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from wearing. We must confine ourselves to a The leather for the sole is next inlaid with description of that part of the machinery which short copper or iron nails, which are put through strictly performs shoe-making.

holes in the leather, in the broad part of the foot, The leather is hardened by passing it between where the greatest wear will take place; and rollers, to produce the same effect as hammering there is also a double row of similar rivets, indoes in the ordinary method of shoe-making. laid round the toe part, at about three-quarters The rollers used for this purpose are made of of an inch within the edge of the sole. The brass, about five inches diameter, and as much holes for these nails are first punched in the leain length; they are mounted in the usual kind of ther of the sole by a punching machine, and then frame, except that instead of screws to hold down a second machine cuts the nails, and inserts the upper roller, and regulate its distance from them into the holes. the lower one, two plain cylindric pins are in The punching machine is moved by the foot serted into the holes which usually receive the of the workman, who is seated before a small screws, and these pins have a strong lever bear- semicircular table of cast iron, on which he places ing upon their upper ends, to press the upper the leather. This table is supported by a strong roller down upon the lower, by the action of a column, rising from the Aoor to a height of about weight at the extremity of the lever. These pins two feet above the table, which is joined to the are only about four inches distant from the cen column by a projecting bracket, so that the cotre or fulcrum of the lever, and the weight (of lumn is on the opposite side to that where the about 100 lbs.) is at a distance of four feet workman is seated. The upper part of the cofrom the centre, it therefore presses down the lumn has two arms, projecting forwards from it upper roller upon the lower with a force of towards the workman, and extending over the nearly 1200 lbs. The lower roller has a table; at their extremities they are formed into cog-wheel upon the extremity of its spindle, sockets, to sustain a square iron rod or perpenwhich is moved by a pinion upon the end of an dicular slider, which at the lower end has the axis turned by a winch; one man turns this piercer or awl screwed into it: one of the sockets winch, and another . puts the soles between the guides the upper part of the slider, and the other rollers. Two soles are presented together, being the lower part, so that it has a freedom of molaid one upon the other, with the flesh sides of tion in a perpendicular direction, but no other. the leather towards each other, and an iron plate The slider is caused to descend by means of a is placed between them, which is made thick in treadle moving on a centre pin, atiached to the the middle, and diminishes every way to the foot of the iron column, beneath the bench; from edges, where it is thin. The grain or hair side this treadle an iron rod ascends through a hole of the leather of the two soles is outside, so as to in the bench (and also through holes in the arms, be in contact with the rollers when the soles are which project from the column to sustain the presented to the machine which draws them in; slider), and at the upper end this rod is conand, when they have nearly passed through, the nected with a lever, which moves on a joint at man who turns the winch reverses the motion, the upper end of the iron column, whilst the exand rolls them back again, then forwards, and so treme end of the lever is connected with the top on for four or five times, in the same manner as of the perpendicular slider. By this arrangethe motion for mangling linen. After this ope- ment it is clear that the foot, being pressed upon ration the leather becomes hard and solid, and the treadle, will communicate motion by the iron much reduced in thickness, particularly at the rod and upper lever to the slider and piercer, middle part. The heels being so small cannot and force its point through the leather, which is conveniently be rolled; but to produce the same placed upon the small iron table. A short lever effect they are stamped in a Aly-press: for this and counterpoise are provided to raise up the purpose, a heel-piece is put into a small box or slider again the instant the pressure is renioved. cell of cast-iron, of a proper shape to receive it, To prevent the piercer striking upon the iron of and a thick plate, which is fitted to the box, be- the table, and breaking the point, a screw is ining laid upon it, the whole is put beneath the serted in a piece projecting from the slider, and screw of the press, one blow of which is suffi- its point in descending comes to rest upon the cient to press the iron plate upon the leather upper of the two arms which sustain the slider, with a force which will render it hard and solid. and thus stops the descent of the slider at the

