife ; for shoe. ng, or by some accident, as when a horse is the heels of the sole cannot receive pressure foungered ; and that no horses, not even those without corns. To avoid this, the sole should bred in marshy and low lands, are foaled with be made concave, so as not to be in contact with this imperfection. Nor can we be justified in the shoe. If there be any one part of the pracaccusing nature with having neglected to provide tice of shoeing more important than the rest, it is sufficiently for the foundations of this admirable this removal of the sole, between the bars and machine, when at the same time the same ma crust. When this is done, the horse will always chine affords us so many convincing proofs both be free from corns, whatever may be the form of of her wisdom and her providence. It is also the shoe. Besides this, the heels of the shoe should of principal importance to determine the weight be made to rest on the junction of the bars with of the shoe ; for it is matter of astonishment to the crust : whereas, if ihe bars are removed, the see some horses with shoes weighing each five shoe is supported by the crust only, and not by pounds, making together a burden of twenty the solid broad basis of crust and bars united. pounds of iron attached to their four feet. It is It is necessary that the sole should be cut obvious to common sense that such an additional before any other part of the hoof be removed. If weight fixed to the extremity of the leg must be the heels have been first lowered by the butteris, productive of some inconvenience or other; and, then possibly there may not be sufficient sole left in fact, the muscles are thereby compelled to to enable a drawing-knife to be applied, without greater exertion, the ligaments are stretched, and reaching the sensible sole; whereas, by cutting the articulations continually fatigued : and, be- the sole in the first instance, we can determine sides all these evil consequences, the shoe by its on the propriety of lowering the heels and shortweight forces out the nails, and so entirely spoils ening the toe. "The sole can then descend, withthe texture of the wall, or crust, that it becomes out ihe motion being obstructed by the shoe ; often extremely difficult to fix the shoe to the and any foreign bodies that may have got into hoof. The weight which we propose for shoes this cavity are always forced out when the sole of different kinds is nearly as follows:

descends, without producing any mischief.

But many

When the shoe is applied, the cavity between its length, breadth, and thickness, at the heel, the sole and shoe should be sufficiently large at surfaces, &c., according to the hoof. If the every part to admit a large horse picker, and heels of the fore feet are two inches and a half particularly between the bars and crust. If the or more in depth, the frog sound and prominent, sole is naturally concave, a shoe with a flat sur- and the ground dry, then only the ioe of the face applied to the crust will not touch any part hoof requires to be shortened, and afterwards of the sole ; and if the sole be flat, or even con- protected by a short shoe made of the usual vex in the middle, or towards the toe, the quar- thickness at the toe, but gradually thinner towards ters and heels of the sole will generally admit the heel. For a common sized saddle-horse it of being made concave with a drawing-knife, so may be about three-eighths of an inch thick at as not to receive any pressure from a flat shoe. the toe, and one-eighth at the heel. The intenIf a shoe with a flat upper surface does not tion is, to bring the frog completely into conleave ample space for a picker, between the sole tact with the ground, to expand the heels, prevent and shoe, then it is requisite to make either the corns, thrushes, and canker. If applied in May sole or the shoe concave. When the sole appears or June, when the ground is dry, it may be conin flakes, and thick in substance, it will be better tinued all the summer; and in warm climates, to make the whole of the sole concave by a where this is the case, no other protection for the drawing-knife; and this operation should always hoof is requisite.' be performed before the toe is shortened or the The professor here observes that, so long as heels lowered. When we have made the sole the wear of the hoof is not greater than the supply hollow, then a shoe with a flat surface will rest afforded by nature from the coronet, so long may only on the crust; but if the sole be flat, or con the short shoes be worn; but in wet weather vex, and thin towards the toe and middle of the this is not the case.

• I have known,' says he, hoof, so as to prevent the possibility of removing some light horses to wear them the whole the sole at these parts to form a concavity, year; but such instances are not common. Nethen it is necessary to employ a shoe sufficiently vertheless, the short shoe can be employed on concave to avoid pressure, and to admit a picker. most horses with advantage in summer, when In this case, however, the sole at the heels and the heels are from two and a half to three inches quarters, even in convex feet, will generally in depth, and the frog equally prominent; but, allow of removal with a drawing-knife, and then unless the hoof has been properly preserved, the the quarters and heels of the shoe may be flat. heels and frog are generally too low for the short It therefore follows that, where the sole can be shoe. The toe of the horse requires to be shortmade concave, a shoe with a flat surface may with ened as much as possible; but, if the frog touches safety be applied ; but where parts of the sole, the ground, no part of the heels should be cut; from disease or bad shoeing, become flat, a shoe and, by pursuing this practice, the heels will with a concave surface is required. As the frequently grow sufficiently high to receive the hoof is always growing, and as the shoe preserves shor" shoe.' it from friction, the toe of the crust requires to Mr. Lawrence, on the other hand, in his Phibe cut once in about twenty-eight days. The losophical and Practical Treatise on Horses, quesmore horn we can remove from this part, the tions, on various grounds, the correctness of the sooner it will be proper to apply a shoe thin at term pressure, as of late years applied to the frog the heels, without mischief to the muscles and of the horse's foot; asserting that, in great numtendons, and the horse will be less liable to trip. bers of feet, in their natural and healthy state,

The bars and frog should never be removed. the frog is not of sufficient growth or bulk for such What is ragged and detached had better be cut purpose; and that the frogs of most horses, even off with a knife by the groom than left to the amply furnished by nature with that part, are too farrier, who will perhaps remove some of the sensible and tender to admit of being exposed to sound parts. Where the frog is not large and constant contact with the hard roads, for which, projecting, the heels may be lowered by a rasp however, he is a strenuous advocate whenever or the butteris; for in every case we are to en- practicable, as he is for the concavity of the exterdeavour to bring the frog in contact with the nal surface of the shoe, the discovery of which ground. The frog niust have pressure or be he attributes not to St. Bel, but to Cæsar Fiaschi, diseased. See Frog. Nevertheless, when the who lived many centuries past. Mr. Lawrence frog has been disused for a considerable period, observes By the experiment of weakening or and become soft, it must be accustomed to lowering the shoe heels, in order to bring a defipressure by degrees. If the quarters are high, cient frog into contact with the ground, however and much exceed the convexity of the frog, we gradually I proceeded, I have lamed several should graduaily lower the heels, and endea- horses. St. Bel also did the same, on the first vour to bring the frog and heels of the shoe on establishment of the Veterinary College. It is the same parallel line. Where work is required sufficiently obvious that, by such means, the of the horse, while the frog is soft and diseased, back sinews, as they are commonly styled, must it may be gradually used to pressure, by lower- be exposed to unusual extension.

Such a plan ing the hoof about the tenth of an inch every is perhaps scarcely ever eligible, excepting intime of shoeing, until the frog be hard, and deed when necessary to reduce the feet to their equally prominent with the heels; or, if the horse proper level, in the fortunate case of a natural iz not wanted, great advantage would be derived luxuriance of growth in the frog, which it is the from his standing without shoes on a hard pave- epidemic madness of farriers and smiths to cut ment. After the hoof has been properly prepared, away, in order to the miserable and useless subthen it is requisite to apply a shoe, and to vary stitute of a thick-heeled shoe. The friction of our

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