The sole is made complete by joining to it the proper place. The piece of leather for the sole small semicircular piece at the heel; for this is fixed upon a pattern made of iron plate, cut purpose, the parts which are to be joined toge- to the same size and shape as the sole, which is ther are cut bevelled, so that they will overlap united to it by two sharp gauge pins, which are without increasing the thickness, and then three fixed in the pattern, one at the middle of the or four nails are driven through the bevelled tread, and the other in the centre of the heel; parts to hold them together. To cut the joints and these pins project so far that they will just bevelled, a simple press is used; the sole is laid penetrate through the leather, to hold it fast flat upon the edge of the bench, and a piece of against the pattern, which is perforated with all iron is pressed down upon it by a lever, upon the holes which are intended to be pierced in which the workman leans his elbow. The edge the sole. The leather is applied upon the patof the bench is bevelled and faced with iron, and tern, and struck with a mallet, so as to force the this, together with the upper piece of iron, guides gauge pins into the leather, and unite the sole the knife, so that it will cut the joint bevelled : and the pattern together; the pattern is then laid the heel-piece is then cut in the same manner, flat upon the table of the machine, with the lea· but rerersed.

ther uppermost, and is brought beneath the point VOL. XX.


of the piercer, so that it will penetrate in the de- the piercer, in the same manner as before desired place. To ascertain this place, a small scribed. In his left hand he holds the strip of stud or pin is inserted into a hole in the table, iron or copper which is to make the nails ; and in the exact spot where the point of the piercer he introduces the end of it through a small hole descends; the stud projects a little above the which conducts to the cutters, pushing it forsurface of the table, but is only held up by a ward with a gentle force : this causes the end of spring, so that it can easily be pressed down. the strip to enter between the cutters when the The pattern being placed so that any of the holes shears are open. Then adjusting the sole by the therein receive the point of the stud, it is evident pattern, so that one of the holes in the leather that, when the pressure of the foot makes the will be beneath the nail contained in the cell, he piercer descend, its point will make a puncture presses down the treadle: this forces the nail in the leather which is fastened upon the pat- down from the cell into the leather, by the detern, which puncture will be opposite to the scent of the piercer, and at the same time closes hole in the pattern; and, though it perforates the the shears, and cuts off a nail across the end of leather quite through the thickness, the point of the strip. The nail immediately descends by the piercer cannot be blunted against the iron, the tube into the cell, where it places itself perbecause it is received in the hole in the pattern, pendicularly, and ready to be put in its place in and the stud descends by the pressure, so that its turn. Thus the machine, at every stroke, the pattern will lie quite flat upon the surface of cuts a fresh nail to supply the place of that the table. In this manner the workman pierces which it puts in the leather by the same stroke. any number of holes in the leather, placing it The strip of copper is turned over every time to beneath the point of the piercer by the aid of the form the nails alternately head and point. When pattern, and then pressing the foot to bring the all the nails are put in they are battered down point down and pierce the hole. As soon as with a hammer; and, as they are but very little ihe piercer rises he removes the pattern to an- longer than the thickness of the sole, this reduces other hole, and so on. · A small piece of iron is them to an even surface. fixed just above the leather which prevents its The welt, or runner, is a narrow slip of leather being lifted up and following the piercer when applied upon the sole, round its edge, to make it rises. The piercer passes through a hole in the sole of a double thickness round the edge, this piece.

where the upper leather joins to the sole, alThe sole being thus pierced with holes is though the sole is only single within. The welt prepared for nailing, and the short nails are put is made from the feather-edged slips which we into it by a very curious machine, which at the have before mentioned, and is fastened to the same time forms the nails, by cutting them off sole by tacking nails of sufficient length to pass from the end of a strip of iron or copper, of the through both the sole and the welt. These nails same breadth as the length of the intended nails. are arranged all round the circumference of the

The sole is presented to this machine by lay- sole, and the holes are first pierced through the ing it upon a sinall table similar to the last ma- sole by the punching machine, which we have chine, and is directed by means of the same before described, but by a different pattern of pattern; so that each of the holes in the leather iron, which is attached to the sole by its two will be successively brought beneath the point gauge pins entering the same holes which were of a blunt piercer, which descends by the action made through the leather in the first operation. of a treadle. In the upper part of the machine This pattern is pierced with a row of holes all is a pair of shears to cut the nails : they consist round the circumference, which are arranged of a lever, loaded at the extremity with a weight, within the former row of rivets, or farther from and connected with the treadle, so that the end the edge of the sole; but around the toe and of the lever is lifted up when the treadle is de- tread of the foot, for half its length, the holes are pressed by the foot. Near the centre of this lever in double number, or at half the distance that is a cutter, which is fixed to it and moves with they are in the heel part. This pattern being it. Another cutter is supported by the frame, so used in the same manner as before described, the as to be stationary, and in the proper situation punching machine pierces the sole with holes, to come in contact with the edge of the moving exactly corresponding to it; which holes are cutter when the end of the lever is lifted up. filled with tacking nails in a separate machine, The cutters act in a manner similar to a pair of something similar to the nailing machine before shears, to cut off a small piece from across the described. But, as the nails are longer, it would end of a slip of iron, which is introduced be- be too laborious to cut them by the same motween the cutters. This piece forms the nail or tion; the nails are, therefore, cut by a machine rivet which is to be put into the hole in the lea- made on purpose, and applied to the leather by the ther; and immediately after it is cut it falls into nailing machine for long nails. This is made a tube, by which it is conducted down to a small exactly the same as the punching machine before cell or tube, situated immediately over the lea- described, but with additional apparatus to supther. In this the nail stands perpendicular, and ply the nails and put them into the holes. The ready, when the piercer descends, to be forced additional parts are as follow :-A circular plate, down into the hole in the leather; because the or wheel of brass, about nine inches diameter, cell which receives the nail is exactly beneath and of a thickness nearly equal to the length of the point of the piercer, so as to hold it perpen- the nails; it is perforated with a great number of dicularly in the proper situation. The workman holes, to contain the same number of nails; the • is seated before the machine, and with his right holes being made round its circumference, as

hand directs the sole, with its pattern beneath close together as convenient, and arranged in •

four circles, one within the other. The interior wheel round, so as to supply a fresh nail every space within the circles is formed with six arms time that one has been put into the leather, like a wheel; and in the centre is a hole, which the edge of the wheel is cut into serrated or fits loosely upon an upright centre pin, standing sloping teeth; the number of teeth being equal in the centre of a small circular tahle, which is to the number of holes made in each of the four fixed sideways to the upper of the two arms, circles to contain the nails. A small detent or which, as before mentioned, project from the click takes into these teeth by a hook, so that it vertical column of the machine, and sustain the will turn the wheel when moved in one direcupper end of the perpendicular slider. Upon tion, but slide over the teeth when moved in the this circular table the wheel is supported in a other direction. The click is jointed to a short horizontal position, at the height of eighteen or lever, fixed upon the upper end of an uprigit twenty inches above the table on which the axis, which passes down through the two proleather is placed, and with liberty to turn upon jecting arms of the main column, so as to be its centre pin. The wheel is filled withi nails very near the perpendicular slider; and a short when it is used, one being put into every hole of lever, fixed to this axis, bears, by the action of a its circumference, with the points downwards; spring, against a wedge tixed to the slider. The and the holes are sufficiently large to let the action of this mechanism is to turn the wheel nails drop through the wheel, except when their round one tooth at a time; thus, when the slider points rest upon the circular table which sup- descends, its wedge forces the end of the short ports the wheel. At one part of the circumfer- lever farther away from it; this movement is ence of this table an opening is cut through it, communicated by the upright axis and upper and a small tube descends from it, to conduct a lever to the click, which slides over the sloping nail down to the point of the piercer. The sides of the teeth of the wheel; but, on the motion of the wheel upon its centre brings the re-ascent of the slider, the wedge allows the nails successively over the opening or mouth of lever and click to return by the action of a spring, the tube; and therefore each nail in its turn and the hook of the click, having caught a tooth drops by its weight through the hole in the wheel of the wheel, will turn the wheel round the into the tube, which is made so small that the space of one tooth. In this manner, at every nail must descend with its point downwards, descent of the slider, the click engages a fresh and fall into a small cell, so situated that the tooth of the wheel ; and at every ascent the nail will stand exactly beneath the point of the wheel is turned round upon its centre pin; the piercer when the same is at its highest position. weight of the wheel, resting upon the flat circuBut, when the piercer is depressed by the action lar table, being sufficient to retain it as it is of the treadle, its point will act upon the head placed. of the nail, and force it down through the cell The nailing machine acts with the same rapiinto the leather placed upon the table of the dity as the other machines, to put a nail into machine; the hole in the leather having been every one of the holes previously made; and previously pierced by the punching machine. for this purpose the leather is kept upon the The cell which receives the nail is very ingeni- same pattern by which those holes were pierced, ously contrived to hold it in a perpendicular not only for the purpose of placing the leather direction beneath the end of the piercer. It is so that the nails shall be inserted into those holes, situated immediately above the leather, and is but that the thickness of the pattern may allow conical within, so that the nail drops down into the nails to penetrate and project through the it until it becomes fixed fast; but when the nail leather on the under side. When the nails are is to be forced down by the piercer, the cell all put in, they are beat down with a hammer opens in two halves, being formed by notches in to drive all the heads to a level with the surface. two pieces of steel, which are only held together The leather is then separated from the pattern by being screwed together at one end, and are and put into a frame called the welting stand. made so thin as to spring together, and form a A small square table of cast-iron, fixed on the cell for the reception of the nail, although they top of a pedestal, in which it is capable of will readily separate when the piercer forces turning round, forms the welting stand. For the down the nail." It is during the ascent of the convenience of the workman, and to enable him piercer that another nail is dropped down from to work at the different sides, he remains seated the wheel through the tube, and received into before the table. An iron frame is connected the cell, whilst its two halves are still kept open with the table by hinges at one side, so that it by the piercer; or rather, as the piercer at ihis can be lifted up or turned down, to lie flat upon moment occupies the interior of the cell, the nail the surface of the table; and in this situation it is received in the space or open joint at which can be fastened down by means of a simple the two halves of the cell separate, so that the clamp. This frame is intended to hold fast the nail lies ciose by the side of the piercer. But, leather which is placed beneath the frame; the when the piercer has risen up completely out of interior opening of the iron frame is nearly of the cell, its two halves spring together, and the the same size and shape as the sole of the shoe. joint in which the nail is placed being formed with The sole is placed flat upon the table, in the faces inclining inwards, they throw the nail into proper position, which is determined by two the cell itself, in which it drops down till it sticks gauge pins fixed into the table, and entering the fast; because, as before stated, the cell is smaller holes made in the sole; then the iron frame, at the bottom; and in this situation the nail is being turned down upon the leather, will enclose certain to be held perpendicular, with its head the sole as it were with an iron hoop, or raised under the point of the piercer. To turn the border all round the edge; and, the frame being

clamped fast down, the sole is confined, as if handle at each end. When he has with this tooi !ying in the bottom of a cell of iron, of the same pared down that part of the edge which is figure as itself, and with the nail points pro- uppermost, he releases the screw of the press, jecting upwards from the sole. In this frame the and a spring then causes the spindle to advance welt is applied by laying the strip of leather so far as to relieve the flat circular plate, which upon the edge of the sole in contact with the is fixed upon the spindle, from its contact with inside of the iron frame, and bending it to follow the fixed plate. This leaves the spindle at the curves of the outline of the sole. As fast as liberty to be turned round, and the sole turns any part of the length of the strip is settled to with it, so as to bring up a new part of the edge its position, it is attached to the sole by striking of the leather to a convenient situation to be it down with a mallet upon the points of the pared or cut; and the screw is then turned to nails. The thin or feathered edge of the strip of fasten the spindle as before described, and at the leather is put inside, so that the edge of the same time to press the sole between the two patsole, for about the breadth of half an inch, is of terns. When the edge of the sole is thus cut, a double thickness; but, within this, the extra it is carried to a grindstone, and ground smooth; thickness diminishes away to nothing, leaving the stone is turned with a quick motion, by only the thickness of the sole. The ends of the means of a band and large wheel; the leather is strip of leather which compose the welt, where afterwards polished by applying it to the edge of they join and complete the circuit of the sole, a wooden wheel, on which a little bees'-wax is are cut sloping so as to lap over each other, and spread. make a joint, without any increase of thickness The sole, thus re-inforced by the welt, is reor apparent division. When the 'sole is taken turned to the punching machine, and, being out of this frame, the welt and sole are beat attached to another pattern, a range of holes is well down together to make a good joint; it is pierced all round the outer edge, through both, then carried to the cutting-press, in which the just within the former row of tacking nails; edge or outline of the sole and welt are cut after which, by the nailing machine, these holes smooth, and to the same size ; because, as the are filled with nails which project through the frame of the welting machine must be rather less upper side of the welt, being longer than any than the sole, in order that the frame may bear of the former, and being also intended to peneupon the edges of the sole all round, and thus trate through the upper-leather and inner soles, hold it fast, the welt, which is moulded or bent and thus fasten the shoe together. In this state Pound within the frame, will be a small quantity the sole is ready to be put to the upper-leathers. less all round than the sole. To guide the knife The upper-leathers are prepared for applying to in cutting round the edge of the sole, it is con the sole in the same manner as the ordinary shoe, fined between two iron patterns, which are made viz. by sewing the vamp, or piece which covers exactly to the size to which the edge is to be the upper part of the foot, to the two quarters pared. They are attached to the sole by two which go round the heel, and also sewing these gauge pins fixed into one of the plates, and, two quarters together behind the heel. The passing through the holes in the sole, project far workmen do not hold the work upon their knees enough on the opposite side for the other plate to sew it, but four men work at a square table, to be fastened on in its required position, by two the corners of which are cut off, and a small holes which receive the ends of the pins. piece of wood projects from each angle: the

The cutting-press resembles a common lathe. two pieces of leather which are to be sewed A horizontal spindle is supported in a frame together are laid upon one of these pieces of consisting of two standards, erected from a wood in the proper position to be sewed, and are horizontal plate, to sustain the spindle, which held fast by an endless strap, which is laid over passes through a collar in one of these standards, them, and the workman binds it fast down, by and projects some inches beyond it, having at pressing his foot in the strap, like a stirrup. the extremity a piece of wood fat on the surface, This method of sewing, which is far superior to and of the same shape as the sole. Against this the common mode, might, from its simplicity, flat surface the two iron plates with the sole be used by all shoe-makers, and would render between are placed, and they are forcibly pressed their business less unhealthy. together by the action of a screw, fitted into a third The upper-leathers are put upon a last, and iron standard, erected from the same horizontal held tight thereupon whilst the sole is applied. plate, and pressing by means of a lever upon the This is done by the clamping machine, which is iron plates exactly opposite the end of the a small oval table, supported on a column, but spindle. This pressure causes the spindle to capable of turning round upon the column, to retreat a small quantity in the direction of its enable the workman to work at any side. In length, and then a flat circular plate fixed upon the centre of the table a last is fixed with the the spindle (in the same situation as the pulley sole upwards; it is supported at a height of of a common lathe), is made to press against a about six inches from the table. The sole is similar flat plate, which is fastened to the frame, made of cast-iron in a solid piece with the stem and therefore cannot turn round. By the fric- or part by which the last is supported; but the tion between these two surfaces, the spindle be- under part, upon which the upper-leathers are comes immoveable, and the press holds the sole to be moulded, is made of wood, for the convefirm, whilst the workman, who is seated before nience of altering the figure when necessary. the machine, cuts all round the edge with a The last is fixed upon the table by means of two drawing-knife, which is made sharp in the mid- steady pins; and a strong pin, which projects dle, and is worked with both hands by having a from the lower part of the last, and passes

through the mble, is bound fast by a wedge, an iron frame or saddle being employed to dewhich confines the last firmly upon the table in termine its proper position upon the last. This the same manner as if it was made in a piece frame is made of thin iron, and its figure within therewith. The table has a number of pieces of is similar, and of the same size as the row of brass attached to it by hinges, and arranged all nails which project through the sole, and by round the last in such a manner that they can which the sole is to be rivetted into its place; it be turned up against the lower part of the last, is made in two halves, which are united by a and then form clamps, which are exactly adapted joint or hinge at the heel part; and at the toe part to the figure of the lower part of the last, and are two holes, through which a pin can be put will therefore clamp or bind the leather firm upon to hold the frame together. This pin, as well the last at the toe, heel, and every part thereof, ex as the joint pin of the hinge at the heel, projects cept at the flat part of the sole. The brass clamps downwards sufficiently to enter into a hole made are of such dimensions that they will touch each in each of the two clamps at the toe and heel, in other when turned up, and thus form a complete such a position as to guide the frame, so that it sell or box, in which the lower part of the last will apply the sole exactly in the proper position. will be contained, and the leather confined upon The sole, when prepared, by inserting all the it; but, the cell being made in several pieces or long nails in the holes, so that their points proclamps, they can be removed one by one, as ject through the leather, is put into an iron box found necessary. The clamps are forced up to or mould, and, a plate being laid upon it, is put their situation by means of an independent screw into the fly-press, and by a single blow the scle for each, which is tapped in an oblique direction is rendered concave withinside, so as to adapt through the edge of the table, and the point itself to the last. When it is taken out of the forces up the end of a small rod, which is jointed mould, the iron frame before mentioned is put to the clamp near the part where it acts upon together round the row of nails, the size of the the leather; by this means the force of the inside of the frame being made exactly of the screw acts to turn the clamp up upon its hinge, proper size to receive the projecting points of the and at the same time press it against the leather. nails, and retain them perpendicular to the leaWhen the pressure is released by displacing the ther, and prevent them from spreading out. The end of the small rod from the point of the sole is then applied in its place by the two guide screw, the clamp will be suffered to fall back pins of the frame, and by striking ușon the upou the table : and, this being done to all the heads of the nails, their points penetrate ihrough clamps, the last stands insulated in the middle the turning-in of the upper leather, and also of the table, from which it can be detached by through the inner sole. When they are well enwithdrawing the wedge which confines it. The tered the iron frame is taken away, by withdrawinner sole of the shoe is first put upon the sole ing its pins, and opening its two halves on their of the last, being slightly fastened thereto by joint, and the nails are driven down into their two short pins, one of which is driven through places. This causes them to project through the the gauge hole in the tue of the sole, and enters inner sole into the shoe, and the points meeting a hole made in the last; and the other pin is the iron last are turned back, and thus clenched fixed in the heel part of the last, and enters the into their places. To render this more certain, hole in the sole. The upper-leathers are now the sole of the last is made with a slight groove put upon the last in the true position. In this all round, where the points of the nails will fall, state the last is taken to the clamping machine, and, the groove being of a semicircular figure, and fastened into its place in the centre of the the points are more readily turned thereby, and table; the clamps are then turned up one by are all turned the same way, so that they will one, beginning at the heel, and the upper-leathers not interfere. being pulled up all round by a pair of pincers, The shoe is now put together, and, the clamps so as to make them fit tight upon the last, the being relieved and turned down, the shoe is clamps are screwed tight. In this state the taken off the last; for which purpose the hec! upper-leathers are made to take the form of the of the last is made in a separate piece, and jointlast, being firmly attached thereto, except at the ed to the other by 'inclined fittings, and with a sule part; at this part the leather stands up all tongue or rebate, so that it can be held fast in round about three-quarters of an inch, which its place by a single hook or spring catch; but, quantity is turned down fat upon the edge of this being relieved, the shoe draws off the last the inner sole (previously fastened upon the sole with the greatest ease, the heel part remaining of the last), and a small quantity of paste is put within the shoe, and is taken out afterwards. in to make it stick fast; four or five notches are The shoe is now carried to the rivetting lust, cut out in the leather at the toe and at the heel, where it is put upon a last exactly similar to that to make the part which is turned down lie flat of the clamping machine, but fastened down upon the sole, without folds or overlapping, and upon a bench, and the sole is smooth without then, to make a close contact, the leather is the groove which caused the points of the nails beaten down. Parings of leather are likewise to turn up. Upon this last the nails are beaten pasted, and stuck flat upon the inner sole for down, to rivet all fast, and make the sole smooth levelling, to make up the sole to the same thick- withinside : the heel is then put on by laying it ness in the centre as it acquires towards the in its place, and driving down the long nails edges all round by the turning-in of the upper- which have been put through it by the nailing leathers. In this state the nail which fastened machine, in the same manner as for the sole. the inner sole to the last is withdrawn, being The sole of the shoe is now rasped with a coarse now unnecessary, and the real sole is applied, file, to level all the nail-heals, and render the

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